|Regions with significant populations|
excluding disputed territories
excluding 9–15 million Copts
including Sudanese Arabs
excluding 500,000 Copts
excluding 60,000 Copts
Liturgical: Koine Greek, Latin, Syriac, Classical Arabic
|Greek Orthodox Church|
Oriental Orthodox Church
|Related ethnic groups|
Arab Christians (Arabic: ﺍﻟْﻤَﺴِﻴﺤِﻴُّﻮﻥ ﺍﻟْﻌَﺮَﺏ, romanized: el-Mesîhîyyûn el-Arab) are ethnic Arabs, Arab nationals, or Arabic-speakers who adhere to Christianity. The number of Arab Christians who live in the Middle East is estimated to be between 10 and 15 million. Arab Christian communities can be found throughout the Arab world, but are concentrated in the Eastern Mediterranean region of the Levant and Egypt, with smaller communities present throughout the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa.
The history of Arab Christians coincides with the history of Eastern Christianity and the history of the Arabic language; Arab Christian communities either result from pre-existing Christian communities adopting the Arabic language, or from pre-existing Arabic-speaking communities adopting Christianity. The jurisdictions of three of the five patriarchates of the Pentarchy primarily became Arabic-speaking after the early Muslim conquests – the Church of Alexandria, the Church of Antioch and the Church of Jerusalem – and over time many of their adherents adopted the Arabic language and culture. Separately, a number of early Arab kingdoms and tribes adopted Christianity, including the Nabataeans, Lakhmids, Salihids, Tanukhids, ʿIbādī of al-Hira, and the Ghassanids.
In modern times, Arab Christians have played important roles in the Nahda movement, and they have significantly influenced and contributed to the fields of literature, politics, business, philosophy, music, theatre and cinema, medicine, and science. Today Arab Christians still play important roles in the Arab world, and are relatively wealthy, well educated, and politically moderate. Emigrants from Arab Christian communities also make up a significant proportion of the Middle Eastern diaspora, with sizable population concentrations across the Americas, most notably in Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela, Colombia, and the US. However those emigrants to the Americas, especially from the first wave of emigration, have often not passed the Arabic language to their descendants.
The concept of an Arab Christian identity remains contentious, with some Arabic-speaking Christian groups in the Middle East, such as Assyrians, Armenians and others, rejecting an Arab identity. Individuals from Egypt's Coptic community and Lebanon's Maronite community sometimes assume a non-Arab identity.
The history of Arab Christians coincides with the history of Christianity and the history of the Arabic language; Arab Christian communities result either from pre-existing Christian communities adopting the Arabic language, or from pre-existing Arabic-speaking communities adopting Christianity. Arab Christians include the indigenous Christian communities of Western Asia who became majority Arabic-speaking after the consequent seventh-century Muslim conquests in the Fertile Crescent. The Christian Arab presence predates the early Muslim conquests, and there were many Arab tribes that converted to Christianity, beginning in the 1st century.
The interests of the Arabs before the 9th century A.D. were focused primarily on the recording and translating of pre-Islamic poetry. The early Arab Christians recorded Syriac hymns, Arabic poetry, ecclesiastical melodies, proverbs, and ḥikam (rules of governance). They did not otherwise record religion, which gave way to conflicting accounts and sparse evidence for specific practices over several centuries.
From classical antiquity to modern times, Arab Christians have played important roles contributing to the culture of the Mashriq, in particular those in the Levant, Egypt and Iraq.
The New Testament has a biblical account of Arab conversion to Christianity recorded in the Book of Acts. When Saint Peter preaches to the people of Jerusalem, they ask,
And how hear we every man in our own tongue, wherein we were born?
[...] Arabians, we do hear them speak in our tongues the wonderful works of God. (Acts 2:8, 11 KJV)
The first mention of Christianity in Arabia occurs in the New Testament as the Apostle Paul references his journey to Arabia following his conversion (Galatians 1: 15–17). Later, Eusebius discusses a bishop named Beryllus in the see of Bostra, the site of a synod c. 240 AD and two Councils of Arabia. The New Testament signals an early entry of Christianity among the Arabs; in addition to what was narrated by al-Tabari, Abu al-Fida, al-Maqrizi, Ibn Khaldun and al-Masoudi, the disciples of Christ (including Matthew, Bartholomew and Thaddeus) were the ones who went to Arabia as preachers of the religion. Sozomen of Gaza said that the Arabs converted to Christianity through the efforts of priests and monks who spread to Arab regions, and the strength of Christianity increased with the conversion of the major tribes. The religion was organised in many dioceses controlled by bishops and archbishops. The Arab bishops were divided into types: urban bishops residing in cities, and “tent bishops” who resided in tents and moved with their tribes from one place to another. The number of Arab bishops among the Nabataeans alone reached forty according to Ibn Duraid. The first Arab bishop of the Arabs, Saint Moses, spent many years in the 4th century as a hermit between Syria and Egypt. His piety impressed Mavia, Arab warrior-queen of the Tanukhids, and she made his consecration as a bishop over her people a condition to any truce with Rome.
The Jordan Valley and the Balqa was under Arab Christian rule by the second century AD. The Nabataeans, natives of the southern Levant, also converted to Christianity in the Late Roman Period. In Palmyra and near al-Qaryatayn there are Christian monuments and the remains of churches and inscriptions that indicate the spread of the religion into Syria proper. The administration of Jordan under Roman rule was given to the Quda'a tribe. This tribe had embraced Christianity according to Ya'qubi, and were later succeeded by the Christian Salihids and Ghassanid Kingdom. There are poetic verses by the pre-Islamic poet al-Nabigha in which he praises the kings of Ghassan, congratulating them on Palm Sunday. Bordering Syria, the Sinai was administratively affiliated with the Egyptian Church based in Alexandria. There are documents from the late third century of Dionysius, Pope of Alexandria, in which he mentions his Arab Christian subjects in the Sinai and the persecution they faced during the days of the pagan Roman emperor Diocletian. Later, forty martyrs fell in 309 in Mount Sinai during a raid by pagan Arabs on their hermitages. The monks fortified their new monasteries, and the most fortified is still in use today, Saint Catherine's Monastery, built by the commission of Roman emperor Justinian in 565. It has hosted a number of Church bishops and theologians, Ghassanid and Lakhmid kings, and pre-Islamic poets.
The southern Arabian city of Najran was made famous by the religious persecution of Christians by one of the kings of Yemen, Dhu Nuwas, who was an enthusiastic convert to Judaism. The leader of the Arabs of Najran during the period, al-Ḥārith, was canonized by the Catholic Church as Arethas. Aretas was the leader of the Christians of Najran in the early 6th century and was executed during the massacre of Christians by the king in 523. Ibn Khaldun, Ibn Hisham and Yaqut al-Hamawi mentioned that Najran was entirely Christian when Dhu al-Nawas converted to Judaism, and that the people of Najran refused to convert to his faith, so he massacred them. The victims were mentioned by Ibn Ishaq and named in the Quran as the "People of the Ditch". The Byzantine emperor Justin I was enraged and encouraged Kaleb of Axum to occupy Yemen and eliminate the Jewish king. Dhu al-Nawas was later deposed and killed, prompting Kaleb to appoint a native Christian Himyarite, Sumyafa Ashwa, as his viceroy. The Aksumites thus conquered Himyar and their rule lasted until 575. The Abyssinians spread Christianity and their rulers built an extravagant building in honor of the Martyrs of Najran. It was known by its contemporaries for its beauty, adorned with ornaments, jewels, and prominent archways. Arabs called it the “Kaaba of Najran”. The Yemenis later rebelled against the Abyssinians and demanded independence. History records Christian influence from Ethiopia to Arab lands in pre-Islamic times, and some Ethiopian Christians may have lived in Mecca.
Yemen had an important share in ancient Christianity. In the second century, the Greek theologian Pantaenus left Alexandria and headed towards Yemen as a missionary after his conversion. Historians such as Rufinus and Orosius mentioned that Matthew the Apostle was the missionary of Yemen and Abyssinia. A special relationship developed between the people of Yemen and the Syrian Church, as inferred by the works of Ephrem the Syrian, the biography of Simeon Stylites, and the historian Philostorgius, who said that some villages and settlements established in Yemen were Syriac-speaking. The famous Al-Qalis Church in Sana'a was built to serve aderents and to attract pilgrims travelling to the Kaaba of Mecca and Ghamdan Palace. On the organizational level, the Archbishop of Yemen held the title "Catholicos" which follows the "Patriarch" in rank. The spread of Christianity amongst Arabs reached Upper Mesopotamia, where Banu Bakr and Banu Mudar lived, both famous for their staunch Christian beliefs and for honoring Sergius the Military Saint. Ibn Khallikan mentioned that all the Yemeni Arabs in Iraq converted to Christianity, including Taym al-Lat, Kalb, Lakhm and Tanukh, and many had moved towards Bahrain by the fourth century.
In Medina there was a Christian sect that was rejected by the official church and considered heretical. They deified the Virgin Mary and gave her offerings. This sect was mentioned by a number of historians, including Epiphanius and Ibn Taymiyyah, who called them "The Marians" (Al-Maryamiyyun). Likewise, al-Zamakhshari and al-Baydawi referred to this sect in their interpretation of the Qur’an. Another sect called "The Davidians" (Al-Dāwudiyyūn) were known for their exaggerations in honoring King David. Some contemporary historians classified it as a Judeo-Christian heresy. In Mecca, the Banu Jurhum embraced Christianity at the hands of their sixth king, Abd al-Masih ibn Baqia, and supervised the service of the Haram for a period of time. Banu Azd and Banu Khuza’a became Christians with them according to Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani. The earliest indications of Christianity in Mecca is the Christian cemetery outside the Medina towards the well of 'Anbasa, confirmed by al-Maqdisi, as well as the conversion to Christianity by some members of the Quraish.
Following the fall of large portions of former Byzantine and Sasanian provinces to the Arab armies, a large indigenous Christian population of varying ethnicities came under Arab Muslim dominance. Historically, a number of minority Christian sects were persecuted as heretic under Byzantine rule (such as non-Chalcedonians). The Islamic conquests set forth two processes affecting these Christian communities: the process of Arabization, causing them gradually to adopt Arabic as a spoken, literary, and liturgical language (often alongside their ancestral tongues), and the much slower, yet persistent process of Islamization. As Muslim army commanders expanded their empire and attacked countries in Asia, North Africa and southern Europe, they would offer three conditions to their enemies: convert to Islam, pay jizya (tax) every year, or face war to death. Those who refused war and refused to convert were deemed to have agreed to pay jizya.
As "People of the Book", Christians in the region were accorded certain rights under Islamic law to practice their religion (including having Christian law used for rulings, settlements or sentences in court). In contrast to Muslims, who paid the zakat tax, they paid the jizya, an obligatory tax. The jizya was not levied on slaves, women, children, monks, the old, the sick, hermits, or the poor. In return, non-Muslim citizens were permitted to practice their faith, to enjoy a measure of communal autonomy, to be entitled to Muslim state's protection from outside aggression, to be exempted from military service, and to be exempted from the zakat. Like Arab Muslims, Arab Christians refer to God as "Allah". As with the Christians of Malta, this practice is distinguished from the Islamic use of the word "Allah" which refers to the personal name of God in that faith. The use of the term Allah in Arab churches predates Islam.
During the Islamic Golden Age, Christians contributed to the Islamic civilization in various fields, and the institution known as the House of Wisdom employed Christian scholars to translate works into Arabic and to develop new knowledge.
Arab Christians have always been the go-between the Islamic world and the Christian West, mainly down to mutual religious affinity. The Greek Orthodox share Orthodox ties with Russia and Greece; whilst Melkites and Maronites share Catholic bonds with Italy, Vatican and France. Scholars and intellectuals agree Christians in the Arab world have made significant contributions to Arab civilization since the introduction of Islam, and they have had a notable impact contributing the culture of the Mashriq. Many Arab Christians today are physicians, entertainers, philosophers, government officials and people of literature.
Arab Christians throughout history have been noted for their impact on academia and literature. Arabic-speaking Christian scholars wrote extensive theological and philosophical works and treatises in Arabic in which they not only responded to the polemics of their Muslim adversaries, but they also provided systematic apologetic discussions of the Christian faith and practice. Notable Lebanese academics in the modern era include Carmelite linguist Anastas al-Karmal, novelist Tawfiq Yusuf 'Awwad, and philologist Ibrahim al-Yaziji, whose Bible translations were among the first in the modern Arabic language. There are many New Testament translations or portions into regional colloquial forms of Arabic. Noted Palestinian physician and ethnographer Tawfiq Canaan's academic work serves as valuable resources to researchers of Palestinian history. Jordainian historian Suleiman Mousa was the only author to write about Lawrence of Arabia and show the Arab perspective. Mousa noted that were many books written to praise Lawrence, and all of them exaggerated his part in the Arab Revolt and failed to do justice to the Arabs themselves. Syrian writers include scholar Francis Marrash and writer Hanna Mina, described in Literature from the "Axis of Evil" as the country's most prominent.
