This is a good article. Click here for more information.

Arab Christians

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Arab Christians
ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺤﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ
Christians In Syria (141836329).jpeg
Baptism of a baby in Syria
Total population
10–15 million[1] (enlarged)
Regions with significant populations
Mashriq
(including Turkey and Israel)
 Syria520,000[2]–703,000[a]
excluding Maronites
 Lebanon350,000[2]–450,000[3]
excluding 1 million Maronites
 Jordan221,000[4]
 Israel133,130[5]
excluding Copts and Maronites
 Palestine38,000[6]–50,000[7]
excluding disputed territories
 Turkey18,000[8]
including Antiochian Greeks
 Egypt10,000[9]–350,000[2]
excluding 9–15 million Copts
 Iraq10,000[2]
excluding 200,000 Chaldeans[10]
 Bahrain1,000[11]
 Kuwait259–400[12]
Maghreb
(including Arab-Berbers)
 Algeria45,000–380,000[13]
including Kabyle people
 Morocco40,000[14]–150,000[15]
including Imazighen
 Tunisia23,500[16]
including Imazighen
 Libya1,500[17]
excluding 60,000 Copts
Languages
Arabic
Religion
Christianity:
Catholic
Protestant
(various)
Related ethnic groups
[18][19]

[a].^ prior to Syrian civil war

Arab Christians (Arabic: ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺤﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‎, romanizedal-Masīḥīyūn al-ʿArab) are Arabs who follow Christianity. The majority of Arab Christians are from the Eastern Mediterranean region and are Antiochian Greek Christians (Greek not being a reference to ethnicity), although small native Christian communities can be found throughout the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. Arab Christians; mainly forming Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholic communities, are estimated to number between 520,000–703,000 in Syria, 350,000–450,000 in Lebanon, 221,000 in Jordan, 133,130 in Israel, 50,000 in Palestine, 18,000 in Turkey, and 10,000–350,000 in Egypt (a figure that does not include the larger Coptic Christian community). There are also native Arab Christian communities in Iraq, Bahrain and Kuwait.

The first Arab tribes to adopt Christianity included the Nabataeans, Salihids and Ghassanids. During the fifth and sixth centuries, the Ghassanids, who at first adopted monophysitism, formed one of the most powerful confederations allied to Christian Byzantium, being a buffer against the pagan tribes of Arabia. The last king of the Lakhmids, al-Nu'man III ibn al-Mundhir, a client of the Sasanian Empire in the late sixth century, also converted to Christianity. Arab Christians played important roles in al-Nahda movement in modern times, and because Arab Christians formed the educated class, they have significantly influenced and contributed to the fields of literature,[20] politics,[20] business,[20] philosophy,[21] music, theatre and cinema,[22] medicine,[23] and science.[24] Today Arab Christians still play important roles in the Arab world, and Christians are relatively wealthy, well educated, and politically moderate.

Emigrants from Arab Christian communities make up a significant proportion of the Middle Eastern diaspora, with sizable population concentrations across the Americas, most notably in Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, and the US, however those emigrants in the Americas, especially from the first wave of emigration, have often not passed the Arabic language to their descendants.[25]

Arab Christians are not the only Christian group in the Middle East, with significant Arabic-speaking Christian communities of Assyrians, Armenians, and others, who do not identify as Arab. Although sometimes classified as "Arab Christians", the large Middle Eastern Christian groups of Maronites and Copts often assume a non-Arab (pre-Arab) identity.[26]

History[edit]

The history of Arab Christians coincides with the history of Christianity, from the earliest adoption of Christianity by Arab tribes and consequent Arabized communities during the time of the Late Roman Empire to Arab societies today. From classic antiquity to modern times, Arab Christians have played important roles contributing to the culture of Mashriq.

Classical antiquity[edit]

Abgar V of Osroene; one of the first Christian kings in history, belonged to the Nabataean Arab Abgarid dynasty

Arab Christians are the indigenous Christian communities of Western Asia who became majority Arabic-speaking after the consequent seventh-century Muslim conquests in the Fertile Crescent.[27] The Christian Arab presence predates the early Muslim conquests and there were many Arab tribes which adhered to Christianity beginning in the 1st century.[28] The New Testament has a biblical account of Arab conversion to Christianity recorded in the book of Acts. When Saint Peter preaches to the people of Jerusalem, they ask,

And how hear we every man in our own tongue, wherein we were born?
[...] Cretes and Arabians, we do hear them speak in our tongues the wonderful works of God. (Acts 2:8, 11 KJV)

The first mention of Christianity in Arabia occurs in the New Testament as the Apostle Paul references his journey to Arabia following his conversion (Galatians 1: 15–17). Later, Eusebius discusses a bishop named Beryllus in the see of Bostra, the site of a synod c. 240 and two Councils of Arabia.[29]

The Ghassanids (220–638 AD)
The war banner of the Ghassanids, bearing the picture of Saint Sergius

