Ar-Rutbah

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This article is about the town. For the district, see Ar Rutba District.
Ar-Rutbah
Arabic: الرطبة‎‎wa
A rooftop view of Ar-Rutbah on 1 January 2009
A rooftop view of Ar-Rutbah on 1 January 2009
Ar-Rutbah is located in Iraq
Ar-Rutbah
Ar-Rutbah
Coordinates: 33°2′17″N 40°17′4″E / 33.03806°N 40.28444°E / 33.03806; 40.28444
Country  Iraq
Province Al-Anbar
Population
 • Total 22,370[1]
Time zone GMT+3 (UTC+3)
Postal code 31011

Ar-Rutbah (Arabic: الرطبة‎‎, also known as Rutba, Rutbah, Rutbah Wells, or Ar-Rutba) is an Iraqi town in western Al Anbar province, completely inhabited with Sunni Muslims. The population is approximately 22,000. It occupies a strategic location on the Amman-Baghdad road, and the Mosul–Haifa oil pipeline. Considered a "wet spot", it receives 114.3 mm (4.5 inches) of rain annually, and is located on a high plateau.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

During the British administration of Iraq, known as Mandatory Iraq, Rutbah Wells, as it was then known, was a stopover for Imperial Airways flights from the UK to India and the Persian Gulf. Imperiall Airways used an old fort at Rutbah Wells as a resthouse - however, "a common complaint in winter was the cold, for the builders at Rutbah Wells had, unaccountably, made no provision for fireplaces or chimneys."[2] Aircraft were route from Cairo, to Gaza, to Rutbah Wells, to Baghdad.[3]

The town was also a water stop on the overland drive from Baghdad to Damascus by the Nairn Transport Company, known as the Nairn Way. Travellers who stopped in Rutbah stayed at the fort.[4]

On 19 December 1934, the aircraft Uiver was on a non-scheduled flight from Amsterdam to Batavia (now Jakarta). On 21 December, sixteen kilometers south of Rutbah Wells, the plane was found, completely destroyed, by an RAF pilot. The plane was a KLM DC-2. This was its first flight following the MacRobertson Air Race in December 1934. All four cockpit crew and three passengers were killed, including Dutch media magnate Dominique Willem Berretty. An investigation into the crash determined that it was likely the bad weather that caused the crash, and that "the bad flying characteristics of the DC-2 during heavy rain were suspected."[5][6]

In 1927, the British built a fort at Rutbah.[7]

Anglo-Iraqi War[edit]

Assault on Rutbah Fort in 1941

During the Anglo-Iraqi War in 1941 forces loyal to Rashid Ali took control of the Fort on 2 May 1941. As a response bombs were dropped by RAF Blenheim V bombers from No. 203 Squadron RAF on and around the fort. The fort was retaken by Arab Legion forces with support from No. 2 Armoured Car Company RAF after the fort defenders left overnight on 10 May.

Persian Gulf War[edit]

Due to Rutbah's strategic location, the town has played a role in later conflicts between the United States and Iraq. During the Persian Gulf War of 1991 it was reportedly a Scud launching location[citation needed].

US occupation[edit]

An Iraqi soldier from the Provisional Security Forces participate in a joint security patrol in Rutbah

After the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, Ar-Rutbah was occupied by the Army's 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment and was known as FOB Buzz. An Army Captain was charged and court-martialed for staging mock executions of Iraqi prisoners.[8]

In 2004, Marines from Regimental Combat Team 7 relieved the Army soldiers and took control of the town, resolving to engage the populace more proactively. By July 2004, Camp Korean Village (also known as Camp KV), a Marine logistical support base, was established nearby. The base served as a regional air field, convoy rest stop, shock trauma hospital and headquarters of the local Marine garrison. The base is named after the historical lineage of the Marine Corps 7th Marine Regiment who fought during the Korean war (as also did the 5th Marine Regiment).[9]