Arab Christians were among the first Arab nationalists. As early as 1877, Maronite leader Youssef Bey Karam proposed to Emir Abdelkader the separation of the Arabic-speaking provinces from the Ottoman Empire using the terms al-gins al-'arabi ("Arab race") and gaba'il al-arabiya ("Arab tribes"). In the early 20th century, many prominent Arab nationalists were Christians, like the Syrian intellectual Constantin Zureiq, Ba'athism proponent Michel Aflaq, and Jurji Zaydan, who was reputed to be the first Arab nationalist. Khalil al-Sakakini, a prominent Palestinian Jerusalemite, was Arab Orthodox, as was George Antonius, Lebanese author of The Arab Awakening. The first Syrian nationalists were also Christian. Although both Lebanese, Antoun Saadeh was the founder behind the Syrian Social Nationalist Party and Butrus al-Bustani is considered to be the first Syrian nationalist. Sa'adeh rejected Pan-Arabism and argued instead for the creation of a "United Syrian Nation" or "Natural Syria". George Habash, founder of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine was Arab Orthodox, and so was Wadie Haddad, the leader of the PFLP's armed wing. Influential Palestinian Christians such as Tawfik Toubi, Daud Turki, Emile Touma and Emile Habibi became leaders of the Israeli and Palestinian communist party. Nayif Hawatmeh is the founder and leader of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, and Kamal Nasser and Hanan Ashrawi were members of the PLO Executive Committee. In Lebanon, Maronites and Melkites looked to France and the Mediterranean world, whereas most Muslims and Greek Orthodox Christians looked to the Arab hinterland as their political lodestar.
Christians developed Arabic-speaking Christian media, including various newspapers, radio stations, and television networks such as Télé Lumière, Aghapy TV, CTV, and SAT-7, which is a Christian Arab broadcasting network that was founded in 1995; it targets primarily Christian Arabs in North Africa and the Middle East. These media networks produce dozens of Arabic-language Christian films, musical works, as well as radio and television programmes. Syro-Lebanese Melkite Saleem Takla and his brother Beshara founded the Al-Ahram newspaper in 1875 in Alexandria; now the most widely circulated Egyptian daily newspaper. In Palestine, Najib Nassar's newspaper Al-Karmil was the first anti-Zionist weekly newspaper. It appeared in Haifa in 1908 and was shut down by the British in the 1940s. Similarly, the Arab Orthodox El-Issa family from Jaffa founded the Falastin newspaper in 1909. The paper was Palestine's most consistent critic of the early Zionist movement. Palestinian journalist Shireen Abu Akleh worked as a reporter for Al Jazeera for 25 years. In Lebanon, the influential Greek Orthodox Tueni family founded the An-Nahar newspaper in 1933, one of the leading newspapers today. Popular Lebanese singer Fairuz has over 150 million records sold worldwide, making her the highest selling Middle-Eastern artist of all time. Other Lebanese singers include Majida El Roumi, legendary folk veteran Wadih El Safi, 'Queen of Arab pop' Nancy Ajram, and Lydia Canaan. Syrian notables include George Wassouf and Nassif Zeytoun. Palestinians include Lina Makhul, Fadee Andrawos, and Israeli singer Mira Awad.
Role in Al-Nahda
The Nahda (meaning "the Awakening" or "the Renaissance") was a cultural renaissance that began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It began in the wake of the exit of Muhammad Ali of Egypt from the Levant in 1840. Beirut, Cairo, Damascus and Aleppo were the main centers of the renaissance and this led to the establishment of schools, universities, theater and printing presses. This awakening led to the emergence of a politically active movement known as the "association" that was accompanied by the birth of Arab nationalism and the demand for reformation in the Ottoman Empire. This led to the calling of the establishment of modern states based on Europe. It was during this stage that the first compound of the Arabic language was introduced along with the printing of it in letters, and later the movement influenced the fields of music, sculpture, history, humanities, economics and human rights.
This cultural renaissance during the late Ottoman rule was a quantum leap for Arabs in the post-industrial revolution, and is not limited to the individual fields of cultural renaissance in the nineteenth century, as the Nahda only extended to include the spectrum of society and the fields as a whole. Christian colleges (accepting of all faiths) like Saint Joseph University, American University of Beirut (Syrian Protestant College until 1920) and Al-Hikma University in Baghdad amongst others played a prominent role in the development of Arab culture. It is agreed amongst historians the importance the roles played by the Arab Christians in this renaissance, and their role in the prosperity through participation in the diaspora. Given this role in politics and culture, Ottoman ministers began to include them in their governments. In the economic sphere, a number of Christian families like the Greek Orthodox Sursock family became prominent. Thus, the Nahda led the Muslims and Christians to a cultural renaissance and national general despotism. This solidified Arab Christians as one of the pillars of the region and not a minority on the fringes.
was a Lebanese author, poet and key figure of the Nahda
was a Syrian writer who launched the first women's newspaper in the Middle East
was a Lebanese-Palestinian poet and pioneer of Oriental feminism
was a Palestinian scholar, translator, educator and novelist
was a Syrian intellectual who was the founder of modern Arabic literary criticism
was a writer, poet and the first Syrian woman to publish a collection of poetry
The Massacre of Aleppo of 1850 often referred to simply as The Events was a riot perpetrated by Muslim residents of Aleppo, largely from the eastern quarters of the city, against Christian residents, largely located in the northern suburbs of the predominantly Christian neighbourhood Judayde (Jdeideh) and Salibeh. The Events are considered by historians to be particularly important in Aleppian history, for they represent the first time disturbances pitted Muslims against Christians in the region. The patriarch of the Syriac Catholic Church Peter VII Jarweh was fatally wounded in the attacks and died a year later. 20–70 people died from rioting and 5,000 died as a result of bombardment.
The relationship between the Druze and Christians has been characterized by harmony and peaceful coexistence, with amicable relations between the two groups prevailing throughout history, with the exception of some periods. The 1860 civil conflict in Mount Lebanon and Damascus was a civil conflict and later massacre started in Mount Lebanon during Ottoman rule in 1860–1861, fought mainly between the local Druze and Maronite Christians. Following decisive Druze victories and massacres against the Christians, the conflict spilled over into other parts of Ottoman Syria, particularly Damascus, where thousands of Christian residents were killed by Druze and Muslim militiamen. With the connivance of the military authorities and Turkish soldiers, Druze and Muslim paramilitary groups organised pogroms in Damascus which lasted three days (9–11 July). By the war's end, around 20,000 people, mainly Catholic Christians, had been killed in Mount Lebanon and Damascus, and many Christian villages and churches were destroyed. Historian Mikhail Mishaqas' memoir of the massacre is valuable to historians, as it is the only account written by a survivor in Damascus.
Melkite Greek Catholic and Maronite Christians suffered negligence from the Ottoman authorities and a naval blockade from France and Britain, resulting in the Great Famine of Mount Lebanon (1915–1918) during World War I, which ran in conjunction with the Armenian genocide, the Assyrian genocide and the Greek genocide. The Mount Lebanon famine caused the highest fatality rate by population during World War I. Around 200,000 people starved to death when the population of Mount Lebanon was estimated to be 400,000 people. The Lebanese diaspora in Egypt funded the shipping of food supplies to Mount Lebanon, sent via the Syrian Island town of Arwad. On 26 May 1916, Lebanese-American writer Khalil Gibran wrote a letter to Mary Haskell that read:
"The famine in Mount Lebanon has been planned and instigated by the Turkish government. Already 80,000 have succumbed to starvation and thousands are dying every single day. The same process happened with the Christian Armenians and applied to the Christians in Mount Lebanon."
During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, a number of Palestinian Greek Orthodox and Melkite communities were ethnically cleansed and driven out of their towns, including al-Bassa, Ramla, Lod, Safed, Kafr Bir'im, Iqrit, Tarbikha, Eilabun and Haifa. Many Christian towns or neighborhoods were ethnically cleansed and destroyed during the period between 1948 and 1953. All the Christian residents of Safed, Beisan, Tiberias were removed, and a big percentage displaced in Haifa, Jaffa, Lydda and Ramleh. Arab Christian Constantin Zureiq was the first to coin the term "Nakba" in reference to the 1948 Palestinian exodus.
In 1975, the Lebanese Civil War occurred between two broad camps, the mainly Christian 'rightist' Lebanese Front consisting of Maronites and Melkites, and the mainly Muslim and Arab nationalist 'leftist' National Movement, supported by the Druze, Greek Orthodox and the Palestinian community. The war was characterized by the kidnap, rape and massacre of those caught in the wrong place as each side eliminated 'enemy' enclaves – mainly Christian or Muslim low-income areas. In 1982 Israel invaded Lebanon with the aim of destroying the PLO, which it besieged in West Beirut. Israel was later obliged to withdraw as a result of multiple guerrilla attacks by the Lebanese National Resistance Front and increasing hostility across all forces in Lebanon to their presence.
With the events of the Arab Spring, the Syrian Arab Christian community was heavily hit in line with other Christian communities of Syria, being victimized by the war and specifically targeted as a minority by Jihadist forces. Many Christians, including Arab Christians, were displaced or fled Syria over the course of the Syrian Civil War, however the majority stayed and continue to fight with the Syrian Armed Forces and the allied Eagles of the Whirlwind (armed wing of the SSNP) against insurgents today. When the conflict in Syria began, it was reported that Christians were cautious and avoided taking sides, but that due to the increased violence in Syria and ISIL's growth, Arab Christians have shown support for Assad, fearing that if Assad is overthrown, they will be targeted. Christians support the Assad regime based on fear that the end of the current government could lead to instability. The Carnegie Middle East Center stated that the majority of Christians are more in support of the regime because they fear a chaotic situation or to be under the control of the Islamist Western and Turkish backed armed groups.
Millions of people are descended from Arab Christians and they live outside the Middle East, in the Arab diaspora. They mainly reside in the Americas, but many people of Arab Christian descent also reside in Europe, Africa and Oceania. Among them, one million Palestinian Christians live in the Palestinian diaspora and 6–7 million Brazilians are estimated to have Lebanese ancestry. Mass Arab immigration started in the 1890s as Lebanese and Syrian people fled from the political and economic instability which was caused by the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. These early immigrants were known as Syro-Lebanese, Lebanese and Palestinians, or Turks. The majority of Arab Americans are Christians.
Historical events that caused the mass-emigration of Arab Christians include: 1860 civil conflict in Mount Lebanon and Damascus, 1915–1918 Great Famine of Mount Lebanon, 1948 Palestinian exodus, 1956–57 exodus and expulsions from Egypt, Lebanese civil war, and the Iraq war.
Role in Al-Mahjar
The Mahjar (one of its more literal meanings being "the Arab diaspora") was a literary movement that succeeded the Nahda movement. It was started by Christian Arabic-speaking writers who had emigrated to America from Lebanon, Syria and Palestine at the turn of the 20th century. The writers of the Mahjar movement were stimulated by their personal encounter with the Western world and participated in the renewal of Arabic literature, hence their proponents referred to as writers of the "late Nahda".
The Pen League was the first Arabic-language literary society in North America, formed initially by Syrians Nasib Arida and Abd al-Masih Haddad. Members of the Pen League included: Kahlil Gibran, Elia Abu Madi, Mikhail Naimy, and Ameen Rihani. Eight out of the ten members were Greek Orthodox and two were Maronite Christians. The league dissolved following Gibran's death in 1931 and Mikhail Naimy's return to Lebanon in 1932. Naimy was made famous internationally for his spiritual writings, most notably The Book of Mirdad.
Notable diaspora figures include Swiss businessman of Lebanese Greek Orthodox descent Nicolas Hayek, and Mexican business magnate of Maronite descent, Carlos Slim. From 2010 to 2013, Slim was ranked as the richest person in the world by the Forbes magazine. Figures in entertainment include actors Omar Sharif (Melkite-born), Salma Hayek, Tony Shalhoub, Vince Vaughn, Danny Thomas, Oscar award winner F. Murray Abraham and film director Youssef Chahine. Figures in academics include plant biologist Joanne Chory, scholar Nassim Nicholas Taleb, cardiac and vascular surgeon Michael DeBakey, inventor of the iPod and co-inventor of the iPhone Tony Fadell, mathematician Michael Atiyah, professor Charles Elachi, intellectual Edward Said, and Nobel Prize winner in Chemistry Elias James Corey and Nobel Prize winner in Physiology or Medicine Peter Medawar. Other notables include legendary White House reporter Helen Thomas, activist and presidential candidate Ralph Nader, judge Rosemary Barkett, and US governor and academic administrator Mitch Daniels.
