Arab Brazilians

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Arab Brazilians
Total population
(The Brazilian and Lebanese governments claim there are 7 million Brazilians of Lebanese descent.[1][2] Also, the Brazilian government claims there are 4 million Brazilians of Syrian descent.[1] According to a research conducted by IBGE in 2008, covering only the states of Amazonas, Paraíba, São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso and Distrito Federal, 0.9% of white Brazilian respondents said they had family origins in the Middle East[3])
Regions with significant populations
São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Goiás, Rio Grande do Sul
Languages
Portuguese, Arabic
Religion
Predominantly Christian
with Muslim minority
Related ethnic groups
Other Arabs, Arab Americans, Arab Canadians, Lebanese Canadians, Lebanese Australians, Arab Argentines, Portuguese Brazilians

Arab Brazilians are Brazilian citizens of Arab ethnic and/or linguistic heritage or identity. The majority of Arab Brazilians trace their origin to the Levantine lands of the Arab World, known in Arabic as Bilad al-Sham, primarily Lebanon and Syria.

Immigration to Brazil[edit]

Immigration of Arabs to Brazil started in the late 19th century, most of them coming from Lebanon and Syria, later from other parts of the Arab world. When they were first processed in the ports of Brazil, they were counted as Turks because they carried passports issued by the Turkish Ottoman Empire that ruled the present day territories of Lebanon and Syria.[4] There were many causes for Arabs to leave their homelands in the Ottoman Empire; overpopulation in Lebanon, conscription in Lebanon and Syria, and religious persecution by the Ottoman Turks. Arab immigration to Brazil grew also after WWI and the rest of the 20th century, and concentrated in the states of São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Goiás, and Rio de Janeiro.

Most Arab immigrants in Brazil were Christians, Muslims being a minority. Intermarriage between Brazilians of Arab descent and other Brazilians, regardless of ethnicity or religious affiliation, is very high; most Brazilians of Arab descent only have one parent of Arab origin. As a result of this, the new generations of Brazilians of Arab descent show marked language shift away from Arabic. Only a few speak any Arabic, and such knowledge is often limited to a few basic words. Instead the majority, especially those of younger generations, speak Portuguese as a first language.

The Brazilian and Lebanese governments claim there are 7 million Brazilians of Lebanese descent.[1][2] Also, the Brazilian government claims there are 4 million Brazilians of Syrian descent.[1] According to a research conducted by IBGE in 2008, covering only the states of Amazonas, Paraíba, São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso and Distrito Federal, 0.9% of white Brazilian respondents said they had family origins in the Middle East[3]

Arabic influence in Brazil[edit]

Beirute, an Arab-Brazilian sandwich.[5]

Arab immigration has influenced many aspects of Brazil's culture - besides and beyond the Arabic influence inherited via Portugal, as, for instance, some Portuguese words of Arabic origin.

In the main Brazilian cities it is easy to find restaurants that cook Arab food; and Arab dishes, such as sfihas (Portuguese esfirra), tabbouleh (Portuguese tabule), kibbeh (Portuguese quibe), hummus, tahina and halwa are very well known among Brazilians.

Most Arab immigrants in Brazil have worked as traders, roaming the vast country to sell textiles and clothes and open new markets.[citation needed] This economic history can be seen today in the ways that the São Paulo-based Arab Brazilian Chamber of Commerce has gained greater recognition in increasing Brazilian exports to the Arab world.[6]

Arab-Brazilians are well integrated into Brazilian society. Today, only a minority of Arab Brazilians still know and speak the Arabic language, the vast majority of them being monolingual Portuguese speakers.

Many important Brazilians are of Arab descent, including important politicians such as Paulo Maluf, Geraldo Alckmin, Gilberto Kassab, Michel Temer (current Vice-President) and José Maria Alkmin, artists, writers (for instance Raduan Nassar) and models.

Statistics[edit]

Notable Arab Brazilians[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affaires
  2. ^ a b "Lebanon: Geography". Embassy of Lebanon in Brazil (in Portuguese). 1996. Archived from the original on 29 May 2008. 
  3. ^ a b IBGE. IBGE: Características Étnico-Raciais da População.
  4. ^ Recopilaron casi 200 años de los sirio libaneses en Argentina
  5. ^ "Como surgiram os sanduíches beirute, americano e cheeseburger?" (in Portuguese). Mundoestranho.abril.com.br. 16 May 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  6. ^ John Tofik Karam (2008). Another Arabesque: Syrian-Lebanese Ethnicity in Neoliberal Brazil. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-59213-541-7. Retrieved 26 December 2015.