Apulum (castra)

Coordinates: 46°04′04″N 23°34′22″E / 46.0679°N 23.5727°E / 46.0679; 23.5727
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Porta Principalis Dextra
Apulum (castra) is located in Romania
Apulum (castra)
Location within Romania
Alternative name(s)Apula,[1] Apulon[1]
Known also asCastra of Alba Iulia
Founded during the reign ofTrajan
Founded107 – 108[2]
Abandoned4th century AD
Attested byTabula Peutingeriana
Place in the Roman world
Administrative unitDacia Apulensis
Administrative unitDacia Superior
Directly connected to
— Stone structure —
Size and area440 m × 430 m (18.9[2] ha)
Stationed military units
XIII Gemina,[3] I Adiutrix[4][5]
Coordinates46°04′04″N 23°34′22″E / 46.0679°N 23.5727°E / 46.0679; 23.5727
Altitude245 m
TownAlba Iulia
Country Romania
Site notes
Recognition National Historical Monument

Apulum was a legionary fortress in the Roman province of Dacia from the 2nd to 4th centuries AD, located in today's Alba Iulia, Romania.[6]

Western Dacia map

It is the largest castrum in Romania, occupying 37.5 hectares (93 acres) (750 x 500 m). It was the base of the legion Legio XIII Gemina transferred there by Trajan to the newly conquered province of Dacia at the end of the war in 106. In the era of Hadrian (117-138 AD) and of Antoninus Pius (138-161 AD) it was rebuilt in stone.

The city of Apulum grew up around the fortress, eventually becoming the capital of Roman Dacia.

The legion was relocated in 271 to Dacia Aureliana when the northern Dacia province was evacuated


The types of coins discovered[edit]

Issuer Issue Date Type
Antoninus Pius 139 sestertius[7]
Julia Maesa 218–224 denarius[7]
Elagabalus 222 denarius[7]
Severus Alexander 223–225 denarius[7]
Sallustia Orbiana 225–227 denarius[7]
Gordian III 241–243 denarius[7]
Philip the Arab 244–247 antoninianus[7]
Cornelia Salonina 257–258 antoninianus[7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Schütte, Gudmund (1917). "Ptolemy's maps of northern Europe, a reconstruction of the prototypes". The Royal Danish Geographical Society. Retrieved 2013-05-04.
  2. ^ a b Domșa, Ovidiu (2009). "Virtual reconstruction of Roman military Apulum camp" (PDF). p. 6. Retrieved February 14, 2013.
  3. ^ a b "Lista Monumentelor Istorice 2010 ("2010 List of Historic Monuments")" (PDF). Monitorul Oficial al României, Partea I, Nr. 670 ("Romania's Official Journal, Part I, Nr. 670"), page 3. Ministerul Culturii şi Patrimoniului Naţional. 1 October 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-06-10. Retrieved 2012-12-30.
  4. ^ Constantin C. Petolescu: Dacia – Un mileniu de istorie, Ed. Academiei Române, 2010, ISBN 978-973-27-1999-2
  5. ^ Academia Română: Istoria Românilor, Vol. 2, Daco-romani, romanici, alogeni, 2nd. Ed., București 2010, ISBN 978-973-45-0610-1
  6. ^ a b "1026.01". National Archaeological Record of Romania (RAN). ran.cimec.ro. 2010-10-22. Archived from the original on 2013-12-19. Retrieved 2012-12-30.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h "Apulum Archaeology". Retrieved 2013-05-02.

External links[edit]