The "Arab Christian" label largely belongs to followers of the Greek Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, Melkite Greek Catholic Church, Maronite Church, and Oriental Orthodox Churches, though there are also members of other churches, including the Catholic Latin Church and Protestant Churches.
The issue of self-identification arises regarding specific Christian communities across the Arab world. A significant proportion of Maronites claim descent from the Phoenicians, whilst a significant proportion of Copts claim that they descend from the Ancient Egyptians.
The designation "Greek" in the Greek Orthodox Church and Melkite Greek Catholic Church refers to the use of Koine Greek in liturgy, used today alongside Arabic. As a result, the Greek dominated clergy was commonplace serving the Arabic speaking Christians, the majority who couldn't speak Greek. Some viewed Greek rule as cultural imperialism and demanded emancipation from Greek control, as well as the abolishment of the centralized structure of the institution via Arab inclusion in decision-making processes.
The struggle for the Arabization of the Eastern Orthodox Church against the Greek clerical hegemony in Palestine led Orthodox Christian intellectuals to rebel against the Church's Greek dominated hierarchy. The rebellion was divided between those who sought a common Ottoman cause against European intrusions and those who identified with Arab nationalism against pan-Turkic (Ottoman) nationalism. Its main advocates were well known community leaders and writers in Palestine, such as Ya'qub Farraj, Khalil al-Sakakini, Yusuf al-Bandak (publisher of Sawtal-Sha'b) and cousins Yousef and Issa El-Issa (founders of Falastin). The cousins were among the first to elucidate the Arab struggle against the Greek clerical hegemony of the Church of Jerusalem. Both Sakakini and El-Issa argued that the Palestinian and the Syrian (Antiochian) community constituted an oppressed majority, controlled and manipulated by a minority Greek clergy.
There have been numerous disputes between the Arab and the Greek leadership of the church in Jerusalem from the Mandate onwards. Jordan encouraged the Greeks to open the Brotherhood to Arab members of the community between 1948 and 1967 when the West Bank was under Jordanian rule. Land and political disputes have been common since 1967, with the Greek priests portrayed as collaborators with Israel. Land disputes include the sale of St. John's property in the Christian quarter, the transfer of fifty dunams near Mar Elias Monastery, and the sale of two hotels and twenty-seven stores on Omar Bin Al-Khattab square near the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. A dispute between the Palestinian Authority and the Greek Patriarch Irenaios led to the Patriarch being dismissed and demoted because of accusations of a real estate deal with Israel. It was later ruled uncanonical by Patriarch Bartholomew.
The homeland of the Antiochian Greek Christians, known as the Diocese of the East, was one of the major commercial, agricultural, religious, and intellectual areas of the Roman Empire, and its strategic location facing the Persian Sassanid Empire gave it exceptional military importance. They are either members of the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch or the Melkite Greek Catholic Church, and they have ancient roots in the Levant; more specifically, the territories of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Hatay, which includes the city of Antakya (ancient Antioch). Antiochian Greeks constitute a multi-national group of people and thus construct their identity in relation to specific historical moments. Analyzing cultural identity as a conscious construction is more helpful than a simple labelling of ethnicity, thus the identity is assumed to accentuate the separate origin unique to the Christian Rūm (literally "Eastern Romans") of the Levant. Some members of the community also call themselves Melkite, which means "monarchists" or "supporters of the emperor" (a reference to their past allegiance to Macedonian and Roman imperial rule) although in the modern era, that term tends to be more commonly used by followers of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church.
The Orthodox Christian congregation was included in an ethno-religious community, Rum Millet ("Roman nation"), during the Ottoman Empire. Its name was derived from the former Eastern Roman (Byzantine) subjects of the Ottoman Empire, but all Orthodox Greeks, Bulgarians, Albanians, Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians and Serbs, as well as Georgians and Middle Eastern Christians, were considered part of the same millet in spite of their differences in ethnicity and language. Belonging to this Orthodox commonwealth became more important to the common people than their ethnic origins.
The former Patriarch of the Chaldean Church, Emmanuel III Delly, made the following comment in a 2006 interview:
"Any Chaldean who calls himself an Assyrian is a traitor and any Assyrian who calls himself Chaldean is a traitor."
The Chaldean Church—which had been part of the Nestorian Church, or Church of the East, until 1552–3—began in earnest to distance itself from the Nestorians who were now seen as the 'uncouth Assyrians'. During this period, many Chaldeans began identifying themselves solely by their religious community, and later as Iraqis, Iraqi Christians, or Arab Christians, rather than with the Assyrian community as a whole. The first split for the two groups came in 431, when they broke away from what was to become the Roman Catholic church over a theological dispute. The reverberation of religious animosity between these communities still continues today, a testament to the machinations of power politics in the nation-building of the Middle East. The Iraqi Chaldeans positioned themselves deliberately as a religious group within the Arab Iraqi nation. The Arab identity of the state was not only acceptable to them, but was even staunchly endorsed. The Arab nationalism they supported did not discriminate according to religion and was therefore also acceptable to them. Today, due to both forced and accepted Arabization, many Chaldeans identify themselves situationally as Arabs.
The Assyrians/Syriacs (including Chaldeans) form the majority of Christians in Iraq, northeast Syria, south-east Turkey and north-west Iran. They are specifically defined as non-Arab indigenous ethnic group, including by the governments of Iraq, Lebanon, Iran, Syria, Israel, and Turkey.
Christianity in the Middle East represents a large part of the region's diverse culture mosaic. The region includes the oldest Christian monuments in addition to the liturgy and hymns that have spread since the second century AD throughout the region. Christian Arabs have played a significant cultural, political, economic and scientific role in the Arab world. Christian Arabs celebrate various holy days, including the Feast of the Cross, Eid il-Burbara, Christmas, the Feast of St. George, and the Feast of the Prophet Elijah. In Christian traditions, Sergius and Bacchus are considered the patron saints of the Arabs.
There are no major cultural differences between Christian Arabs and the general Arab environment. Some differences arise from religious differences, for example, customs and traditions related to marriage or burial. Also, in social events in which the participants are Christians, alcoholic beverages are often served (apart from those denominations that encourage teetotalism), unlike what is prevalent in most Arab societies because Islamic law forbids strong drink. Christian cuisine is similar to other Middle Eastern cuisines; unlike in Jewish cuisine and Islamic cuisines in the region, pork is allowed among Arab Christians, though it is not widely consumed. Male circumcision is near-universal among Christian Arabs, and they practice it shortly after birth as part of a rite of passage, though the practice of circumcision was dropped in the New Testament, meaning that the mainstream Churches do not oblige their followers to do so. In some Eastern Christian denominations, such as Coptic Christianity, male circumcision is an established practice, and require that their male members undergo circumcision shortly after birth as part of a rite of passage.
Arab Christian communities can be found throughout the Arab world.
Christianity came to Algeria in the Roman era, and declined after the arrival of Islam in the 7th century. A notable Berber Christian of Algeria was Saint Augustine (and his mother Saint Monica), important saints in Christianity. Prior to independence from France in 1962, Algeria was home to 1.4 million pieds-noirs (ethnic French who were mostly Catholic). Arguably, many more Maghrebi Christians live in France than in North Africa, due to the exodus of the pieds-noirs in the 1960s.
In 2009, the percentage of Christians in Algeria was less than 2%. In this same survey, the United Nations counted 100,000 Catholics and 45,000 Protestants in the country. A 2015 study estimates 380,000 Muslims converted to Christianity in Algeria. Conversions have been most common in the Kabylie. Charles de Foucauld was renowned for his missions in Algeria among Muslims, including Arabs.
Native Christians who hold Bahraini citizenship number approximately 1,000 persons. The majority of Christians are originally from Iraq, Palestine and Jordan, with a small minority having lived in Bahrain for many centuries; the majority have been living as Bahraini citizens for less than a century. There are also smaller numbers of native Christians who originally hail from Lebanon, Syria, and India. The majority of Christian Bahraini citizens tend to be Orthodox Christians, with the largest church by membership being the Greek Orthodox Church. They enjoy many equal religious and social freedoms. Bahrain has Christian members in the Bahraini government.
The Copts in Egypt constitute the largest Christian community in the Middle East, as well as the largest religious minority in the region, accounting for an estimated 10% of Egyptian population.
Since antiquity, there has always been a Levantine presence in Egypt, however they started becoming a distinctive minority in Egypt around the early 18th century. The Syro-Lebanese Christians of Egypt were highly influenced by European culture and established churches, printing houses and businesses across Egypt. Their aggregate wealth was reckoned at one and a half billion francs, 10% of the Egyptian GDP at the end of the 20th century. They took advantage of the Egyptian constitution that established the juridical equality of all citizens and granted the Syro-Lebanese Christians the fullness of civil rights, prior to the Nasser reforms.
The Arab Christian community in Iraq is relatively small, and further dwindled due to the Iraq War to just several thousand. Most Arab Christians in Iraq belong traditionally to Greek Orthodox and Catholic Churches and are concentrated in major cities such as Baghdad, Basra and Mosul. The vast majority of the remaining 450,000 to 900,000 Christians in Iraq are Assyrian people.
Significant persecution of Iraqi Christians in Mosul and other areas held by ISIS occurred from 2014 onwards, with Christian houses identified as "N" for "Nasrani" (Christian).
In December 2009, 122,000 Arab Christians lived in Israel, as Arab citizens of Israel, out of a total of 151,700 Christian citizens. According to the Central Bureau of Statistics, on the eve of Christmas 2013, there were approximately 161,000 Christians in Israel, about 2 percent of the general population in Israel. 80% of the Christians are Arab with smaller Christian communities of ethnic Russians, Ukrainians, Greeks, Armenians, and Assyrians/Syriacs. As of 2014 the Melkite Greek Catholic Church was the largest Christian community in Israel, where about 60% of Israeli Christians belonged to the Melkite Greek Catholic Church, while around 30% of Israeli Christians belonged to the Greek Orthodox Church of Jerusalem. The Christian communities in Israel run numerous schools, colleges, hospitals, clinics, orphanages, homes for the elderly, dormitories, family and youth centers, hotels, and guesthouses.
The city of Nazareth has the largest Arab Christian community in Israel, followed by the cities of Haifa, Jerusalem and Shefa-Amr. The Christian Arab communities in Nazareth and Haifa tend to be wealthier and better educated compare to other Arabs elsewhere in Israel. Christians live in a number of other towns in Galilee either singly or mixed with Muslims and Druze, such as Abu Snan, Arraba, Bi'ina, Daliyat al-Karmel, Deir Hanna, Eilabun, Hurfeish, I'billin, Isfiya, Jadeidi-Makr, Jish, Kafr Kanna, Kafr Yasif, Kisra-Sumei, Maghar, Mazra'a, Muqeible, Peki'in, Rameh, Ras al-Ein, Reineh, Sakhnin, Shefa-Amr, Tur'an, Yafa an-Naseriyye and others have a presence of Arab Christian communities too as do other mixed cities, especially Jerusalem and Tel Aviv-Jaffa, Ramleh, Lod, Acre, Nof HaGalil, and Ma'alot Tarshiha. It is reported that all the inhabitants of Fassuta and Mi'ilya are Melkite Christians.
Arab Christians are one of the most educated groups in Israel. Maariv has described the Christian Arabs sectors as "the most successful in education system". Statistically, Christian Arabs in Israel have the highest rates of educational attainment among all religious communities. According to a data by Israel Central Bureau of Statistics in 2010, 63% of Israeli Christian Arabs have had college or postgraduate education, the highest of any religious and ethno-religious group. Christian Arabs also have one of the highest rates of success in the matriculation examinations per capita, (73.9%) in 2016 both in comparison to Muslims, Druze, Jews and all students in the Israeli education system as a group. Arab Christians were also the vanguard in terms of eligibility for higher education. They have attained a bachelor's degree and academic degree more than Jewish, Muslims and Druze per capita. The rate of students studying in the field of medicine was also higher among the Christian Arab students, compared with all the students from other sectors. Despite the fact that Arab Christians only represent 2.1% of the total Israeli population, in 2014 they accounted for 17.0% of the country's university students, and for 14.4% of its college students. Socio-economically, Arab Christians are closer to the Jewish population than to the Muslim population. They have the lowest incidence of poverty and the lowest percentage of unemployment which is 4.9% compared to 6.5% among Jewish men and women. They have also the highest median household income among Arab citizens of Israel and second highest median household income among the Israeli ethno-religious groups. According to study the majority of Christians in Israel (68.2 per cent) are employed in the service sector, i.e. banks, insurance companies, schools, tourism, hospitals etc. Among Arab Christians in Israel, some emphasize pan-Arabism, whilst a small minority enlists in the Israel Defense Forces.
