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12,000,000The Brazilian and Lebanese governments claim there are 7 million Brazilians of Lebanese descent. Also, the Brazilian government claims there are 4 million Brazilians of Syrian descent. According to a research conducted by IBGE in 2008, covering only the states of Amazonas, Paraíba, São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso and Distrito Federal, 0.9% of white Brazilian respondents said they had family origins in the Middle East
|Regions with significant populations|
|São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Goiás, Rio Grande do Sul|
with Muslim, Druze and Jewish minorities
|Related ethnic groups|
|Other Arabs, Arab Americans, Arab Canadians, Lebanese Canadians, Lebanese Australians, Arab Argentines, Portuguese Brazilians|
Arab Brazilians are Brazilian citizens of Arab ethnic, cultural, linguistic heritage and identity. The majority of Arab Brazilians trace their origin to the Levantine lands of the Arab World, known in Arabic as Bilad al-Sham, primarily from Lebanon and Syria, as well Palestine.
Immigration to Brazil
Arab immigration to Brazil started in the 1890s as Lebanese and Syrian people fled the political and economic instability of the Ottoman Empire; the majority were Christian but there were also many Muslims. Immigration peaked around World War II.
19th century, most of them coming from Lebanon and Syria, later from other parts of the Arab world. When they were first processed in the ports of Brazil, they were counted as Turks because they carried passports issued by the Turkish Ottoman Empire that ruled the present day territories of Lebanon and Syria. There were many causes for Arabs to leave their homelands in the Ottoman Empire; overpopulation in Lebanon, conscription in Lebanon and Syria, and religious persecution by the Ottoman Turks. Arab immigration to Brazil grew also after World War I and the rest of the 20th century, and concentrated in the states of São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Goiás, and Rio de Janeiro.
Most Arab immigrants in Brazil were Christians, Muslims being a minority. Intermarriage between Brazilians of Arab descent and other Brazilians, regardless of ethnicity or religious affiliation, is very high; most Brazilians of Arab descent only have one parent of Arab origin. As a result of this, the new generations of Brazilians of Arab descent show marked language shift away from Arabic. Only a few speak any Arabic, and such knowledge is often limited to a few basic words. Instead the majority, especially those of younger generations, speak Portuguese as a first language.
The Brazilian and Lebanese governments claim there are 7 million Brazilians of Lebanese descent. Also, the Brazilian government claims there are 4 million Brazilians of Syrian descent. However, it may be an exaggeration, given that an official survey conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in 2008 showed that less than 1 million Brazilians claimed any Middle-Eastern origin (only 0.9% of white Brazilian respondents said they had family origins in the Middle East).
Arabic influence in Brazil
Arab immigration has influenced many aspects of Brazil's culture – besides and beyond the Arabic influence inherited via Portugal, as, for instance, some Portuguese words of Arabic origin.
In the main Brazilian cities it is easy to find restaurants that cook Arab food; and Arab dishes, such as sfihas (Portuguese esfirra), tabbouleh (Portuguese tabule), kibbeh (Portuguese quibe), hummus, tahina and halwa are very well known among Brazilians.
Most Arab immigrants in Brazil have worked as traders, roaming the vast country to sell textiles and clothes and open new markets. This economic history can be seen today in the ways that the São Paulo-based Arab Brazilian Chamber of Commerce has gained greater recognition in increasing Brazilian exports to the Arab world.
Arab-Brazilians are well integrated into Brazilian society. Today, only a minority of Arab Brazilians still know and speak the Arabic language, the vast majority of them being monolingual Portuguese speakers.
Many important Brazilians are of Arab descent, including important politicians such as Paulo Maluf, Geraldo Alckmin, Gilberto Kassab, Michel Temer (current President) and José Maria Alkmin, artists, writers (for instance Raduan Nassar) and models.
Notable Arab Brazilians
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- Adib Domingos Jatene, physician
- Amyr Klink, sailor
- Antônio Houaiss, writer and philologist
- Arnaldo Jabor, film director, screenwriter and producer
- Alfredo Saad-Filho, economist
- Tania Khalill, actress
- Branco, football world champion
- Carlos Ghosn, businessman (current CEO of Renault and Nissan)
- Bruna Abdullah, Hindi and Tamil language film actress
- Daniella Sarahyba, model
- Carlos Latuff, Political cartoonist
- Alberto Dualib, businessman
- Fernando Gabeira, politician
- Rafael Leitão, Brazilian chess grandmaster
- Fernando Haddad, politician and former mayor of São Paulo
- Geraldo Alckmin, the current Governor of São Paulo
- Gilberto Kassab, politician and former mayor of São Paulo
- João Bosco, musician
- José Maria Alkmin, politician, former Vice-President of Brazil under Castello Branco
- Juliana Paes, actress
- Luciana Gimenez Morad, model and TV entertainer
- Malu Mader, actress
- Marcelle Bittar, model
- Mário Zagallo, football player and coach world champion
- Michel Temer, politician, current President of Brazil
- Paulo Maluf, politician
- Raduan Nassar, writer
- Sabrina Sato Rahal, model and TV entertainer
- Tasso Jereissati, politician
- Tony Kanaan, race car driver
- Wallid Ismail, martial artist, World class Brazilian jiu-jitsu practitioner, famous for choking Royce Gracie unconscious
- Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affaires
- "Lebanon: Geography". Embassy of Lebanon in Brazil (in Portuguese). 1996. Archived from the original on 29 May 2008.
- IBGE. IBGE: Características Étnico-Raciais da População.
- Carvalho-Silva, Denise R.; Santos, Fabrício R.; Rocha, Jorge; Pena, Sérgio D. J. (2000). "The Phylogeography of Brazilian Y-Chromosome Lineages". American Journal of Human Genetics. pp. 281–286. PMC 1234928. Missing or empty
- "Escobar on Palestinian Refugees in Brazil". Informed Comment.
- http://www.washingtontimes.com, The Washington Times. "Arab roots grow deep in Brazil's rich melting pot". The Washington Times.
- "Islam in Brazil". Harvard Divinity School Religious Liberty Project. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
- "Recopilaron casi 200 años de los sirio libaneses en Argentina" [Almost 200 years of Syrian Lebanese presence in Argentina has been collected] (in Spanish). elindependiente.com.ar. 31 December 2004. Archived from the original on 8 September 2014.
- "Como surgiram os sanduíches beirute, americano e cheeseburger?" (in Portuguese). Mundoestranho.abril.com.br. 16 May 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
- John Tofik Karam (2008). Another Arabesque: Syrian-Lebanese Ethnicity in Neoliberal Brazil. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-59213-541-7. Retrieved 26 December 2015.