The first Arab tribes to adopt Christianity included the Nabataeans, Tanukhids, Salihids and Ghassanids. The Nabataeans were among the first Arab tribes to arrive in the southern Levant in the late first millennium BC. The Nabataeans initially adopted pagan beliefs, but they became Christians by the time of the Byzantine period around the 4th century.[30] Their lands were divided between the new Qahtanite Arab tribal kingdoms of the Byzantine vassals, the Ghassanids, the Himyarite Kingdom and the Kindah in North Arabia. During the fifth and sixth centuries, the Tanukhids and then Ghassanids, who at first adopted monophysitism, formed one of the most powerful confederations allied to Christian Byzantium, being a buffer against the pagan tribes of Arabia. One of the queens of the Tanukhid federation, Mavia, led a revolt against Rome to have and Arab bishop named Moses (Musa) represent her people in Alexandria. The last king of the Lakhmids, al-Nu'man III ibn al-Mundhir, a client of the Sasanian Empire in the late sixth century, converted to Christianity (in this case, to the Nestorian sect which was favored by the native Arab Christians of al-Hira).[31]

By the fourth century, a significant number of Christians occupied the Sinai Peninsula, Mesopotamia and the Arabian Peninsula. History also records the coming of Christian influence from Ethiopia to Arab lands in pre-Islamic times. Some Hejazis, including a cousin of Muhammad's wife Khadija bint Khuwaylid, may have adopted the religion, whilst some Ethiopian Christians may have lived in Mecca.[32] The southern Arabian city of Najran (in modern-day Saudi Arabia) was made famous by the religious persecution by one of the kings of Yemen, Dhu Nuwas, who himself was an enthusiastic convert to Judaism. The leader of the Arabs of Najran during the period, al-Ḥārith, was canonized by the Catholic Church as Arethas. Aretas was the leader of the Christians of Najran in the early 6th century and was executed during the massacre of Christians by the Jewish king in 523.[33]

Islamic era[edit]

Saint Abo of Tiflis (756–786 AD), martyred for his fath in Georgia

Following the fall of large portions of former Byzantine and Sasanian provinces to the Arab armies, a large indigenous Christian population of varying ethnicities came under Arab Muslim dominance. Historically, a number of minority Christian sects were persecuted as heretic under Byzantine rule (such as non-Chalcedonians). The Islamic conquests set forth two processes affecting these Christian communities: the process of Arabization, causing them gradually to adopt Arabic as a spoken, literary, and liturgical language (often alongside their ancestral tongues, Maronites use Aramaic for example) and the much slower, yet persistent process of Islamization.[34] As Muslim army commanders expanded their empire and attacked countries in Asia, North Africa and southern Europe, they would offer three conditions to their enemies: convert to Islam, or pay jizya (tax) every year, or face war to death. Those who refused war and refused to convert were deemed to have agreed to pay jizya.[35][36]

As "People of the Book", Christians in the region were accorded certain rights under Islamic law to practice their religion (including having Christian law used for rulings, settlements or sentences in court). In contrast to Muslims, who paid the zakat tax, they paid the jizya, an obligatory tax. The jizya was not levied on slaves, women, children, monks, the old, the sick, hermits, or the poor.[37] In return, non-Muslim citizens were permitted to practice their faith, to enjoy a measure of communal autonomy, to be entitled to Muslim state's protection from outside aggression, to be exempted from military service and the zakat.[38][39] Like Arab Muslims, Arab Christians refer to God as Allah, as an Arabic word for "God".[40] The use of the term Allah in Arab churches predates Islam.[40]

The Christian al-Chemor family ruled two sheikhdoms in Lebanon during the Ottoman Empire, Koura from 1211 to 1633 AD, and the Zawyia region of Zgharta from 1641 to 1747 AD. Its lineage traces from King Abu Chemor, a Christian Ghassanid who gave his name to the family. Its sheikhs were the last Ghassanid princes to rule in the 18th century.[41] Bashir Shihab II (1767–1850) was the Christian Emir of Mount Lebanon and belonged to the Maronite branch of the Shihab dynasty which had converted from Sunni Islam.

Modern era[edit]

Scholars and intellectuals agree Christians in the Arab world have made significant contributions to Arab civilization since the introduction of Islam, and they have had a significant impact contributing the culture of the Mashriq.[42][43] Many Arab Christians today are physicians, entertainers, philosophers, government officials and people of literature.[20]

Arab Christians have always been the go-between the Islamic world and the Christian West, mainly down to mutual religious affinity. The Greek Orthodox share Orthodox ties with Russia and Greece; whilst Melkites and Maronites share Catholic bonds with Italy, Vatican and France.[43] In Lebanon, Maronites and Melkites looked to France and the Mediterranean world, whereas most Muslims and Greek Orthodox Christians looked to the Arab hinterland as their political lodestar.[44][45]

Academia[edit]

Jordanian author Suleiman Mousa wearing a keffiyeh

Arab Christians throughout history have been noted for their impact on academia and literature.[20] Notable Lebanese academics in the modern era include poet and language-reformer Said Akl, Lebanese-Iraqi Carmelite linguist Anastas al-Karmali, and Tawfiq Yusuf 'Awwad, whose 1939 novel al-Raghif inspired Arab resistance against the Turks in World War I.[46] Rashmayyā-born historian Mikhail Mishaqa's memoir of the 1860 Damascus Massacre is valuable to historians, as it is the only account written by a survivor of the massacre of Syrian Christians in Damascus, Syria.[47] In Palestine, noted physician and ethnographer Tawfiq Canaan's academic work serves as valuable resources to researchers of Palestinian and Middle-Eastern heritage.[48] Jordanian writer and historian Suleiman Mousa was the only author to write about Lawrence of Arabia and show the Arab perspective. Mousa noted that were many books written to praise Lawrence, and all of them exaggerated his part in the Arab Revolt and failed to do justice to the Arabs themselves.[49] Syrian Hanna Mina was an esteemed novelist, described in Literature from the "Axis of Evil" as the country's most prominent. He was one of the founders of the Syrian Writers' Association and the Arab Writers' Union in Damascus in the 1950s.[50]

