Aquatic therapy refers to treatments and exercises performed in water for relaxation, fitness, physical rehabilitation, and other therapeutic benefit. Typically a qualified aquatic therapist gives constant attendance to a person receiving treatment in a heated therapy pool. Aquatic therapy techniques include Ai Chi, Aqua Running, Bad Ragaz Ring Method, Burdenko Method, Halliwick, Watsu, and other aquatic bodywork forms. Therapeutic applications include neurological disorders, spine pain, musculoskeletal pain, postoperative orthopedic rehabilitation, pediatric disabilities, and pressure ulcers.
Aquatic therapy refers to water-based treatments or exercises of therapeutic intent, in particular for relaxation, fitness, and physical rehabilitation. Treatments and exercises are performed while floating, partially submerged, or fully submerged in water. Many aquatic therapy procedures require constant attendance by a trained therapist, and are performed in a specialized temperature-controlled pool. Rehabilitation commonly focuses on improving the physical function associated with illness, injury, or disability.
Aquatic therapy encompasses a broad set of approaches and techniques, including aquatic exercise, physical therapy, aquatic bodywork, and other movement-based therapy in water (hydrokinesiotherapy). Treatment may be passive, involving a therapist or giver and a patient or receiver, or active, involving self-generated body positions, movement, or exercise. Examples include Halliwick Aquatic Therapy, Bad Ragaz Ring Method, Watsu, and Ai chi.
For orthopedic rehabilitation, aquatic therapy is considered to be synonymous with therapeutic aquatic exercise, aqua therapy, aquatic rehabilitation, water therapy, and pool therapy. Aquatic therapy can support restoration of function for many areas of orthopedics, including sports medicine, work conditioning, joint arthroplasty, and back rehabilitation programs. A strong aquatic component is especially beneficial for therapy programs where limited or non-weight bearing is desirable and where normal functioning is limited by inflammation, pain, guarding, muscle spasm, and limited range of motion (ROM). Water provides a controllable environment for reeducation of weak muscles and skill development for neurological and neuromuscular impairment, acute orthopedic or neuromuscular injury, rheumatological disease, or recovery from recent surgery.:1
Various properties of water contribute to therapeutic effects, including the ability to use water for resistance in place of gravity or weights; thermal stability that permits maintenance of near-constant temperature; hydrostatic pressure that supports and stabilizes, and that influences heart and lung function; buoyancy that permits floatation and reduces the effects of gravity; and turbulence and wave propagation that allow gentle manipulation and movement.
- Ai Chi: Ai Chi, developed in 1993 by Jun Konno, uses diaphragmatic breathing and active progressive resistance training in water to relax and strengthen the body, based on elements of qigong and Tai chi chuan.
- Aqua running: Aqua running (Deep Water Running or Aquajogging) is a form of cardiovascular conditioning, involving running or jogging in water, useful for injured athletes and those who desire a low-impact aerobic workout. Aqua running is performed in deep water using a floatation device (vest or belt) to support the head above water.
- Bad Ragaz Ring Method: The Bad Ragaz Ring Method (BRRM) focuses on rehabilitation of neuromuscular function using patterns of therapist-assisted exercise performed while the patient lies horizontal in water, with support provided by rings or floats around the neck, arms, pelvis, and knees. BRRM is an aquatic version of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) developed by physiotherapists at Bad Ragaz, Switzerland, as a synthesis of aquatic exercises designed by a German physician in the 1930s and land-based PNF developed by American physiotherapists in the 1950s and 1960s.:187
- Burdenko Method: The Burdenko Method, originally developed by Soviet professor of sports medicine Igor Burdenko, is an integrated land-water therapy approach that develops balance, coordination, flexibility, endurance, speed, and strength using the same methods as professional athletes. The water-based therapy uses buoyant equipment to challenge the center of buoyancy in vertical positions, exercising with movement in multiple directions, and at multiple speeds ranging from slow to fast.:299
- Halliwick Concept: The Halliwick Concept, originally developed by fluid mechanics engineer James McMillan in the late 1940s and 1950s at the Halliwick School for Girls with Disabilities in London, focuses on biophysical principles of motor control in water, in particular developing sense of balance (equilibrioception) and core stability. The Halliwick Ten-Point-Program implements the concept in a progressive program of mental adjustment, disengagement, and development of motor control, with an emphasis on rotational control, and applies the program to teach physically disabled people balance control, swimming, and independence. Halliwick Aquatic Therapy (also known as Water Specific Therapy, WST), implements the concept in patient-specific aquatic therapy.:187
- Watsu: Watsu is a form of aquatic bodywork, originally developed in the early 1980s by Harold Dull at Harbin Hot Springs, California, in which an aquatic therapist continuously supports and guides the person receiving treatment through a series of flowing movements and stretches that induce deep relaxation and provide therapeutic benefit. In the late 1980s and early 1990s physiotherapists began to use Watsu for a wide range of orthopedic and neurologic conditions, and to adapt the techniques for use with injury and disability.