Jordan contains some of the oldest Christian communities in the world, their presence dating back to the first century AD. Today, Christians make up about 4% of the population, down from 20% in 1930. This is due to high immigration rates of Muslims into Jordan, higher emigration rates of Christians to the west and higher birth rates for Muslims. Christians in Jordan are exceptionally well integrated in the Jordanian society and enjoy a high level of freedom. Christians are allotted nine out of a total of 130 seats in the Parliament of Jordan, and also hold important ministerial portfolios, ambassadorial appointments, and positions of high military rank. All Christian religious ceremonies are publicly celebrated in Jordan.
Jordanian Arab Christians (some have Palestinian roots since 1948) number around 221,000, according to a 2014 estimate by the Orthodox Church. The study excluded minority Christian groups and the thousands of western, Iraqi and Syrian Christians residing in Jordan. Another estimate suggests the Orthodox number 125–300,000, Catholics at 114,000 and Protestants at 30,000 for a total 270–450,000. Most native Christians in Jordan identify themselves as Arab, though there are also significant Assyrian and Armenian populations in the country. There has also been an influx of Christian refugees escaping Daesh, mainly from Mosul, Iraq, numbering about 7000 and 20,000 from Syria. King Abdullah II of Jordan has made firm statements about Arab Christians:
"Let me say once again: Arab Christians are an integral part of my region's past, present, and future."
Kuwait's native Christian population exists, though is essentially small. There are between 259 and 400 Christian Kuwaiti citizens. Christian Kuwaitis can be divided into two groups. The first group includes the earliest Kuwaiti Christians, who originated from Iraq and Turkey. They have assimilated into Kuwaiti society, like their Muslim counterparts, and tend to speak Arabic with a Kuwaiti dialect; their food and culture are also predominantly Kuwaiti. They makeup roughly a quarter of Kuwait's Christian population. The rest (roughly three-quarters) of Christian Kuwaitis make up the second group. They are more recent arrivals in the 1950s and 1960s, mostly Kuwaitis of Palestinian ancestry who were forced out of Palestine after 1948. There are also smaller numbers who originally hail from Syria and Lebanon. This second group is not as assimilated as the first group, as their food, culture, and Arabic dialect still retain a Levant feel. However, they are just as patriotic as the former group, and tend to be proud of their adopted homeland, with many serving in the army, police, civil, and foreign service. Most of Kuwait's citizen Christians belong to 12 large families, with the Shammas (from Turkey) and the Shuhaibar (from Palestine) families being some of the more prominent ones.
Lebanon holds the largest number of Christians in the Arab world proportionally and falls just behind Egypt in absolute numbers. About 350,000-450,000 of Christians in Lebanon are Orthodox and Melkites, while the most dominant group are Maronites with about 1 million population, whose Arab identity is contentiously disputed. Lebanese Christians are the only Christians in the Middle East with a sizable political role in the country. In accordance with the National Pact, the President of Lebanon must be a Maronite Christian, the Deputy Speaker of the Parliament and Deputy Prime Minister a Greek Orthodox Christian and Melkites and Protestants have nine reserved seats in the Parliament of Lebanon. The Maronites and the Druze founded modern Lebanon in the early eighteenth century, through the ruling and social system known as the "Maronite-Druze dualism" in Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate.
Christians constituted 60% of the population of Lebanon in 1932. The exact number of Christians in modern Lebanon is uncertain because no official census has been made in Lebanon since 1932. Lebanese Christians belong mostly to the Maronite and Greek Orthodox Churches, with sizable minorities belonging to the Melkite Greek Catholic Church and Armenian Apostolic Church. The community of Armenians in Lebanon is politically and demographically significant.
Christianity had a presence in Tripolitania and Cyrenaica in Roman times. A 2015 estimates some 1,500 Christian believers from a Muslim background residing in the country.
Christianity in Morocco appeared during the Roman times, when it was practiced by Christian Berbers in Roman Mauretania Tingitana, although it disappeared after the Islamic conquests. Morocco was home to half a million Christian Europeans (mostly of Spanish and French ancestry) prior to Moroccan independence. The U.S. State Department estimates the number of Arab and Berber Christians in Morocco as more than 40,000. Pew-Templeton estimates the number of Moroccan Christians at 20,000. The number of the Moroccans who converted to Christianity (most of them secret worshippers) are estimated between 8,000 and 50,000.
Most of the Palestinian Christians claim descent from the first Christian converts, Arameans, Ghassanid Arabs and Greeks who settled in the region. Between 36,000 and 50,000 Christians live in Palestine, most of whom belong to the Orthodox (Including Greek, Syriac and Armenian Orthodox), Catholic (Roman and Melchite) churches and Evangelical communities. The majority of Palestinian Christians live in the Bethlehem and Ramallah areas with a less number in other places. In 2007, just before the Hamas takeover of Gaza, there were 3,200 Christians living in the Gaza Strip. Half the Christian community in Gaza fled to the West Bank and abroad after the Hamas take-over in 2007. However, Palestinian Christians in Gaza face restrictions on their freedom of movement by the Israeli blockade, which has been cited as one of the reasons contributing to their dwindling numbers.
Many Palestinian Christians hold high-ranking positions in Palestinian society, particularly at the political and social levels. They manage the high ranking schools, universities, cultural centers and hospitals, however, Christian communities in the Palestinian Authority and the Gaza Strip have greatly dwindled over the last two decades. The causes of the Palestinian Christian exodus are widely debated and it started since the Ottoman times. Reuters reports that many Palestinian Christians emigrate in pursuit of better living standards. The Vatican saw the Israeli occupation and the general conflict in the Holy Land as the principal reasons for the Christian exodus from the territories. The decline of the Christian community in Palestine follows the trend of Christian emigration from the Muslim-dominated Middle East. Some churches have attempted to ameliorate the rate of emigration of young Christians by building subsidized housing for them and expanding efforts at job training.
Jubail Church is a 4th-century church building near Jubail. Some parts of modern Saudi Arabia, such as Najran, were predominantly Christian until the 7th to 10th century, when most Christians were expelled or converted to Islam or left the region via the Sea route to Asia, with which merchant trade already existed, others migrated north to Jordan and Syria. Some Arab Christians who remained living as crypto-Christians. Some Arabian tribes, such as Banu Taghlib and Banu Tamim, followed Christianity.
Today, Saudi Arabia's Arab Christian population consists mostly of Lebanese and Syrians living in diaspora.
There were approximately 1.1 million Catholics in Sudan, about 3.2 percent of the total population. Sudan forms one ecclesiastical province, consisting of one archdiocese (the Archdiocese of Khartoum) and one suffragan diocese (the diocese of El Obeid). The vast majority of Sudan's Catholics ended up in South Sudan after the partition.
The Arab Christians of Syria are Greek Orthodox and Melkite Greek Catholic, as well as some Latin Church Catholics. Non-Arab Syrian Christians include Assyrians/Syriacs (mainly in the northeast), Greeks and Armenians. Assyrian Iraqi Christian refugees fled to Syria after massacres in Turkey and Iraq during and after WWI and then post-2003. Due to the Syrian civil war, a large number of Christians fled the country to Lebanon, Jordan, and Europe, though the major share of the population still resides in Syria (some being internally displaced). Western Aramaic is spoken by Arab Christians and Muslims alike in remote villages in Syria, including Maaloula, Jubb'adin and Bakhah.
The largest Christian denomination in Syria is the Greek Orthodox church, most of whom are Arab Christians, followed in second place by the Syriac Orthodox, many of whose followers espouse an Assyrian identity. The combined population of Syria and Lebanon in 1910 was estimated at 30% in a population of 3.5 million. According to the 1960 census in Syria which recorded just over 4.5 million inhabitants, Christians formed just under 15% of the population (or 675,000). Since 1960 the population of Syria has increased five-fold, but the Christian population only 3.5 times. Due to political reasons, no newer census has been taken since. Most recent estimates prior to the Syrian civil war suggested that overall Christians were about 10% of the overall population of Syrian 23 million citizens, due to having lower birth rates and higher emigration rates than their Muslim compatriots.
Although religious freedom is allowed in the Syrian Arab Republic, all citizens of Syria including Christians, are subject to the Shari'a-based personal status laws regulating child custody, inheritance, and adoption. For example, in the case of divorce, a woman loses the right to custody of her sons when they reach the age of thirteen and her daughters when they reach the age of fifteen, regardless of religion.
Christianity came in Tunisia during Roman rule. However, after the arrival of Islam, the population of Christians decreased in the country. Prior to Tunisian independence, Tunisia was home to 255,000 Christian Europeans (mostly of Italian and Maltese ancestry). The International Religious Freedom Report of 2007 reported that the Christian community numbered 50,000 people, 20,000 of whom were Catholics. In the Annuario Pontificio of 2018, the number of Catholics is estimated to have risen to 30,700. However, the number of Tunisian Christians is estimated to be around 23,500.
The Roman Catholic Church in Tunisia operates 12 churches, 9 schools and several libraries throughout the country. In addition to holding religious services, the Catholic Church opened a monastery, freely organized cultural activities, and performed charitable work throughout Tunisia. According to church leaders, there are 2,000 practicing Protestant Christians, most of them are Tunisians who converted to Christianity. There is also a small community of Jehovaha's Witnesses numbering around 50, only half of which identify as Arab.
Today, there are more than 120,000–320,000 people of various Christian denominations in Turkey. Antiochian Greeks who mostly live in Hatay Province, are one of the Arabic-speaking communities in Turkey, their number approximately 18,000. They are Greek Orthodox. However, they are sometimes known as Arab Christians, primarily because of their language. Antioch (capital of Hatay Province) is also the historical capital of Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch. Turkey is also home to a number of non-Arab Armenians (who number around 70,000), Greeks (who number around 5,000 not including Antiochian Greeks) and Assyrian Christians in the southeast (who number more than 25,000). The village of Tokaçlı in Altınözü District has an entirely Arab Christian population and is one of the few Christian villages in Turkey.
Christianity was a widespread religion on the territory of contemporary Yemen as early as in 6th century before arrival of Islam in Yemen. Today it is a minority religion in Yemen with only a few thousand followers which has greatly been reduced amid the Yemeni Civil War.
- Christianity and Islam
- Christianity in the Middle East
- Christian influences on the Islamic world
- List of Christian terms in Arabic
- Bible translations (Arabic)
- Arab Orthodox Society
- John of Damascus
- ^ a b Chapman, Colin (2012). "Christians in the Middle East – Past, Present and Future". Transformation: An International Journal of Holistic Mission Studies. 29 (2): 91–110. doi:10.1177/0265378812439955. S2CID 145722860.
- ^ https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-22270455
- ^ a b c "Christians of the Middle East – Country by Country Facts and Figures on Christians of the Middle East". Middleeast.about.com. 9 May 2009. Archived from the original on 18 November 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
- ^ "Minority Rights Group International : Lebanon : Lebanon Overview". www.minorityrights.org. 22 February 2014. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014.
- ^ "Abouna.org : الأب د. حنا كلداني: نسبة الأردنيين المسيحيين المقيمين 3.68% - انفوجرافيك". www.abouna.org. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
- ^ "CBS data on Christian population in Israel (2016)" (in Hebrew). Cbs.gov.il. Archived from the original on 15 November 2018. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
- ^ Chehata, Hanan (22 March 2016). "The plight and flight of Palestinian Christians" (PDF). Middle East Monitor. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 June 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
- ^ see #Chaldeans, #Assyrians below
- ^ Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung. "Christen in der islamischen Welt". Archived from the original on 26 October 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
- ^ "Bahraini Census 2010 - تعداد السكــان العام للبحريــن 2010". www.census2010.gov.bh. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
- ^ Johnstone, Patrick; Miller, Duane A (2015). "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: a global census". IJRR. 11: 17. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
- ^ "التقارير الإحصائية". stat.paci.gov.kw. Archived from the original on 14 August 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
- ^ http://www.religjournal.com/pdf/ijrr11010.pdf[bare URL PDF]
- ^ "Who are Egypt's Christians?". BBC News. 26 February 2000. Archived from the original on 6 November 2018. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
- ^ "'House-Churches' and Silent Masses —The Converted Christians of Morocco Are Praying in Secret". Vice. 23 March 2015. Archived from the original on 7 July 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
- ^ "Morocco: No more hiding for Christians". Evangelical Focus.