Entertainment[edit]

Majida El Roumi is a Lebanese soprano singer

Christians flourish in the Arab music industry. One of the most popular artists in the Arab world, Fairuz, has over 150 million records sold worldwide making her the highest selling Middle-Eastern artist of all time.[51] Lebanese folk veteran Wadih El Safi was the forefather of the country's musical culture, and spent seventy-five years in the singing profession. Other singers include Lydia Canaan who is widely regarded as the first “rock star” of the Middle East, dabke singer Fares Karam, 'Queen of Arab pop' Nancy Ajram, and pop singers Elissa, Cyrine Abdelnour, Najwa Karam and Wael Kfoury.[52][53] Syrian notables include famous singer George Wassouf.[54] Palestinians include Lina Makhul who was the first Arab to win The Voice Israel, Beirut-born singer Fadee Andrawos, and Israeli singer of Palestinian Christian descent, Mira Awad.[55][56]

Politics[edit]

Antoun Saadeh was a philosopher, writer and the founder of the SSNP– the second biggest political party in Syria today[57]

Many prominent Arab nationalists were Christians, like the Syrian intellectual Constantin Zureiq,[58] author Naguib Azoury,[59] Ba'athism proponent Michel Aflaq[60] and Jurji Zaydan,[61] who was reputed to be the first Arab nationalist. Khalil al-Sakakini, a prominent Palestinian Jerusalemite, was Arab Orthodox; as was George Antonius, Lebanese author of The Arab Awakening.[62][63] The first Syrian nationalists were also Christian. Antoun Saadeh was the founder behind the Syrian Social Nationalist Party and Butrus al-Bustani is considered to be the first Syrian nationalist. Sa'adeh rejected Pan-Arabism and argued instead for the creation of a "United Syrian Nation" or "Natural Syria". Influential Palestinian Christians such as Tawfik Toubi, Daud Turki, Emile Touma and Emile Habibi became leaders of the Israeli and Palestinian communist party.[64] George Habash, founder of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine was a Christian; as was Wadie Haddad, the leader of the PFLP's armed wing. Jordanian Nayif Hawatmeh is the founder and General Secretary of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, and Kamal Nasser and Hanan Ashrawi were members of the PLO Executive Committee.[65]

Press[edit]

Lebanese Melkite Saleem Takla and his brother Beshara founded the Al-Ahram newspaper in 1875 in Egypt and it is now the most widely circulated Egyptian daily newspaper.[66] Similarly, the Lebanese Greek Orthodox Tueni family; one of the seven aristocratic Greek Orthodox families of Beirut, founded the An-Nahar newspaper in 1933; the leading Lebanese daily today.[67][68] The An-Nahar newspaper is also reputed to be one of the five most popular newspapers in the Middle East.[69] Palestinian Christian Najib Nassar's newspaper Al-Karmil was the first pro-Palestinian anti-Zionist weekly newspaper. It appeared in Haifa in 1908 and was shut down by the British in the 1940s.[70] The Palestinian Arab Orthodox El-Issa family from Jaffa founded the Falastin newspaper in 1909. The paper was the country's fiercest and most consistent critic of the Zionist movement.

Role in al-Nahda[edit]

The Nahda (meaning "the Awakening" or "the Renaissance") was a cultural renaissance that began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It began in the wake of the exit of Muhammad Ali of Egypt from the Levant in 1840.[71] Beirut, Cairo, Damascus and Aleppo were the main centers of the renaissance and this led to the establishment of schools, universities, theater and printing presses. This awakening led to the emergence of a politically active movement known as the "association" that was accompanied by the birth of the idea of Arab nationalism and the demand for the reformation of the Ottoman Empire. This led to the calling of the establishment of modern states based on the European-style.[72] It was during this stage that the first compound of the Arabic language was introduced along with the printing of it in letters, and later the movement influenced the fields of music, sculpture, history, humanities, economics and human rights.

This cultural renaissance during the late Ottoman rule was a quantum leap for Arabs in the post-industrial revolution, and is not limited to the individual fields of cultural renaissance in the nineteenth century, as the Nahda only extended to include the spectrum of society and the fields as a whole. It is agreed amongst historians the importance the roles played by the Arab Christians in this renaissance, and their role in the prosperity through participation in the diaspora also.[73][20]

As Arab Christians formed the educated class, they have had a significant impact on the politics and culture of the Arab World.[42] Christian colleges (accepting of all faiths) like Saint Joseph University and American University of Beirut (Syrian Protestant College until 1920) thrived in Lebanon, Al-Hikma University in Baghdad amongst others played leading role in the development of civilization and Arab culture.[75] Given this role in politics and culture, Ottoman ministers began to include them in their governments. In the economic sphere, a number of Christian families like the Greek Orthodox Sursock family became prominent. Thus, the Nahda led the Muslims and Christians to a cultural renaissance and national general despotism. This solidified Arab Christians as one of the pillars of the region and not a minority on the fringes.[76]

Religious persecution[edit]