On January 26, 2005, a Marine CH-53E Super Stallion helicopter crashed outside of town, killing 30 Marines and one Navy corpsman.[10] This was the single deadliest day for American forces in the Iraq conflict. The cause of the crash was a severe wind storm that had come upon them unexpectedly. In 2005, James Vandenberg, a 'combat architect', drew up plans for a new hospital in Ar-Rutbah, as their previous hospital had been destroyed back in 2003. Construction began in September 2005.[11]

On the early morning of 4 January 2006, an Iraqi citizen, Adnan Eid Abbass, died in US custody en route from his home in Ar-Rutbah to Camp Korean Village.[12] By March 2006, the city was being guarded by elements of the 2nd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion (LAR) and an Iraqi rifle company from the 3d Brigade, 7th Infantry Division, Iraqi Army. U.S. and Iraqi forces had built a 7-foot (2.1 m)-high and 20-foot (6.1 m)-wide berm in order to restrict access into the city from all but 3 guarded vehicle checkpoints.[13] This was done to restrict weapons and explosives smuggling into the city and force insurgent elements to hide weapons caches in the open desert, as well as reduce the number of roadside bombs inside the populated areas.

In July 2006, increased violence and lawlessness in Baghdad, forced the transfer of the 4-14 Cavalry Squadron, U.S. Army, from the cities of Rawah and Anah in the northern Anbar province to Baghdad in order to augment security there. The gap in forces was replaced, initially, with personnel and resources from 3rd LAR in Rutbah.

U.S. Marines celebrate the Marine Corps' birthday by eating doughnuts at Ar-Rutbah in 2009

In September 2006, Rutbah was once again handed over to 2nd LAR by 3rd LAR.[14]

In early 2007, the Rutbah government progressed in the transition to providing its own security. The town's efforts included recruiting approximately 200 men to send to an Iraqi Police training academy to increase counterinsurgency practices.[15]

In March 2009 the Marines transferred control of Camp Korean Village over to, C CO. 2-142 Infantry 56th IBCT 36th Infantry Division which is a Texas Army National Guard unit. Control was then turned over to C-CO. 186th INF Oregon Army national Guard. The Camp was handed over to the Iraqi Army on May 1, 2010.[16]

ISIL occupation[edit]

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL; also known as ISIS, the Islamic State, or Daesh) began a June offensive in 2014 as part of their Anbar campaign, which involved the capture of the majority of Anbar Province. On 19 June, ISIL forces captured Al-Qa'im, and in the evening of 21 June, ISIL forces also captured Ar-Rutbah. On 22 June 2014, a member of the local council told the New York Times that "around fifty vehicles full of militants and weapons came from Houran valley and after sporadic clashes with police they took control over the central town. Then they left a group of them to secure the town and then headed toward the border."[17] On 24 June a Syrian air-force raid on Rutba, to assist the Iraqi army during the 2014 Northern Iraq offensive, killed at least 50 ISIS militants.[18]

In September 2014, it was reported that a couple were convicted of adultery in an ISIL court in Ar-Rutbah, and stoned to death. They were apparently brought out in front of a crowd of 200 residents, and stoned by eight ISIL fighters. An anonymous witness said: "They brought the man and the woman, they tied their hands and covered their faces, and started to stone them."[19]

One airstrike on 31 July 2015 led to the deaths of up to 46 civilians, and between 30 and 70 people being injured. A number of those killed were children, and the majority of victims came from five families in the town. The origin of the airstrike was uncertain, as neither the Iraqi government or coalition forces acknowledged launching a strike near Ar-Rutbah on that date. The United Nations expressed "serious concern" about the issue, and the Governor of Anbar Province, Suhaib al-Rawi, launched an investigation into the attack.[20]

In late August 2015, a coalition airstrike, led by the US Air Force, destroyed a car bomb-making facility on the outskirts of Ar-Rutbah. The facility was described by US Brigadier General Kevin Killea as "strategic for Daesh in funneling VBIEDs into Anbar Province."[21] On 29 August, ISIL militants killed a local resident that killed a member of ISIL as part of a long-running clan blood feud. In response, hundreds of residents demonstrated against the killing, and clashes broke out when ISIL tried to disperse the demonstrations. 70 residents were detained and a further 100 were tied to street lights for 24 hours as punishment.[22]