- ^ Johnstone, Patrick; Miller, Duane (2015). "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census". IJRR. 11: 14. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- ^ "Tunisia – Open Doors USA – Open Doors USA".
- ^ Miller, Duane A. "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census".
- ^ Haber, M; Platt, DE; Badro, DA; et al. (2011). "Influences of history, geography, and religion on genetic structure: the Maronites in Lebanon". European Journal of Human Genetics. 19 (3): 334–40. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.177. PMC 3062011. PMID 21119711.
- ^ Haber et al. 2013. Quote:1-"We show that religious affiliation had a strong impact on the genomes of the Levantines. In particular, conversion of the region's populations to Islam appears to have introduced major rearrangements in populations' relations through admixture with culturally similar but geographically remote populations, leading to genetic similarities between remarkably distant populations like Jordanians, Moroccans, and Yemenis. Conversely, other populations, like Christians and Druze, became genetically isolated in the new cultural environment. We reconstructed the genetic structure of the Levantines and found that a pre-Islamic expansion Levant was more genetically similar to Europeans than to Middle Easterners."
2-"The predominantly Muslim populations of Syrians, Palestinians and Jordanians cluster on branches with other Muslim populations as distant as Morocco and Yemen."
3-Lebanese Christians and all Druze cluster together, and Lebanese Muslims are extended towards Syrians, Palestinians, and Jordanians, which are close to Saudis and Bedouins."
- ^ Ellis, K.C. (2018). Secular Nationalism and Citizenship in Muslim Countries: Arab Christians in the Levant. Minorities in West Asia and North Africa. Springer International Publishing. p. 34. ISBN 978-3-319-71204-8. Retrieved 18 November 2022.
- ^ a b c d e Pacini, Andrea (1998). Christian Communities in the Arab Middle East: The Challenge of the Future. Clarendon Press. pp. 38, 55. ISBN 978-0-19-829388-0. Archived from the original on 10 March 2021. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
- ^ C. Ellis, Kail (2004). Nostra Aetate, Non-Christian Religions, and Interfaith Relations. Springer Nature. p. 172. ISBN 978-3-030-54008-1.
- ^ Hourani, Albert (1983) [First published 1962]. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1798–1939 (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-27423-4.
- ^ Prioreschi, Plinio (1 January 2001). A History of Medicine: Byzantine and Islamic medicine. Horatius Press. p. 223. ISBN 978-1-888456-04-2. Archived from the original on 6 January 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
- ^ Ira M. Lapidus, Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History, (Cambridge University Press, 2012), 200.
- ^ Curtis, Michael (2017). Jews, Antisemitism, and the Middle East. Routledge. p. 173. ISBN 9781351510721.
- ^ "Demographics". Arab American Institute. Archived from the original on 23 October 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
- ^ "Coptic assembly of America – Reactions in the Egyptian Press To a Lecture Delivered by a Coptic Bishop in Hudson Institute". Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
- ^ "Phoenician or Arab? A never-ending debate in Lebanon". independent.co.uk. Independent. 12 June 2010. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021.
- ^ Cambridge history of Christianity, pp.197
- ^ Khoury, George (22 January 1997). "The Origins of Middle Eastern Arab Christianity". melkite.com. Archived from the original on 22 February 2001.
- ^ النصرانية وآدابها، مرجع سابق، ص.161
- ^ النصرانية وآدابها بين عرب الجاهلية، الأب لويس شيخو، المطبعة الكاثوليكية، بيروت 1922، ص.332
- ^ Parry, Ken (1999). Melling, David (ed.). The Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-631-23203-2.
- ^ النصرانية وآدابها، مرجع سابق، ص.24
- ^ النصرانية وآدابها، مرجع سابق، ص.41
- ^ النصرانية وآدابها، مرجع سابق، ص.26
- ^ Ball, 2001, pp. 100-101.
- ^ Jensen, 1996, pp. 73-75.
- ^ النصرانية وآدابها، مرجع سابق، ص.104
- ^ النصرانية وآدابها، مرجع سابق، ص.105
- ^ Al-Masudi “Murūj al-dhahab”
- ^ النصرانية وآدابها، مرجع سابق، ص.30
- ^ Shahîd, Irfan (1989). Byzantium and the Arabs in the Fifth Century. Dumbarton Oaks. ISBN 978-0-88402-152-0.
- ^ النصرانية وآدابها، مرجع سابق، ص.40
- ^ النصرانية وآدابها، مرجع سابق، ص.49
- ^ The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church. Catholic Encyclopedia Incorporated. 1913. Archived from the original on 5 May 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- ^ النصرانية وآدابها، مرجع سابق، ص.60
- ^ Al-ʻAsalī, Khālid Sālih (July 1968). South Arabia in the 5th and 6th centuries C.E. with reference to relations with Central Arabia (Thesis thesis). University of St Andrews. hdl:10023/15321.
- ^ النصرانية وآدابها، مرجع سابق، ص.64
- ^ النصرانية وآدابها، مرجع سابق، ص.65
- ^ Stated in the book “The Genealogy of the Arabs” by Salama bin Muslim
- ^ Philip K. Hitti, History of the Arabs, 6th ed. (Macmillan and St. Martin's Press, 1967), pp. 78–84 (on the Ghassanids and Lakhmids) and pp. 87–108 (on Yemen and the Hijaz).
- ^ Such as the History of Al-Masoudi and the biography of the Messenger by Ibn Hisham
- ^ النصرانية وآدابها، مرجع سابق، ص.53
- ^ النصرانية وآدابها، مرجع سابق، ص.56
- ^ النصرانية وآدابها، مرجع سابق، ص.59
- ^ النصرانية وآدابها، مرجع سابق، ص.78
- ^ النصرانية وآدابها، مرجع سابق، ص.98
- ^ سيّما ما ورد في سورة المائدة: ﴿وَاتخِذُونِي وَأمِي إلَهَيْنْ﴾ ، النصرانية وآدابها، مرجع سابق، ص.113
- ^ المسيحية العربية وتطوراتها، مرجع سابق، ص.85
- ^ النصرانية وآدابها، مرجع سابق، ص.116
- ^ النصرانية وآدابها، مرجع سابق، ص.117
- ^ النصرانية وآدابها، مرجع سابق، ص.120
- ^ Grmek, Mirko D.; Fantini, Bernardino (1998). Western Medical Thought from Antiquity to the Middle Ages. Harvard University Press. p. 145.:"Hunayn ibn Ishaq was able to satisfy their needs. Of Christian Arab descent, he had spent many years of his life in Byzantine territory, in pursuit of his studies, most probably in Constantinople."
- ^ Noble, Samuel; Treiger, Alexander (15 March 2014). The Orthodox Church in the Arab World, 700–1700: An Anthology of Sources. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-1-5017-5130-1. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- ^ Sabet, Amr (2006), The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 24:4, Oxford; page 99–100
- ^ Khadduri, Majid (2010). War and Peace in the Law of Islam, Johns Hopkins University Press; pages 162–224; ISBN 978-1-58477-695-6
- ^ Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (1991). The Holy Quran. Medina: King Fahd Holy Qur-an Printing Complex.
- ^ John Louis Esposito, Islam the Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 15 January 1998, p. 34.
- ^ Lewis (1984), pp. 10, 20
- ^ a b George, Timothy (2002). Is the Father of Jesus the God of Muhammad?: understanding the differences between Christianity and Islam. Zondervan. ISBN 978-0-310-24748-7. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
- ^ Lewis, Bernard; Holt, P. M.; Holt, Peter R.; Lambton, Ann Katherine Swynford (1977). The Cambridge history of Islam. Cambridge, Eng: University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-521-29135-4.
- ^ Willis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer The Gnostic Bible: Revised and Expanded Edition Shambhala Publications 2009 ISBN 978-0-8348-2414-0 page 531
- ^ Hill, Donald. Islamic Science and Engineering. 1993. Edinburgh Univ. Press. ISBN 0-7486-0455-3, p.4
- ^ Rémi Brague, Assyrians contributions to the Islamic civilization Archived 2013-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Brague, Rémi (2009). The Legend of the Middle Ages: Philosophical Explorations of Medieval Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. University of Chicago Press. p. 164. ISBN 9780226070803.
Neither were there any Muslims among the Ninth-Century translators. Amost all of them were Christians of various Eastern denominations: Jacobites, Melchites, and, above all, Nestorians.
- ^ a b Belt, Don (15 June 2009). "Pope to Arab Christians: Keep the Faith". HuffPost. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
- ^ Radai, Itamar (2008). "The collapse of the Palestinian-Arab middle class in 1948: The case of Qatamon" (PDF). Middle Eastern Studies. 43 (6): 961–982. doi:10.1080/00263200701568352. ISSN 0026-3206. S2CID 143649224. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
- ^ Angold, Michael (2006). The Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 5, Eastern Christianity. Cambridge University Press. p. 389. ISBN 9780521811132.
- ^ McHugo, John (2013). A Concise History of the Arabs. New Press. p. 69. ISBN 9781595589460.
there had been a rich tradition of Arabic Christian literature aimed at defending Christianity against Muslim preaching and polemic
- ^ C. Ellis, Kail (2004). Nostra Aetate, Non-Christian Religions, and Interfaith Relations. Springer Nature. p. 172. ISBN 9783030540081.
- ^ al-Jallad & Martin F. J. Baasten (2017). Arabic in Context: Celebrating 400 Years of Arabic in Leiden University. Studies in Semitic Languages and Linguistics, Volume: 89. p. 396. ISBN 978-90-04-34304-7.
- ^ Nashef, 2002, p. 13.
- ^ Suleiman Mousa: Simplified Biography in English, by Yazan Suheil Mousa
- ^ "Renowned Syrian Novelist Hanna Mina Dies at 94". Asharq AL-awsat. Archived from the original on 13 August 2021. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
- ^ "The Syrian Social Nationalist Party's (SSNP) Expansion in Syria – By Jesse McDonald". 22 April 2018. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- ^ Buzpinar, Ş. Tufan (1996). "Opposition to the Ottoman Caliphate in the Early Years of Abdülhamid II: 1877-1882". Die Welt des Islams. Brill. 36 (1): 59–89. doi:10.1163/1570060962597553. ISSN 0043-2539. JSTOR 3693438. Retrieved 6 December 2022.
The first signs of Arab dissent from the Ottoman caliphate came in the winter of 1877 - 1878 and coincided with the Ottoman Empire's decisive military defeat at the hands of Russia. Frightened by the prospect of a total Ottoman collapse, a group of Syrian notables headed by Ahmad al-Sulh of Beirut held secret meetings towards the end of 1877 to discuss the future of Syria and the possible threat of foreign annexation. The notables agreed that if the Russo-Ottoman war were to lead to the end of the Ottoman presence in Syria, they would work for the full independence of the vilayet and proclaim Amir 'Abdulqädir, a distinguished Algerian exile in Damascus, its ruler... From 1877 to 1878 Amir Abdulgadir was also in communication with Yüsuf Bek Karam, a Maronite notable from Lebanon, concerning a similar but not identical plan for the independence of the Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire. According to Fritz Steppat, who has examined the Karam-'Abdulqädir correspondence, Karam proposed the separation of the Arab provinces from the Ottoman Empire and the appointment of Abdulgädir as their ruler. Steppat is convinced that "Abdulgädir accepted Karam's proposals in principle and that the conversation on the matter with him lasted a long time".
- ^ Steppat, Fritz (1969). "Eine Bewegung unter den Notabeln Syriens 1877-1878: Neues Licht auf die Entstehung des Arabischen Nationalismus". Zeitschrift: Supplementa (in German). Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft; F. Steiner Verlag (1). Retrieved 6 December 2022.