The Massacre of Aleppo of 1850 often referred to simply as The Events was a riot perpetrated by Muslim residents of Aleppo, largely from the eastern quarters of the city, against Christian residents, largely located in the northern suburbs of the predominantly Christian neighbourhood Judayde (Jdeideh) and Salibeh. The Events are considered by historians to be particularly important in Aleppian history, for they represent the first time disturbances pitted Muslims against Christians in the region. The patriarch of the Syriac Catholic Church Peter VII Jarweh was fatally wounded in the attacks and died a year later. 20–70 people died from rioting and 5,000 died as a result of bombardment.[77]

Starving man and children in Mount Lebanon during the Great Famine, 1915–18

1860 Mount Lebanon civil war / 1860 Damascus massacre was a civil conflict in Mount Lebanon during Ottoman rule in 1860–1861 fought mainly between the local Druze and Maronite Christians. Following decisive Druze victories and massacres against the Christians, the conflict spilled over into other parts of Ottoman Syria, particularly Damascus, where thousands of Christian residents were killed by Muslim and Druze militiamen. With the connivance of the military authorities and Turkish soldiers, Druze and Sunni Muslim paramilitary groups organised pogroms in Damascus which lasted three days (9–11 July).[78] By the war's end, around 20,000 people, mainly Catholic Christians, had been killed in Mount Lebanon and Damascus, and many Christian villages and churches were destroyed.

Melkite Greek Catholic and Maronite Christians suffered a religiously-motivated Genocide at the hands of the Ottomans and their allies during the Great Famine of Mount Lebanon (1915–1918) during World War I, which ran in conjunction with the Assyrian genocide, the Armenian genocide and the Greek genocide. The Mount Lebanon famine caused the highest fatality rate by population during World War I.[79] Around 200,000 people starved to death when the population of Mount Lebanon was estimated to be 400,000 people.[80] The Lebanese diaspora in Egypt funded the shipping of food supplies to Mount Lebanon, sent via the Syrian Island town of Arwad.[81] On 26 May 1916, Lebanese-American writer Khalil Gibran wrote a letter[79] to Mary Haskell that read:

"The famine in Mount Lebanon has been planned and instigated by the Turkish government. Already 80,000 have succumbed to starvation and thousands are dying every single day. The same process happened with the Christian Armenians and applied to the Christians in Mount Lebanon."

Regional conflicts[edit]

During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, a number of Palestinian Greek Orthodox and Melkite communities were ethnically cleansed and driven out of their towns, including al-Bassa, Ramla, Lod, Safed, Kafr Bir'im, Iqrit, Tarbikha, Eilabun and Haifa. Many Christian towns or neighborhoods were ethnically cleansed and destroyed during the period between 1948 and 1953. All the Christian residents of Safed, Beisan, Tiberias were removed, and a big percentage displaced in Haifa, Jaffa, Lydda and Ramleh.[82] Arab Christian Constantin Zureiq was the first to coin the term "Nakba" in reference to the 1948 Palestinian exodus.[83]

NLP Tigers' militiaman armed with a gun in Achrafieh, east Beirut, June 1978

In 1975, the Lebanese Civil War occurred between two broad camps, the mainly Christian 'rightist' Lebanese Front consisting of Maronite and Melkites, and the mainly Muslim and Arab nationalist 'leftist' National Movement, supported by the Druze, Greek Orthodox and the Palestinian community. The war was characterized by the kidnap, rape and massacre of those caught in the wrong place as each side eliminated 'enemy' enclaves – mainly Christian or Muslim low-income areas.[84] In 1982 Israel invaded Lebanon with the aim of destroying the PLO, which it besieged in West Beirut. Israel was later obliged to withdraw as a result of multiple guerrilla attacks by the Lebanese National Resistance Front and increasing hostility across all forces in Lebanon to their presence.[84]

With the events of the Arab Spring, the Syrian Arab Christian community was heavily hit in line with other Christian communities of Syria, being victimized by the war and specifically targeted as a minority by Jihadist forces. Many Christians, including Arab Christians, were displaced or fled Syria over the course of the Syrian Civil War, however the majority stayed and continue to fight with the Syrian Armed Forces and the allied Eagles of the Whirlwind (armed wing of the SSNP) against insurgents today.[85][86] When the conflict in Syria began, it was reported that Christians were cautious and avoided taking sides, but that due to the increased violence in Syria and ISIL's growth, Arab Christians have shown support for Assad, fearing that if Assad is overthrown, they will be targeted. Christians support the Assad regime based on fear that the end of the current government could lead to instability. The Carnegie Middle East Center stated that the majority of Christians are more in support of the regime because they fear a chaotic situation or to be under the control of the Islamist Western and Turkish backed armed groups.[87][88][89]

Arab diaspora[edit]

Millions of people descend from Arab Christians and live in the Arab diaspora, outside the Middle East. They mainly reside in the Americas, but there are many people of Arab Christian descent in Europe, Africa and Oceania. Among those, one million Palestinian Christians live in the Palestinian diaspora and 6–7 million Brazilians are estimated to have Lebanese ancestry.[90] Mass Arab immigration started in the 1890s as Lebanese and Syrian people fled the political and economic instability caused by the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. These early immigrants were known as Syro-Lebanese, Lebanese and Palestinian, or Turks.[91] The majority of Arab Americans are Christians.[92]