Applications and effectiveness
A 2006 systematic review of effects of aquatic interventions in children with neuromotor impairments found "substantial lack of evidence-based research evaluating the specific effects of aquatic interventions in this population".
Professional training and certification
Aquatic therapy is performed by diverse professionals with specific training and certification requirements.
For medical purposes, aquatic therapy, as defined by the American Medical Association (AMA), can be performed by various legally-regulated healthcare professionals who have scopes of practice that permit them to offer such services and who are permitted to use AMA Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes.
- Becker, BE and Cole, AJ (eds). 2011. Comprehensive aquatic therapy, 3rd edition. Washington State University Press. ISBN 978-0615365671.
- "How physiotherapy works". NHS Choices. 14 May 2012. Retrieved March 2014. Check date values in:
- Koury JM. 1996. Aquatic therapy programming: guidelines for orthopedic rehabilitation. Human Kinetics. ISBN 0-87322-971-1.
- Becker, BE. 2011. Biophysical aspects of hydrotherapy. pp 23-75. Chapter 2 In Becker, BE and Cole, AJ (eds). Comprehensive aquatic therapy, 3rd edition. Washington State University Press. ISBN 978-0615365671.
- Audette JF and Bailey A. 2008. Integrative pain medicine: the science and practice of complementary and alternative medicine in pain management. Humana Press. ISBN 978-1588297860.
- Lambeck J and Bommer A. 2011. Ai Chi: applications in clinical practice. pp 171-192, Chapter 7 In: Becker, BE and Cole, AJ (eds). Comprehensive aquatic therapy, 3rd edition. Washington State University Press. ISBN 978-0615365671.
- Wilder, RP and Brennan DK. 2011. Aqua running. pp 155-170, Chapter 6 In: Becker BE and Cole AJ (eds). Comprehensive aquatic therapy, 3rd edition. Washington State University Press. ISBN 978-0615365671.
- Dutton M. 2011. Orthopaedics for the physical therapist assistant. Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN 978-0763797553.
- Ainslie T. 2012. The concise guide to physiotherapy - 2-volume set: Assessment and Treatment. pp 1096-1106, Bad Ragaz Ring Method. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 9780702053030.
- McAtee RE and Charland J. 2007. Facilitated stretching: PNF stretching and strengthening made easy, 3rd ed. pp 11-18, Focus on facilitated stretching. Human Kinetics. ISBN 978-0736062480.
- Gamper U and Lambeck J. 2011. The Bad Ragaz Ring Method. pp 109-136, Chapter 4 In: Becker BE and Cole AJ (eds). Comprehensive aquatic therapy, 3rd edition. Washington State University Press. ISBN 978-0615365671.
- Lambeck J and Gamper U. 2011. The Halliwick Concept. pp 77-108, Chapter 3 In: Becker BE and Cole AJ (eds). Comprehensive aquatic therapy, 3rd edition. Washington State University Press. ISBN 978-0615365671.
- Ainslie T. 2012. The concise guide to physiotherapy - 2-volume set: Assessment and Treatment. pp 1106-1116, Halliwick Concept. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 9780702053030.
- Schoedinger P. 2011. Watsu in aquatic rehabilitation. pp 137-154, Chapter 5 In: Becker BE and Cole AJ (eds). Comprehensive aquatic therapy, 3rd edition. Washington State University Press. ISBN 978-0615365671.
- Morris DM. 2011. Aquatic rehabilitation for the treatment of neurological disorders. pp 193-218, Chapter 8 In: Becker BE and Cole AJ (eds). Comprehensive aquatic therapy, 3rd edition. Washington State University Press. ISBN 978-0615365671.
- Cole AJ, Johnson J, Alford JM, Hard K, Moschetti M, Fredericson M, Eagleston RA, and Stratton SA. 2011. Spine pain: aquatic rehabilitation strategies. pp 219-244, Chapter 9 In: Becker BE and Cole AJ (eds). Comprehensive aquatic therapy, 3rd edition. Washington State University Press. ISBN 978-0615365671.
- Getz M, Hutzler Y, Vermeer A (2006). "Effects of aquatic interventions in children with neuromotor impairments: a systematic review of the literature". Clin Rehabil (Systematic review). 20: 926. doi:10.1177/0269215506070693. PMID 17065536.
- Salzman, AP. 2007. Aquatic therapy: procedure or profession? Aquaticnet.com web site. http://www.aquaticnet.com/qualifications.htm, accessed 20-Mar-2014.