Aus den Dokumenten geht klar hervor, daß Karam sich bemühte, den Emir für eine Aktion zu gewinnen, die den Arabern - Karam spricht gewöhnlich von al-gins al-'arabi, der „arabischen Rasse", oder von al-gaba'il al-arabiya, den „arabischen Stämmen" - wenigstens die „Wahrung ihrer Rechte" im Osmanischen Reich verschaffen sollte, worunter er offenbar eine Art Autonomie verstand. Da aber die Türken sich als ungerecht erwiesen hätten und die islamische Saria vernachlässigten, stellt er als das erstrebenswertere Ziel eine Lösung der arabischen Länder vom Osmanischen Reich hin. Weil die Araber nur durch Einigkeit zu ihren Rechten kommen können, und weil die „islamischen Stämme" unter ihnen zahlenmäßig überwiegen, akzeptiert Karam ausdrücklich eine islamische Regierung
- ^ Khalid (2003). War and Peace in Sudan: A Tale of Two Countries. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7103-0663-0. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- ^ Aflaq, Michel (1977). Choice of Texts from the Baʻth Party Founder's Thought. Unity Freedom Socialism. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- ^ Asian and African Studies. Jerusalem Academic Press. 1973. Archived from the original on 3 May 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- ^ Segev, Tom (2000). One Palestine, complete : Jews and Arabs under the Mandate. Internet Archive. New York : Metropolitan Books. ISBN 978-0-8050-4848-3.
- ^ Antonius, George (1939). The Arab awakening : the story of the Arab national movement. McGill University Library. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.
- ^ "About". 17 May 2006. Archived from the original on 17 May 2006. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
- ^ "Ludington Daily News – Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
- ^ "A Church at War: Clergy & Politics in Wartime Lebanon (1975–82)". Providence. 25 September 2019. Archived from the original on 28 January 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
- ^ "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Lebanon". Refworld. Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 17 March 2021.
- ^ a b Braude, Joseph (2017). Broadcasting Change: Arabic Media as a Catalyst for Liberalism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 192. ISBN 9781538101292.
- ^ Merrill, A. Fisher, John Calhoun, Harold. The world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers. la University of Michigan. p. 52.
- ^ Regan, Bernard (30 October 2018). The Balfour Declaration: Empire, the Mandate and Resistance in Palestine. Verso Books. ISBN 978-1-78663-248-7. Archived from the original on 30 April 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- ^ "Veteran Lebanese journalist Ghassan Tueni dies". BBC News. 8 June 2012. Archived from the original on 11 April 2021. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
- ^ "Mapping Digital Media: Lebanon" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 12 July 2021.
- ^ "Eight reasons why Fairouz is the greatest Arab diva of all time". The National. 21 November 2016. Archived from the original on 6 September 2021. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
- ^ "Arab Christian celebrities attacked for celebrating Easter by extremist trolls!". www.albawaba.com. Archived from the original on 20 April 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
- ^ "Canaanite Lydia". 14 December 2020. Archived from the original on 20 April 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
- ^ Starr, Stephen (2012). Revolt in Syria: Eye-witness to the Uprising. Hurst. ISBN 978-1-84904-197-3. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
- ^ الجهنى, على بن مناور بن ردة (2020). "الخطاب الدينى الواجب اليوم". مجلة البحث العلمي الاسلامي: 47. doi:10.55625/0535-015-033-003. S2CID 247490388.
- ^ "Fadi Andraos biography". Last.fm. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
- ^ eliefares (24 March 2013). "Lebanese Lina Makhoul Wins The Voice Israel". A Separate State of Mind | A Blog by Elie Fares. Archived from the original on 20 April 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
- ^ Gran, Peter (January 2002). "Tahtawi in Paris". Al-Ahram Weekly Online (568). Archived from the original on 24 June 2003.
- ^ Boueiz Kanaan, Claude. Lebanon 1860–1960: A Century of Myth and Politics. la University of Michigan. p. 127.
- ^ Lattouf, 2004, p. 70
- ^ Teague, Michael (2010). "The New Christian Question". Al Jadid Magazine. 16 (62). Archived from the original on 27 February 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
- ^ محطات مارونية من تاريخ لبنان، مرجع سابق، ص.185
- ^ Moubayed, Sami M. (2006). Steel & Silk: Men and Women who Shaped Syria 1900–2000. Cune Press. ISBN 978-1-885942-41-8. Archived from the original on 13 September 2021. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
- ^ The Reformed Presbyterian and Covenanter. 1851. Archived from the original on 8 May 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- ^ Hazran, Yusri (2013). The Druze Community and the Lebanese State: Between Confrontation and Reconciliation. Routledge. p. 32. ISBN 9781317931737.
the Druze had been able to live in harmony with the Christian
- ^ Artzi, Pinḥas (1984). Confrontation and Coexistence. Bar-Ilan University Press. p. 166. ISBN 9789652260499.
.. Europeans who visited the area during this period related that the Druze "love the Christians more than the other believers," and that they "hate the Turks, the Muslims and the Arabs [Bedouin] with an intense hatred.
- ^ Churchill (1862). The Druzes and the Maronites. Montserrat Abbey Library. p. 25.
..the Druzes and Christians lived together in the most perfect harmony and good-will..
- ^ Hobby (1985). Near East/South Asia Report. Foreign Broadcast Information Service. p. 53.
the Druzes and the Christians in the Shuf Mountains in the past lived in complete harmony..
- ^ Lutsky, Vladimir Borisovich (1969). "Modern History of the Arab Countries". Progress Publishers. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
- ^ Maalouf (2003).
- ^ a b Ghazal, Rym (14 April 2015). "Lebanon's dark days of hunger: The Great Famine of 1915–18". The National. Archived from the original on 4 June 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- ^ "Six unexpected WW1 battlegrounds". BBC News. BBC. BBC News Services. 26 November 2014. Archived from the original on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- ^ "Le centenaire de la Grande famine au Liban : pour ne jamais oublier". L'Orient-Le Jour. 18 April 2015. Archived from the original on 27 February 2021. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
- ^ Bardi, Ariel Sophia (2016). "The "Architectural Cleansing" of Palestine". American Anthropologist. 118 (1): 165–171. doi:10.1111/aman.12520. ISSN 1548-1433. Archived from the original on 30 April 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- ^ Khalid (2003). War and Peace in Sudan: A Tale of Two Countries. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7103-0663-0. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- ^ a b "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Lebanon". Refworld. Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
- ^ Samaha, Nour. "The Eagles of the Whirlwind". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 18 May 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
- ^ "Assad's Hurricane: A Profile of the Paramilitary Wing of the Syrian Social Nationalist Party". Refworld. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
- ^ "Syria: The situation of Christians, including whether Christians are perceived to be loyal to President Assad; treatment of Christians by the regime and the opposition forces, including incidents of violence against them; state protection (2013 – July 2015)". Refworld. Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
- ^ Sherlock, Ruth. "How The Free Syrian Army Became A Largely Criminal Enterprise". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
- ^ "British intelligence suggests al-Nusra start cooperating with West – diplomatic source". TASS. Archived from the original on 31 May 2021. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
- ^ "Lebanese Republic". 23 September 2015. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
- ^ Oualalou, Lamia (1 July 2017). "Being Arab in Latin America". Le Monde diplomatique. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 29 March 2021.
- ^ "Arab Americans: Demographics". Arab American Institute. 2006. Archived from the original on 1 June 2006. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- ^ "Syro-Lebanese Migration (1880–Present): "Push" and "Pull" Factors". Middle East Institute. Archived from the original on 28 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- ^ "Emigration and Power A Study of Sects in Lebanon, 1860–2010". Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
- ^ Fahrenthold, Stacy (2014). Making Nations, in the Mahjar: Syrian and Lebanese Long-distance Nationalisms in New York City, São Paulo, and Buenos Aires, 1913–1929. Northeastern University. Archived from the original on 8 May 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- ^ Hanssen, Jens; Weiss, Max (22 December 2016). Arabic Thought beyond the Liberal Age: Towards an Intellectual History of the Nahda. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-13633-5. Archived from the original on 7 May 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- ^ Benson, Kathleen; Kayal, Philip M. (2002). A community of many worlds : Arab Americans in New York City. Internet Archive. New York : Museum of the City of New York ; Syracuse : Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-0739-7.
- ^ Moreh, Shmuel (1 January 1976). Modern Arabic Poetry: 1800–1970 ; the Development of Its Forms and Themes Under the Influence of Western Literature. Brill Archive. ISBN 978-90-04-04795-2. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
- ^ Starkey, Paul (2006). Modern Arabic literature. Edinburgh University Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-7486-1290-1.
- ^ Estevez, Dolia (19 November 2013). "Mexican Billionaire Carlos Slim Is Quietly Transferring Assets To His Children". Forbes. Archived from the original on 28 October 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- ^ Cadwalladr, Carole (24 November 2012). "Nassim Taleb: my rules for life". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 6 March 2021. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
- ^ "Michael E. DeBakey, M.D." Academy of Achievement. Archived from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- ^ Dilger, Daniel Eran (11 May 2017). "iPod-Father Tony Fadell speaks at Computer History Museum's iPhone 360". AppleInsider. Archived from the original on 3 June 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- ^ "ATIYAH, Sir Michael (Francis)". Who's Who. ukwhoswho.com. Vol. 2014 (online edition via Oxford University Press ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) (subscription required)
- ^ Elias James Corey – Autobiography Archived 6 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine. nobelprize.org
- ^ "Sir Peter Medawar". New Scientist. 12 April 1984. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
- ^ Manuel, Diana E. (2002). "Medawar, Peter Brian (1915–1987)". Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia. John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/9780471743989.vse10031. ISBN 978-0-471-74398-9.
- ^ "Florida Supreme Court Historical Society – 2014 – Judge Rosemary Barkett". flcourthistory.org. Archived from the original on 22 July 2018. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
- ^ "Orthodox Christianity in the 21st Century". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 8 November 2017. Archived from the original on 25 January 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
Egypt has the Middle East's largest Orthodox population (an estimated 4 million Egyptians, or 5% of the population), mainly members of the Coptic Orthodox Church.
- ^ "Coptic Christianity in Egypt". rlp.hds.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
The Coptic Church experienced a religious revival beginning in the 1950s, and currently claims some seven million members inside of Egypt.
- ^ "BBC – Religions – Christianity: Coptic Orthodox Church". bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 3 May 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
The Coptic Orthodox Church is the main Christian Church in Egypt, where it has between 6 and 11 million members.
- ^ Matt Rehbein (10 April 2017). "Who are Egypt's Coptic Christians?". CNN. Archived from the original on 19 August 2018. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- ^ Gabra, Gawdat (2009). The A to Z of the Coptic Church. Scarecrow Press. pp. 1, 10, 11. ISBN 978-0-8108-7057-4. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- ^ a b "Who are Egypt's Coptic Christians and why are they persecuted?". abc.net.au. 9 April 2017. Archived from the original on 1 July 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
- ^ a b c d "BBC – Religions – Christianity: Coptic Orthodox Church". www.bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 28 February 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- ^ Gabra, Gawdat; Takla, Hany N. (2017). Christianity and Monasticism in Northern Egypt: Beni Suef, Giza, Cairo, and the Nile Delta. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-977-416-777-5. Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
- ^ a b c d e Roberson, Ronald G. "The Eastern Catholic Churches 2017" (PDF). Eastern Catholic Churches Statistics. Catholic Near East Welfare Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 October 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
- ^ "Aspects of Christian-Muslim Relations in Contemporary Lebanon" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 July 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
- ^ "Living Descendants of Biblical Canaanites Identified Via DNA". History. 27 July 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2022.
- ^ Svetlova, Ksenia (12 October 2012). "Maronite Christians Seek To Revive Aramaic Language". forward.com. The Forward.
- ^ "البطريركية المارونية – بكركي". www.bkerke.org.lb. Archived from the original on 11 April 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- ^ "Maronite liturgy draws from Eastern and Western traditions". Catholics & Cultures. 12 May 2016. Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- ^ "Maronite Church". Catholics & Cultures. 15 March 2010. Archived from the original on 22 March 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- ^ "X. János lett az új, ortodox antiókiai pátriárka". Magyar Kurír (in Hungarian). Archived from the original on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
- ^ a b Stiffler, Matthew W. (2010). AUTHENTIC ARABS, AUTHENTIC CHRISTIANS: ANTIOCHIAN ORTHODOX AND THE MOBILIZATION OF CULTURAL IDENTITY (PDF). The University of Michigan. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
- ^ Demeter, Daniel (16 July 2014). "Damascus – al-Mariyamiyeh Church دمشق – كنيسة المريمية". Syria Photo Guide. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- ^ "Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East". www.antiochpatriarchate.org. Archived from the original on 4 March 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- ^ Abou Ackl, Rand. "The Construction of the Architectural Background in Melkite Annunciation Icons." Chronos 38 (2018): 147-170
- ^ "CNEWA – The Syrian Orthodox Church". cnewa.org. Archived from the original on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
- ^ "Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East – World Council of Churches". oikoumene.org. Archived from the original on 8 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
- ^ "The SYRIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH OF ANTIOCH". www.syriacchristianity.info. Archived from the original on 15 August 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
- ^ "Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Archived from the original on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
- ^ Baarda 2020, pp. Section 5"The Syriac Orthodox and Paul Bihnām's al-Mashriq: Holders of a Middle Position... The Arab nationalism they supported did not discriminate according to religion and was therefore also acceptable to them, even if it recognized the special relationship between the Arabic language and Islam."