Historical events that caused large Christian emigration include: 1860 civil conflict in Mount Lebanon and Damascus, 1915–1918 Great Famine of Mount Lebanon, 1948 Palestinian exodus, 1950's Nasser reforms in Egypt, Lebanese civil war, and the Iraq war.[93][94]

Role in al-Mahjar[edit]

A 1920 photograph of four prominent members of The Pen League (from left to right): Nasib Arida, Kahlil Gibran, Abd al-Masih Haddad, and Mikhail Naimy

The Mahjar (one of its more literal meanings being "the Arab diaspora") was a literary movement that succeeded the Nahda movement. It was started by Christian Arabic-speaking writers who had emigrated to America from Lebanon, Syria and Palestine at the turn of the 20th century.[95] The writers of the Mahjar movement were stimulated by their personal encounter with the Western world and participated in the renewal of Arabic literature, hence their proponents referred to as writers of the "late Nahda".[96]

The Pen League was the first Arabic-language literary society in North America, formed initially by Syrians Nasib Arida and Abd al-Masih Haddad. Members of the Pen League included: Kahlil Gibran, Elia Abu Madi, Mikhail Naimy, and Ameen Rihani.[97] Eight out of the ten members were Greek Orthodox and two were Maronite Christians.[98] The league dissolved following Gibran's death in 1931 and Mikhail Naimy's return to Lebanon in 1932.[99] Naimy was made famous internationally for his spiritual writings, most notably The Book of Mirdad.

Notables[edit]

Notable diaspora figures include Swiss businessman of Lebanese Greek Orthodox descent Nicolas Hayek, and Mexican business magnate of Maronite descent, Carlos Slim. From 2010 to 2013, Slim was ranked as the richest person in the world by the Forbes magazine.[100] Figures in entertainment include actors Omar Sharif (Melkite-born), Salma Hayek, Tony Shalhoub, Vince Vaughn, Danny Thomas, Oscar award winner F. Murray Abraham and film director Youssef Chahine. Figures in academics include plant biologist Joanne Chory, scholar Nassim Nicholas Taleb,[101] cardiac and vascular surgeon Michael DeBakey,[102] inventor of the iPod and co-inventor of the iPhone Tony Fadell,[103] mathematician Michael Atiyah,[104] professor Charles Elachi, intellectual Edward Said, and Nobel Prize winner in Chemistry Elias James Corey[105] and Nobel Prize winner in Physiology or Medicine Peter Medawar.[106][107] Other notables include legendary White House reporter Helen Thomas, activist and presidential candidate Ralph Nader, judge Rosemary Barkett,[108] and US governor and academic administrator Mitch Daniels.

Identity[edit]

Denominations[edit]

The "Arab Christian" label largely belongs to followers of the Greek Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, Melkite Greek Catholic Church, Chaldean Catholic Church and Oriental Orthodox Churches, though there are also adherents to other churches, including Latin Catholic Church and Protestant Churches.

List of churches based in the Arab world, including self-identification of adherents
Denomination Communion Members Membership primarily subscribes to Arab identity? Headquarters Liturgical language Area
Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria Oriental Orthodox 10 million[109][110][111][112][113] Mixed[114] Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral, Cairo, Egypt[115] Coptic, Arabic[116] Egypt[116]
Maronite Church Catholic 3.5 million[117] Mixed[118] Bkerké, Lebanon[119] Arabic, Syriac[120] Lebanon (approximately one third), Syria, Israel, Cyprus, Jordan[121]
Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch Eastern Orthodox 2.5 million[122] Yes[123] Mariamite Cathedral, Damascus, Syria[124] Greek, Arabic[125] Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Iraq[citation needed]
Syriac Orthodox Church Oriental Orthodox 1.7 million[126][127] Mixed[128][129][130] Cathedral of Saint George, Damascus, Syria;[131] (historically Mor Hananyo Monastery, Tur Abdin) Syriac[132] Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Turkey[132]
Melkite Greek Catholic Church Catholic 1.6 million[117] Yes[133] Cathedral of Our Lady of the Dormition, Damascus, Syria[134] Arabic, Greek[135] Egypt, Palestine, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Sudan, Syria, Iraq[136]
Chaldean Catholic Church Catholic 0.6 million[117] Yes[137][138] Cathedral of Mary Mother of Sorrows, Baghdad, Iraq[139] Syriac[140] Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria[141]
Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria Eastern Orthodox 0.5 – 2.9 million[142][143] Mixed[144] Cathedral of Evangelismos, Alexandria, Egypt[145] Greek, Arabic[145] Africa[146]
Assyrian Church of the East Church of the East 0.5 million[147] No[148] Ankawa, Erbil, Iraq[149] Syriac[149] Iraq, Iran, Syria[149]
Syriac Catholic Church Catholic 0.2 million[117] Mixed[150] Syriac Catholic Cathedral of Saint Paul, Damascus, Syria[151] Syriac Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Turkey[152]
Coptic Catholic Church Catholic 0.2 million[117] Mixed[114] Cathedral of Our Lady of Egypt, Cairo, Egypt[153] Coptic Egypt[153]
Greek Orthodox Church of Jerusalem Eastern Orthodox 0.2 million[154] Yes[155] Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem[156] Greek, Arabic[157] Palestine, Israel, Jordan[158]
Ancient Church of the East Church of the East 0.1 million[159] No[160] Baghdad, Iraq Syriac Iraq

Self-identification[edit]

