Apusozoa are a phylum comprising several genera of [1 ] flagellate protozoa. They are usually around 5–20 μm in size, and occur in soils and aquatic habitats, where they feed on bacteria. They are grouped together based on the presence of an organic shell or theca under the dorsal surface of the cell.
The name derives from the Ancient Greek words for footless (ἄπους) and animal (ζῷον).
[2 ] [3 ]
Classification [ edit ]
There are three orders, often treated as separate groups: the
apusomonads, ancyromonads, and hemimastigids.
It has been suggested that
be classified in Apusozoa. Mantamonas [5 ]
Characteristics [ edit ]
The apusomonads and ancyromonads have two flagella inserted at right angles, near the anterior of the cell. They move by gliding, with one flagellum trailing along the side and one directed to the anterior. By contrast, hemimastigids cell has multiple flagella, arranged in rows from the anterior of the cell towards the posterior.
The form of the
mitochondria varies between the different orders. Among the apusomonads they have tubular cristae, the ancyromonads flat cristae, and the hemimastigids ambiguous or sacculate cristae. This characteristic was originally considered a good indicator of relationships, but is now known to vary even among close relatives.
Relationship to other eukaryotes [ edit ]
On molecular trees, the apusomonads and ancyromonads group together, but their relationship to other
eukaryotes is uncertain.
Although it has sometimes been included in the
Rhizaria, based on 18S rRNA gene sequencing, it has been concluded that the Apusozoa are not closely related to other Rhizaria.
Cavalier-Smith, in a collaborative paper with Alexandra Stechmann, postulated that Apusozoa belongs in the bikont clade. [6 ] It may be one of the most divergent bikont lineages. [7 ] [8 ]
It has more recently been grouped with the
unikonts. It has been suggested that it may be related to the [5 ] opisthokont group. [9 ]
One view of the great kingdoms and their stem groups.
References [ edit ]
^ Cavalier-Smith T, Chao EE, Stechmann A, Oates B, Nikolaev S (October 2008). "Planomonadida ord. nov. (Apusozoa): ultrastructural affinity with Micronuclearia podoventralis and deep divergences within Planomonas gen. nov". Protist 159 (4): 535–62. doi: 10.1016/j.protis.2008.06.002. PMID 18723395.
^ . ἄπους Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; at the A Greek–English Lexicon Perseus Project
^ . ζῷον Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; at the A Greek–English Lexicon Perseus Project
^ Cavalier-Smith T, Chao EE (May 2010). "Phylogeny and Evolution of Apusomonadida (Protozoa: Apusozoa): New Genera and Species". Protist 161 (4): 549–76. doi: 10.1016/j.protis.2010.04.002. PMID 20537943.
^ a b Glücksman E, Snell EA, Berney C, Chao EE, Bass D, Cavalier-Smith T (September 2010). "The Novel Marine Gliding Zooflagellate Genus Mantamonas (Mantamonadida ord. n.: Apusozoa)". Protist 162 (2): 207–221. doi: 10.1016/j.protis.2010.06.004. PMID 20884290.
^ Cavalier-Smith, T.; Stechmann, Alexandra (2003). "The root of the eukaryote tree pinpointed". Current Biology 13 (17): R665–R666. doi: 10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00602-X. PMID 12956967.
^ Cavalier-Smith T (March 2002). "The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52 (Pt 2): 297–354. PMID 11931142.
^ Moreira D, von der Heyden S, Bass D, López-García P, Chao E, Cavalier-Smith T (July 2007). "Global eukaryote phylogeny: Combined small- and large-subunit ribosomal DNA trees support monophyly of Rhizaria, Retaria and Excavata". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 44 (1): 255–66. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2006.11.001. PMID 17174576.
^ Cavalier-Smith T (2009). "Megaphylogeny, cell body plans, adaptive zones: causes and timing of eukaryote basal radiations". J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 56 (1): 26–33. doi: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2008.00373.x. PMID 19340985.
^ Phylogeny based on:
Eichinger, L.; Pachebat, J. A.; Glöckner, G.; Rajandream, M. A.; Sucgang, R.; Berriman, M.; Song, J.; Olsen, R.; et al. (2005). "The genome of the social amoeba . Dictyostelium discoideum" Nature 435 (7038): 43–57. doi: 10.1038/nature03481. PMC 1352341. PMID 15875012.
Steenkamp, E. T.; Wright, J.; Baldauf, S. L. (2005). "The Protistan Origins of Animals and Fungi". Molecular Biology and Evolution 23 (1): 93–106. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msj011. PMID 16151185.
External links [ edit ]
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