- ^ Donabed & Mako 2009, p. 90.
- ^ "Holy Qurobo – St. George Patriarchal Cathedral – Damascus". Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch. 27 August 2017. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- ^ a b "Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch". Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch. Archived from the original on 11 April 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- ^ a b Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad. "Identity Among Middle East Christians". Middle East Forum. Archived from the original on 27 February 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
- ^ "Cathédrale patriarchale Notre-Dame de la Dormition". GCatholic. Archived from the original on 8 October 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
- ^ "Melkite Parish – Melkite UK". www.melkite.uk. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
- ^ "Melkite :: Splash". www.melkitepat.org. Archived from the original on 11 April 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
- ^ a b "Chaldeans". Minority Rights Group. 19 June 2015. Archived from the original on 2 May 2021. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
- ^ Baarda 2020, pp. Section 4"The Chaldean Patriarchate and Sulaymān Ṣāʾigh's al-Najm: Strong Commitment to the State and its Arab Identity... The Arab nationalism they supported did not discriminate according to religion and was therefore also acceptable to them, even if it recognized the special relationship between the Arabic language and Islam."
- ^ "Chaldean Church of Mary Mother of Sorrows". GCatholic. Archived from the original on 25 June 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
- ^ "Chaldean Catholic Church". Catholics & Cultures. 15 March 2010. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
- ^ "البطريركية الكلدانية". البطريركية الكلدانية (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 11 March 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
- ^ "Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and All Africa — World Council of Churches". oikoumene.org. Archived from the original on 6 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
- ^ "President Lauds Orthodox faith on 100 Years | Uganda Media Centre". mediacentre.go.ug. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
- ^ a b Kårtveit, Bård (2018). "Social relations between the Christian communities of Alexandria: Re-examining social boundaries in times of decline". Égypte/Monde arabe. 17 (17): 97–117. doi:10.4000/ema.3810. hdl:10852/72712. S2CID 158605674. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
- ^ a b "-- [ Greek Orthodox ] --". www.patriarchateofalexandria.com. Archived from the original on 5 August 2019. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
- ^ "Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and All Africa". World Council of Churches. Archived from the original on 3 April 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
- ^ The Eastern Catholic Churches 2017Archived 24 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved December 2010. Information sourced from 'Annuario Pontificio' 2017 edition.
- ^ a b Baarda 2020, pp. Section 3"The Assyrians around Joseph de Kelaita: Arabic for Practical Purposes... I will start my discussion with the Syriac Christian group that shows the least enthusiasm in using the Arabic language and assimilating to an Arab identity."
- ^ a b c "Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East". Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East. Archived from the original on 11 April 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- ^ a b "Syriac Catholic Church identity – Chwiliwch Google". www.google.com. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
- ^ Diana Darke, Syria. Bradt Travel Guides, 2006. S. 91. The Christian quarter: Syrian Catholic Cathedral of Mar Paulus.
- ^ "Syriac Catholic Patriarchate Official Website". syr-cath.org. Archived from the original on 10 March 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- ^ a b "Cathédrale Notre-Dame d'Egypte". GCatholic. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- ^ "Palestinian Christians in the Holy Land". imeu.org. Archived from the original on 19 June 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
- ^ a b Vatikiotis, P. J. (1994). "The Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem between Hellenism and Arabism". Middle Eastern Studies. 30 (4): 916–929. doi:10.1080/00263209408701029. ISSN 0026-3206. JSTOR 4283681. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
- ^ "Church of the Holy Sepulchre". madainproject.com. Archived from the original on 2 January 2022. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Holy Sepulchre". www.newadvent.org. Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- ^ "Αρχική". Πατριαρχείοv Ιεροσολύμων – Επίσημη Πύλη Ειδησεογραφίας. Archived from the original on 11 January 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- ^ Baumer, Christoph (28 April 2006). The Church of the East: An Illustrated History of Assyrian Christianity. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-1-84511-115-1. Archived from the original on 17 August 2021. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
- ^ a b c Baarda 2020, pp. 143–170.
- ^ "COPTIC ASSEMBLY OF AMERICA – Reactions in the Egyptian Press To a Lecture Delivered by a Coptic Bishop In Hudson Institute". 14 July 2011. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
- ^ "Phoenician or Arab? A never-ending debate in Lebanon". The Independent. 18 September 2011. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
- ^ Papastathis, Konstantinos (26 February 2020). Arabic vs. Greek: the Linguistic Aspect of the Jerusalem Orthodox Church Controversy in Late Ottoman Times and the British Mandate. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-42322-0. Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- ^ "Issa al Issa's Unorthodox Orthodoxy:Banned in Jerusalem, Permitted in Jaffa" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- ^ "Issa al Issa's Unorthodox Orthodoxy: Banned in Jerusalem, Permitted in Jaffa" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- ^ a b c Katz, Itamar; Kark, Ruth (2005). "The Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem and Its Congregation: Dissent over Real Estate". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 37 (4): 509–534. doi:10.1017/S0020743805052189. ISSN 0020-7438. JSTOR 3879643. S2CID 159569868. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- ^ "Greek Patriarch rift: no end in sight yet". www.churchtimes.co.uk. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
- ^ "Orthodox leader demoted to monk". 16 June 2005. Archived from the original on 16 November 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
- ^ Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991). Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press. pp. 1533–1534. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.
- ^ "(Appadurai 1996, 13)". (Appadurai 1996, 13).
- ^ Meyendorff, John (1989). Imperial Unity and Christian Divisions: The Church, 450–680 AD. St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. ISBN 978-0-88141-056-3. Archived from the original on 14 May 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- ^ Segaert 2008, p. 36.
- ^ Hanoosh, Yasmeen (2016). "Minority Identities Before and After Iraq: The Making of the Modern Assyrian and Chaldean Appellations". The Arab Studies Journal. 24 (2): 8–40. ISSN 1083-4753. JSTOR 44742878. Archived from the original on 24 April 2021. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
- ^ Kulish, Nicholas (13 March 2001). "Ancient Split of Assyrians and Chaldeans Leads to Modern-Day Battle Over Census". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
- ^ a b Donabed, Sargon (1 December 2012). "Rethinking Nationalism and an Appellative Conundrum: Historiography and Politics in Iraq". National Identities. 14 (4): 407–431. doi:10.1080/14608944.2012.733208. ISSN 1460-8944. S2CID 145265726.
- ^ "Assyrians are an ethnically, linguistically and religiously distinct minority in the Middle Eastern region." Archived 13 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine (PDF)
- ^ Jenkins, Philip (2020). The Rowman & Littlefield Handbook of Christianity in the Middle East. Rowman & Littlefield. p. XLVIII. ISBN 9781538124185.
- ^ Jacobsen, Douglas (2011). The World's Christians: Who they are, Where they are, and How they got there. John Wiley & Sons. p. 423. ISBN 9781444397291.
- ^ C. Ellis, Kail (2017). Jews, Antisemitism, and the Middle East. Routledge. p. 173. ISBN 9781351510721.
- ^ Curtis, Michael (2018). Secular Nationalism and Citizenship in Muslim Countries: Arab Christians in the Levant. Springer. p. 11. ISBN 9781351510721.
Christian contributions to art, culture, and literature in the Arab-Islamic world; Christian contributions education and social advancement in the region.
- ^ Shahîd, Irfan (1995). Byzantium and the Arabs in the Sixth Century. Dumbarton Oaks. p. 2002. ISBN 9780884022848.
- ^ Al Khatib, Jamal M. (2016). Arab American Children with Disabilities: Considerations for Teachers and Service Providers. Routledge. p. 14. ISBN 9781315463285.
nonetheless, similar cultural traditions and practices are shared by Christian and Muslim Arabs
- ^ Fenkl, Eric A; D. Purnell, Larry (2012). Textbook for Transcultural Health Care: A Population Approach: Cultural Competence Concepts in Nursing Care. Springer Nature. p. 263. ISBN 9783030513993.
Arab Christians may eat pork, but few of them do.
- ^ Bakos, Gergely Tibor (2011). On Faith, Rationality, and the Other in the Late Middle Ages:: A Study of Nicholas of Cusa's Manuductive Approach to Islam. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 228. ISBN 9781606083420.
- ^ J. Sharkey, Heather (2017). A History of Muslims, Christians, and Jews in the Middle East. Cambridge University Press. p. 63. ISBN 9780521769372.
- ^ Pitts-Taylor, Victoria (2008). Cultural Encyclopedia of the Body [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 394. ISBN 9781567206913.
- ^ Gruenbaum, Ellen (2015). The Female Circumcision Controversy: An Anthropological Perspective. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 61. ISBN 9780812292510.
Christian theology generally interprets male circumcision to be an Old Testament rule that is no longer an obligation ... though in many countries (especially the United States and Sub-Saharan Africa, but not so much in Europe) it is widely practiced among Christians
- ^ N. Stearns, Peter (2008). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World. Oxford University Press. p. 179. ISBN 9780195176322.
Uniformly practiced by Jews, Muslims, and the members of Coptic, Ethiopian, and Eritrean Orthodox Churches, male circumcision remains prevalent in many regions of the world, particularly Africa, South and East Asia, Oceania, and Anglosphere countries.
- ^ Pitts-Taylor, Victoria (2008). Cultural Encyclopedia of the Body [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 394. ISBN 9781567206913.
For most part, Christianity dose not require circumcision of its followers. Yet, some Orthodox and African Christian groups do require circumcision. These circumcisions take place at any point between birth and puberty.
- ^ S. Ellwood, Robert (2008). The Encyclopedia of World Religions. Infobase Publishing. p. 95. ISBN 9781438110387.
It is obligatory among Jews, Muslims, and Coptic Christians. Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant Christians do not require circumcision. Starting in the last half of the 19th century, however, circumcision also became common among Christians in Europe and especially in North America.
- ^ Cook, Bernard A. (2001). Europe since 1945: an encyclopedia. New York: Garland. pp. 398. ISBN 978-0-8153-4057-7.
- ^ "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census | Duane A Miller Botero - Academia.edu". academia.edu. Retrieved 27 March 2016.
- ^ Miller, Duane Alexander; Johnstone, Patrick (2015). "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census" (PDF). Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion. 11: 10. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 November 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- ^ *(in French) Sadek Lekdja, Christianity in Kabylie, Radio France Internationale, 7 mai 2001 Archived 18 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "2010 Census Results". Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
- ^ Cole, Ethan (8 July 2008). "Egypt's Christian-Muslim Gap Growing Bigger". The Christian Post. Archived from the original on 1 February 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2008.
- ^ "Migratory flows (16th–19th century) – Syro-Lebanese migration towards Egypt (18th to early 20th century) – Marwan Abi Fadel". hemed.univ-lemans.fr. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
- ^ Ahmed, Hussam Eldin. "From Nahda to exile: a story of the Shawam in Egypt in the early twentieth century". escholarship.mcgill.ca. Laila Parsons (Internal/Supervisor). Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
- ^ "The World Factbook". Archived from the original on 10 January 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
- ^ "Symbol of ISIS hate becomes rallying cry for Christians". www.cbsnews.com. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
- ^ "Statistical Abstract of Israel 2010". Archived from the original on 19 May 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
- ^ "CBS report: Christian population in Israel growing". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
- ^ Adelman, Jonathan (28 August 2015). "The Christians of Israel: A Remarkable Group". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- ^ a b "The Christian communities in Israel". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 1 May 2014. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
- ^ a b McGahern, Una (2011). Palestinian Christians in Israel: State Attitudes Towards Non-Muslims in a Jewish State. Routledge. p. 51. ISBN 9780415605717.
- ^ "Christmas 2019 - Christians in Israel" (PDF). Central Bureau of Statistics (Israel). 29 December 2019.
- ^ "Christmas 2020 - Christians in Israel" (PDF). Central Bureau of Statistics (Israel). 29 December 2019.
- ^ Bligh, Alexander (2004). The Israeli Palestinians: An Arab Minority in the Jewish State. Routledge. p. 132. ISBN 9781135760779.
- ^ Mansour, Atallah (2004). Narrow Gate Churches: The Christian Presence in the Holy Land Under Muslim and Jewish Rule. Hope Publishing House. p. 280. ISBN 9781932717020.