The issue of self-identification arises regarding specific Christian communities across the Arab world. A significant proportion of Maronites claim descent from the Phoenicians, whilst a significant proportion of Copts claim that they descend from the Ancient Egyptians.[161][162]

Arab[edit]

The designation "Greek" in the Greek Orthodox Church and Melkite Greek Catholic Church refers to the use of Koine Greek in liturgy, used today alongside Arabic. As a result, the Greek dominated clergy was commonplace serving the Arabic speaking Christians, the majority who couldn't speak Greek. Some viewed Greek rule as cultural imperialism and demanded emancipation from Greek control, as well as the abolishment of the centralized structure of the institution via Arab inclusion in decision-making processes.[163]

Djemal Pasha publicly executed Arab and Syrian nationalists–many Christian–who espoused anti-Ottoman views in Syria and Lebanon (Ottoman Syria)

The struggle for the Arabization of the Orthodox Church against the Greek clerical hegemony in Palestine led Orthodox Christian intellectuals to rebel against the Church's Greek dominated hierarchy. The rebellion was divided between those who sought a common Ottoman cause against European intrusions and those who identified with Arab nationalism against pan-Turkic (Ottoman) nationalism.[164] Its main advocates were well known community leaders and writers in Palestine, such as Ya'qub Farraj, Khalil al-Sakakini, Yusuf al-Bandak (publisher of Sawtal-Sha'b) and cousins Yousef and Issa El-Issa (founders of Falastin). The cousins were among the first to elucidate the Arab struggle against the Greek clerical hegemony of the Church of Jerusalem. Both Sakakini and El-Issa argued that the Palestinian and the Syrian (Antiochian) community constituted an oppressed majority, controlled and manipulated by a minority Greek clergy.[165] There have been numerous disputes between the Arab and the Greek leadership of the church in Jerusalem from the Mandate onwards.[166][167] Jordan encouraged the Greeks to open the Brotherhood to Arab members of the community between 1948 and 1967 when the West Bank was under Jordanian rule.[166] Land and political disputes have been common since 1967, with the Greek priests portrayed as collaborators with Israel. Land disputes include the sale of St. John's property in the Christian quarter, the transfer of fifty dunams near Mar Elias Monastery, and the sale of two hotels and twenty-seven stores on Omar Bin Al-Khattab square near the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.[166] A dispute between the Palestinian Authority and the Greek Patriarch Irenaios led to the Patriarch being dismissed and demoted because of accusations of a real estate deal with Israel, although his dismissal was ruled uncanonical by Patriarch Bartholomew.[168]

Antiochian Greek Christian (Rûm)[edit]

Map of the Diocese of the East 400 AD, homeland of the Rûm Christians; showing modern day Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Israel, Palestine and Jordan

The homeland of the Antiochian Greek Christians, known as the Diocese of the East, was one of the major commercial, agricultural, religious, and intellectual areas of the Roman Empire, and its strategic location facing the Persian Sassanid Empire gave it exceptional military importance.[169] They are either members of the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch or the Melkite Greek Catholic Church, and they have ancient roots in the Levant, more specifically, the territories of western Syria, northern and central Lebanon, western Jordan, and Hatay, which includes the city of Antakya (ancient Antioch). Antiochian Greeks constitute a multi-national group of people and thus construct their identity in relation to specific historical moments. Analyzing cultural identity as a conscious construction is more helpful than a simple labelling of ethnicity, thus the identity is assumed to accentuate the separate origin unique to the Rûm (lit "Roman" or "Asian-Greek") Christians of the Levant.[170] Some members of the community also call themselves Melkite, which means "monarchists" or "supporters of the emperor" (a reference to their past allegiance to Macedonian and Roman imperial rule) although in the modern era, that term tends to be more commonly used by followers of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church.[171]

The Orthodox Christian congregation was included in an ethno-religious community, Rum Millet ("Roman nation"), during the Ottoman Empire. Its name was derived from the former Eastern Roman (Byzantine) subjects of the Ottoman Empire, but all Orthodox Greeks, Bulgarians, Albanians, Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians and Serbs, as well as Georgians and Middle Eastern Christians, were considered part of the same millet in spite of their differences in ethnicity and language. Belonging to this Orthodox commonwealth became more important to the common people than their ethnic origins.[172]

Chaldean[edit]

Key schisms in Middle Eastern Christian denominations

The former Patriarch of the Chaldean Church, Mar Emmanuel Delly, made the following comment in a 2006 interview:

Any Chaldean who calls himself an Assyrian is a traitor and any Assyrian who calls himself Chaldean is a traitor.[173]

The Chaldean Church—which had been part of the Nestorian Church, or Church of the East, until 1552/3—began in earnest to distance itself from the Nestorians who were now seen as the 'uncouth Assyrians'. During this period, many Chaldeans began identifying themselves solely by their religious community, and later as Iraqis, Iraqi Christians, or Arab Christians, rather than with the Assyrian community as a whole. The first split for the two groups came in 431, when they broke away from what was to become the Roman Catholic church over a theological dispute.[174] The reverberation of religious animosity between these communities still continues today, a testament to the machinations of power politics in the nation-building of the Middle East.[175] The Iraqi Chaldeans positioned themselves deliberately as a religious group within the Arab Iraqi nation. The Arab identity of the state was not only acceptable to them, but was even staunchly endorsed. The Arab nationalism they supported did not discriminate according to religion and was therefore also acceptable to them.[160] Today, due to both forced and accepted Arabization, many Chaldeans identify themselves situationally as Arabs.[175]

The Assyrians (including Chaldeans) form the majority of Christians in Iraq, northeast Syria, south-east Turkey and north-west Iran. They are specifically defined as non-Arab indigenous ethnic group, including by the governments of Iraq, Lebanon, Iran, Syria, Israel, and Turkey.[176]

Demographics[edit]

Arab Christian communities can be found throughout the Arab world.