In March 2016, a number of ISIL fighters based in Ar-Rutbah deserted the town and headed to Mosul, where they were detained by other ISIL fighters. Around 50 deserters were then publicly executed in Mosul.[23] It has been estimated that anti ISIL coalition forces have conducted around 50 airstrike missions on and around the town.[24] Iraqi forces returned in May, 2016, driving out ISIL.[25]

Geography[edit]

Rutba is 70 miles (110 km) from both the Iraq-Jordan border and the Iraq-Saudi Arabia border.[26]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ar Rutbah population
  2. ^ McGregor, Alan (April 2001). "Flying the Furrow". Aramco World. Retrieved 30 May 2016. 
  3. ^ "Little Story of the Imperial Airways". flyandrive.com (in French). Archived from the original on 2014-03-12. 
  4. ^ "Rutbah, Irak 1930". Museen Koeln (in German). Retrieved 30 May 2016. 
  5. ^ "Uiver". Air Disasters. Retrieved 30 May 2016. 
  6. ^ "Uiver". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 30 May 2016. 
  7. ^ Gavrilis, James, A. (20 October 2009). "The Mayor of Ar Rutbah". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 29 May 2016. 
  8. ^ "Officials: Officers Staged Mock Executions". Fox News. 2005-05-17. 
  9. ^ Sutton, Matthew E., personal account of Major Matthew E. Sutton from his experience serving on the First Marine Expeditionary Force staff, June - December 2004.
  10. ^ "H-3 Airfield". Global Security. 2009-06-08. Retrieved 2013-06-10. 
  11. ^ Vandenberg, James (August 2005). "Architectural Efforts to Bring Safety and Stability to Iraq". American Institute of Architects. Retrieved 30 May 2016. 
  12. ^ "Naval Criminal Investigative Demand (NCIS) Documents". American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved 30 May 2016. 
  13. ^ Paulsgrove, Cpl. Graham (29 March 2006). "Marines keep watchful eyes on Iraq’s rural western region". Marine Corps News. 1st Marine Division. Archived from the original on 4 April 2006. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  14. ^ Ricks, Thomas (11 September 2006). "Officer in Iraq calls Anbar situation dire". The Boston Globe. Washington Post. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  15. ^ Roggio, Bill (2007-03-25). "Rutbah – Fact vs Fiction". Long War Journal. 
  16. ^ "USD-C signs over Camp Korean Village, Camp Ubaydi to GoI control". May 3, 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-12-31. 
  17. ^ Alissa J. Rubin (22 June 2014). Sunni Militants Capture Iraq’s Last Major Border Post With Syria The New York Times
  18. ^ Iraq: Will the jihadist tide be stemmed?, economist.com
  19. ^ Bruton, F. Brinley (25 September 2014). "ISIS Militants Stone Couple to Death in Iraq, Witness Says". NBC News. Retrieved 30 May 2016. 
  20. ^ "Reported civilian and ‘friendly fire’ deaths from Coalition airstrikes 2015". Airwars. Retrieved 30 May 2016. 
  21. ^ Bender, Jeremy (21 August 2015). "The US is going after ISIS' most devastating weapon". Business Insider. Retrieved 30 May 2016. 
  22. ^ Abdul-Zahra, Qassim (31 August 2015). "ISIS Detains 200 Residents Of Remote Iraqi Town, Mayor Says". Huffington Post. Retrieved 30 May 2016. 
  23. ^ "ISIS publicly executes over 50 of its own militants for trying to escape battlefront". ARA News. 16 March 2016. Retrieved 30 May 2016. 
  24. ^ "Battle for Iraq and Syria in maps". BBC. 2015-07-02. 
  25. ^ Iraqi Forces Recapture Strategic Town From Islamic State
  26. ^ "Could Saudi Arabia Be the Next ISIS Conquest?". Archived from the original on 6 July 2014. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 

External links[edit]