- ^ Zeedan, Rami (2019). Arab-Palestinian Society in the Israeli Political System: Integration versus Segregation in the Twenty-First Century. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 52. ISBN 9781498553155.
- ^ "Celebrating Christmas in Israel's ancient Greek Catholic villages". Ynetnews. Ynet. 23 December 2018.
- ^ "חדשות – בארץ nrg – ...המגזר הערבי נוצרי הכי מצליח במערכת". Nrg.co.il. 25 December 2011. Archived from the original on 11 December 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- ^ "المسيحيون العرب يتفوقون على يهود إسرائيل في التعليم". Bokra. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
- ^ a b c Druckman, Yaron (20 June 1995). "Christians in Israel: Strong in education – Israel News, Ynetnews". Ynetnews. Ynetnews.com. Archived from the original on 1 October 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- ^ "An inside look at Israel's Christian minority". Arutz Sheva. 24 December 2017. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
- ^ "Christian Arabs top country's matriculation charts". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 21 January 2019. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
- ^ http://www.nrg.co.il/online/1/ART2/663/447.html Archived 18 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine 2% מהישראלים יחגגו מחר עם סנטה קלאוס
- ^ "הלמ"ס: עלייה בשיעור הערבים הנרשמים למוסדות האקדמיים".
- ^ "Israeli Christians Flourishing in Education but Falling in Number". Terrasanta.net. Archived from the original on 7 January 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
- ^ "Christians in Israel Well-Off, Statistics Show: Christians in Israel are prosperous and well-educated – but some fear that Muslim intimidation will cause a mass escape to the West". Arutz Sheva. 24 December 2012. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
- ^ "פרק 4 פערים חברתיים-כלכליים בין ערבים לבין יהודים" (PDF). Abrahamfund.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
- ^ "In Heartwarming Christmas Story, IDF Welcomes More Pro-Israel Christian Arabs". 23 December 2015. Archived from the original on 30 June 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
- ^ TLV1 (21 January 2016). "Israeli-Arab Christians take to the streets of Haifa for an unusual protest". TLV1 Radio. Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
- ^ Vela, Justin (14 February 2015). "Jordan: The safe haven for Christians fleeing ISIL". The National. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
- ^ Fleishman, Jeffrey (10 May 2009). "For Christian enclave in Jordan, tribal lands are sacred". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- ^ Miller, Duane Alexander (30 July 2010). "The Episcopal Church in Jordan: Identity, Liturgy, and Mission". Journal of Anglican Studies. 9 (2): 134–153. doi:10.1017/s1740355309990271. S2CID 144069423.
- ^ "Home – Minority Rights Group". minorityrights.org. 19 June 2015. Archived from the original on 11 December 2020. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
- ^ Kildani, Hanna (8 July 2015). "The percentage of Jordanian Christians residing is 3.68%" الأب د. حنا كلداني: نسبة الأردنيين المسيحيين المقيمين 3.68% (in Arabic). Abouna.org. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- ^ Freij, Muath (12 August 2015). "Iraqi Christians return to school in Jordan after a year in limbo". jordantimes.com. Archived from the original on 14 August 2015.
- ^ http://www.jordantimes.com/news/region/hundreds-syrian-christians-flee-daesh-%E2%80%94-activists[dead link]
- ^ "Request Rejected". kingabdullah.jo. Archived from the original on 30 October 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
- ^ "Nationality By Religion and Nationality" (in Arabic). Government of Kuwait. Archived from the original on 14 August 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
- ^ a b c d Sharaf, Nihal (2012). "'Christians Enjoy Religious Freedom': Church-State ties excellent". Arabia Times. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.
- ^ Kraidy, Marwan (2005). Hybridity, OR the Cultural Logic of Globalization. Temple University. p. 119. ISBN 978-1-59213-144-0.
- ^ Bahout, Joseph. "The Unraveling of Lebanon's Taif Agreement: Limits of Sect-Based Power Sharing". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
- ^ Deeb, Marius (2013). Syria, Iran, and Hezbollah: The Unholy Alliance and Its War on Lebanon. Hoover Press. ISBN 9780817916664.
the Maronites and the Druze, who founded Lebanon in the early eighteenth century.
- ^ "The Lebanese census of 1932 revisited. Who are the Lebanese?". yes. Source: British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, Nov99, Vol. 26 Issue 2, p219, 23p. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
- ^ Johnstone, Patrick; Miller, Duane Alexander (2015). "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census". IJRR. 11 (10): 1–19. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- ^ Asiwaju, A.I. (1985). Partitioned Africans: Ethnic Relations Across Africa's International Boundaries. C. Hurst & Co. p. 273. ISBN 0-905838-91-2.
- ^ De Azevedo, Raimondo Cagiano (1994) Migration and development co-operation.. Council of Europe. p. 25. ISBN 92-871-2611-9.
- ^ F. Nyrop, Richard (1972). Area Handbook for Morocc. University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. p. 97. ISBN 9780810884939.
- ^ "International Religious Freedom Report for 2015". 2009-2017.state.gov. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
- ^ "Religions in Morocco | PEW-GRF". www.globalreligiousfutures.org. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
- ^ "'House-Churches' and Silent Masses —The Converted Christians of Morocco Are Praying in Secret". www.vice.com. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
- ^ "Christian Converts in Morocco Fear Fatwa Calling for Their Execution". News & Reporting. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
- ^ a b Nasr, Joseph (10 May 2009). "Fatbox – Christians in Israel, West Bank and Gaza". Reuters. Archived from the original on 16 May 2009. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
- ^ "Palestinian Christian Activist Stabbed to Death in Gaza". Haaretz. 7 October 2007. Archived from the original on 9 June 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
- ^ Oren, Michael. "Israel and the plight of Mideast Christians". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
- ^ "No season of goodwill for Christians in the blockaded Gaza Strip". The National. 15 December 2019. Archived from the original on 5 June 2021. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
- ^ Derfner, Larry (7 May 2009). "Persecuted Christians?". The Jerusalem Post.
- ^ "Israeli-Palestinian conflict blamed for Christian exodus". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
- ^ Miller, Duane Alexander; Sumpter, Philip (2016). "Between the Hammer and the Anvil: Indigenous Palestinian Christianity in the West Bank". Christianity and Freedom. pp. 372–396. doi:10.1017/CBO9781316408643.014. ISBN 978-1-316-40864-3.
- ^ Casella, Eleanor; Fowler, Chris (8 September 2005). The Archaeology of Plural and Changing Identities: Beyond Identification. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-0-306-48694-4.
- ^ Simon's letter is part of Part III of The Chronicle of Zuqnin, translated by Amir Harrack (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 1999), pp. 78-84.
- ^ "Search Results — Brill". referenceworks.brillonline.com. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
- ^ "Arab, Lebanese in Saudi Arabia". joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
- ^ "Arab, Syrian in Saudi Arabia". joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
- ^ "Religions in Sudan | PEW-GRF". www.globalreligiousfutures.org. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
- ^ "In the Syrian desert, the language of Jesus lives on". Archdiocese of Baltimore. 19 January 2012. Archived from the original on 6 March 2021. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
- ^ a b c "Syria". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 26 December 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
- ^ "Syria". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 26 December 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
- ^ "Middle East :: Syria — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on 9 January 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- ^ "Carthage, Tunisia: In the footsteps of St Augustine". The Tablet. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
- ^ Angus Maddison (20 September 2007). Contours of the World Economy 1–2030 AD:Essays in Macro-Economic History: Essays in Macro-Economic History. OUP Oxford. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-19-922721-1. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- ^ a b c Department Of State. The Office of Electronic Information, Bureau of Public Affairs (14 September 2007). "Tunisia". 2001-2009.state.gov. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
- ^ "Christians in Tunisia: Cause for Concern - Qantara.de". Qantara.de - Dialogue with the Islamic World. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
- ^ "Christian Persecution in Tunisia | Open Doors USA". Open Doors USA. Archived from the original on 19 April 2021. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- ^ M. Shaw Ph.D, Jeffrey (2019). Religion and Contemporary Politics: A Global Encyclopedia [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 200. ISBN 9781440839337.
- ^ "Religious Composition by Country, 2010–2050". Pew Research Center. 2 April 2015. Archived from the original on 15 June 2020. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
- ^ Martin, Tamcke. "Christen in der islamischen Welt | APuZ". bpb.de. Archived from the original on 26 October 2017. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
- ^ Khojoyan, Sara (16 October 2009). "Armenian in Istanbul: Diaspora in Turkey welcomes the setting of relations and waits more steps from both countries". ArmeniaNow.com. Archived from the original on 1 January 2017. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- ^ DHA, Daily Sabah with (10 January 2019). "Assyrians community thrives again in southeastern Turkey". Daily Sabah. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
- ^ The World In one of Turkey's most religiously diverse provinces, close ties with Syria fuel support for Assad regime Archived 23 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 6 April 2012
- ^ "Arabian Christians Massacred". Christianity.com. Retrieved 22 March 2022.
- ^ "Yemen is number 8 on the World Watch List 2020". www.opendoorsuk.org. Retrieved 22 March 2022.
- Baarda, Tijmen C. (2020). "Arabic and the Syriac Christians in Iraq: Three Levels of Loyalty to the Arabist Project (1920–1950)". Arabic and its Alternatives. Brill. pp. 143–170. doi:10.1163/9789004423220_007. ISBN 978-90-04-42322-0. S2CID 216310663. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- Corbon, Jean (1998). "The Churches of the Middle East: Their Origins and Identity, from their Roots in the Past to their Openness to the Present". Christian Communities in the Arab Middle East: The Challenge of the Future. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 92–110. ISBN 978-0-19-829388-0. Archived from the original on 10 March 2021. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
- Farag, Lois (2011). "The Middle East". Christianities in Asia. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 233–254. ISBN 978-1-4443-9260-9. Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- Seth J. Frantzman, The Strength and the Weakness: The Arab Christians in Mandatory Palestine and the 1948 War, unpublished M.A thesis at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
- Griffith, Sidney H. (1997). "From Aramaic to Arabic: The Languages of the Monasteries of Palestine in the Byzantine and Early Islamic Periods". Dumbarton Oaks Papers. 51: 11–31. doi:10.2307/1291760. JSTOR 1291760. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- Griffith, Sidney H. (2002). The Beginnings of Christian Theology in Arabic: Muslim-Christian Encounters in the Early Islamic Period. Aldershot: Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-86078-889-8. Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- Griffith, Sidney H. (2013). The Bible in Arabic: The Scriptures of the People of the Book in the Language of Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-4658-0. Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- Jenkins, Philip (2011). "Disciples of All Nations". The Next Christendom: The Coming of Global Christianity (3rd ed.). New York City: Oxford University Press. pp. 21–50. doi:10.1093/0195146166.003.0002. ISBN 978-0-19-976746-5. LCCN 2010046058. OCLC 678924439. Archived from the original on 21 May 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
- Itamar Katz and Ruth Kark, 'The Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem and its congregation: dissent over real estate' in The International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 37, 2005.
- Meyendorff, John (1989). Imperial unity and Christian divisions: The Church 450–680 A.D. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. ISBN 978-0-88141-056-3. Archived from the original on 14 May 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- Trimingham, John Spencer (1979). Christianity Among the Arabs in pre-Islamic Times. London: Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-78081-1. Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- Waardenburg, Jean Jacques (2003). "The Earliest Relations of Islam with Other Religions: The Christians in Northern Arabia". Muslims and Others: Relations in Context. Religion and Reason. Vol. 41. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 94–109. doi:10.1515/9783110200959. ISBN 978-3-11-017627-8. Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
- Wilken, Robert Louis (2013). "Arabic-Speaking Christians". The First Thousand Years: A Global History of Christianity. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. pp. 307–315. ISBN 978-0-300-11884-1. JSTOR j.ctt32bd7m.37. LCCN 2012021755. S2CID 160590164. Archived from the original on 13 April 2021. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
- Winkler, Dietmar W. (2013). "Christianity in the Middle East: Some historical remarks and preliminary demographic figures". In Winkler, Dietmar W (ed.). Syriac Christianity in the Middle East and India: Contributions and Challenges. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press. pp. 107–125. doi:10.31826/9781463235864-011. ISBN 978-1-4632-3586-4. Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
- Arab Christians
- Christian groups in the Middle East
- Ethnic groups in the Middle East
- Ethnic groups in Syria
- Ethnic groups in Iraq
- Ethnic groups in Israel
- Ethnic groups in Jordan
- Ethnic groups in Lebanon
- Ethnic groups in Turkey
- Ethnic groups in Morocco
- Ethnic groups in the State of Palestine
- Semitic-speaking peoples
- Middle Eastern Christians