Algeria[edit]

Bahrain[edit]

Native Christians who hold Bahraini citizenship number approximately 1,000 persons.[177] The majority of Christians are originally from Iraq, Palestine and Jordan, with a small minority having lived in Bahrain for many centuries; the majority have been living as Bahraini citizens for less than a century. There are also smaller numbers of native Christians who originally hail from Lebanon, Syria, and India. The majority of Christian Bahraini citizens tend to be Orthodox Christians, with the largest church by membership being the Greek Orthodox Church. They enjoy many equal religious and social freedoms. Bahrain has Christian members in the Bahraini government.

Berbers[edit]

Christian Berber family from Kabylia

There are tiny communities of Roman Catholics in Tunisia, Algeria, Libya, and Morocco due to colonial rule – French rule for Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco, Spanish rule for Morocco and Western Sahara, and Italian rule for Libya. Most Christians in North Africa are foreign missionaries, immigrant workers, and people of French, Spanish, and Italian colonial descent. The North African Christians of Berber or Arab descent mostly converted during the modern era or under and after French colonialism.[178][179]

Arguably, many more Maghrebi Christians of Arab or Berber descent live in France than in North Africa, due to the exodus of the pieds-noirs in the 1960s. Charles de Foucauld was renowned for his missions in North Africa among Muslims, including African Arabs. Today conversions to Christianity have been most common in Algeria,[180] especially in the Kabylie, and Morocco[181] and Tunisia.[182] A 2015 study estimates 380,000 Muslims converted to Christianity in Algeria.[183] While it is estimated that between 8,000[184]-40,000[185] Moroccans converted to Christianity in the last decades; although some estimate the number to be as high as 150,000.[186] In Tunisia, however, the number of Tunisian Christians is estimated to be around 23,500.[187]

Egypt[edit]

Since antiquity, there has always been a Levantine presence in Egypt, however they started becoming a distinctive minority in Egypt around the early 18th century. The Syro-Lebanese Christians of Egypt were highly influenced by European culture and established churches, printing houses and businesses across Egypt. Their aggregate wealth was reckoned at one and a half billion francs, 10% of the Egyptian GDP at the end of the 20th century. They took advantage of the Egyptian constitution that established the juridical equality of all citizens and granted the Syro-Lebanese Christians the fullness of civil rights, prior to the Nasser reforms.[188][189]

The Copts in Egypt constitute the largest Christian community in the Middle East, as well as the largest religious minority in the region, accounting for an estimated 10% of Egyptian population.[190]

Iraq[edit]

Iraqi Christians in Mosul, circa 1900

The Arab Christian community in Iraq is relatively small, and further dwindled due to the Iraq War to just several thousand. Most Arab Christians in Iraq belong traditionally to Greek Orthodox and Catholic Churches and are concentrated in major cities such as Baghdad, Basra and Mosul. The vast majority of the remaining 450,000 to 900,000 Christians in Iraq are Assyrian people.[191]

Significant persecution of Iraqi Christians in Mosul and other areas held by ISIS occurred from 2014 onwards, with Christian houses identified as "N" for "Nasrani" (Christian).[192]

Israel[edit]

In December 2009, 122,000 Arab Christians lived in Israel, as Arab citizens of Israel, out of a total of 151,700 Christian citizens.[193] According to the Central Bureau of Statistics, on the eve of Christmas 2013, there were approximately 161,000 Christians in Israel, about 2 percent of the general population in Israel. 80% of the Christians are Arab[194] with smaller Christian communities of ethnic Russians, Greeks, Armenians, Maronites, Ukrainians and Assyrians.[195]

As of 2014 the Melkite Greek Catholic Church was the largest Christian community in Israel, where about 60% of Israeli Christians belonged to the Melkite Greek Catholic Church,[196] while around 30% of Israeli Christians belonged to the Greek Orthodox Church of Jerusalem.[196]

Arab Christian wedding in Israel

Arab Christians are one of the most educated groups in Israel. Maariv has described the Christian Arabs sectors as "the most successful in education system".[197] Statistically, Christian Arabs in Israel have the highest rates of educational attainment among all religious communities, according to a data by Israel Central Bureau of Statistics in 2010, 63% of Israeli Christian Arabs have had college or postgraduate education, the highest of any religious and ethno-religious group.[198] Christian Arabs also have one of the highest rates of success in the matriculation examinations per capita, (73.9%) in 2016 both in comparison to the Muslims and the Druze and in comparison to all students in the Jewish education system as a group, Arab Christians were also the vanguard in terms of eligibility for higher education.[199][200][201] They have attained a bachelor's degree and academic degree more than Jewish, Muslims and Druze per capita.[199] The rate of students studying in the field of medicine was also higher among the Christian Arab students, compared with all the students from other sectors.[199] Despite the fact that Arab Christians only represent 2.1% of the total Israeli population,[202] in 2014 they accounted for 17.0% of the country's university students, and for 14.4% of its college students.[203]

Socio-economically, Arab Christians are closer to the Jewish population than to the Muslim population.[204] They have the lowest incidence of poverty and the lowest percentage of unemployment which is 4.9% compared to 6.5% among Jewish men and women.[205] They have also the highest median household income among Arab citizens of Israel and second highest median household income among the Israeli ethno-religious groups.[206] Among Arab Christians in Israel, some emphasize pan-Arabism, whilst a small minority enlists in the Israel Defense Forces.[207][208]

Jordan[edit]

A small percentage of Jordanian Christians are ethnically Bedouin. This picture shows Arab Christian tribalists from the city of Madaba

Jordan contains some of the oldest Christian communities in the world, their presence dating back to the first century AD. Today, Christians today make up about 4% of the population, down from 20% in 1930.[209] This is due to high immigration rates of Muslims into Jordan, higher emigration rates of Christians to the west and higher birth rates for Muslims.[210] Christians in Jordan are exceptionally well integrated in the Jordanian society and enjoy a high level of freedom.[211] Christians are allotted nine out of a total of 130 seats in the Parliament of Jordan, and also hold important ministerial portfolios, ambassadorial appointments, and positions of high military rank. All Christian religious ceremonies are publicly celebrated in Jordan.[212]

Jordanian Arab Christians (some have Palestinian roots since 1948) number around 221,000, according to a 2014 estimate by the Orthodox Church. The study excluded minority Christian groups and the thousands of western, Iraqi and Syrian Christians residing in Jordan.[4] Another estimate suggests the Orthodox number 125–300,000, Catholics at 114,000 and Protestants at 30,000 for a total 270–450,000. Most native Christians in Jordan identify themselves as Arab, though there are also significant Assyrian and Armenian populations in the country. There has also been an influx of Christian refugees escaping Daesh, mainly from Mosul, Iraq, numbering about 7000[213] and 20,000 from Syria.[214] King Abdullah II of Jordan has made firm statements about Arab Christians:

Let me say once again: Arab Christians are an integral part of my region's past, present, and future.[215]

Kuwait[edit]

Kuwait's native Christian population exists, though is essentially small. There are between 259 and 400 Christian Kuwaiti citizens.[216] Christian Kuwaitis can be divided into two groups. The first group includes the earliest Kuwaiti Christians, who originated from Iraq and Turkey.[217] They have assimilated into Kuwaiti society, like their Muslim counterparts, and tend to speak Arabic with a Kuwaiti dialect; their food and culture are also predominantly Kuwaiti. They makeup roughly a quarter of Kuwait's Christian population. The rest (roughly three-quarters) of Christian Kuwaitis make up the second group. They are more recent arrivals in the 1950s and 1960s, mostly Kuwaitis of Palestinian ancestry who were forced out of Palestine after 1948.[217] There are also smaller numbers who originally hail from Syria and Lebanon.[217] This second group is not as assimilated as the first group, as their food, culture, and Arabic dialect still retain a Levant feel. However, they are just as patriotic as the former group, and tend to be proud of their adopted homeland, with many serving in the army, police, civil, and foreign service. Most of Kuwait's citizen Christians belong to 12 large families, with the Shammas (from Turkey) and the Shuhaibar (from Palestine) families being some of the more prominent ones.[217]

Lebanon[edit]

Left to right: Christian mountain dweller from Zahlé, Christian mountain dweller of Zgharta, and a Druze (1873)

Lebanon holds the largest number of Christians in the Arab world proportionally and falls just behind Egypt in absolute numbers. About 350,000 of Christians in Lebanon are Orthodox and Melkites, while the most dominant group are Maronites with about 1 million population, whose Arab identity is contentiously disputed.[218]

Christians constituted 60% of the population of Lebanon in 1932.[219] The exact number of Christians in modern Lebanon is uncertain because no official census has been made in Lebanon since 1932. Lebanese Christians belong mostly to the Maronite and Greek Orthodox Churches, with sizable minorities belonging to the Melkite Greek Catholic Church and Armenian Apostolic Church. The community of Armenians in Lebanon is politically and demographically significant.

Lebanese Christians are the only Christians in the Middle East with a sizable political role in the country. In accordance with the National Pact, the President of Lebanon must be a Maronite Christian, the Deputy Speaker of the Parliament a Greek Orthodox Christian and Melkites and Protestants have nine reserved seats in the Parliament of Lebanon.[220]

Libya[edit]

Morocco[edit]

Oman[edit]

Palestine[edit]

Christians from Gaza

Most of the Palestinian Christians claim descent from the first Christian converts, Arameans, Ghassanid Arabs and Greeks who settled in the region. Between 36,000 and 50,000 Christians live in Palestine, most of whom belong to the Orthodox (Including Greek, Syriac and Armenian Orthodox), Catholic (Roman and Melchite) churches and Evangelical communities. The majority of Palestinian Christians live in the Bethlehem and Ramallah areas with a less number in other places.[221] In 2007, just before the Hamas takeover of Gaza, there were 3,200 Christians living in the Gaza Strip.[222] Half the Christian community in Gaza fled to the West Bank and abroad after the Hamas take-over in 2007.[223] However, Palestinian Christians in Gaza face restrictions on their freedom of movement by the Israeli blockade, which has been cited as one of the reasons conbtributing to their dwindling numbers.[224]

Christian sects in Palestine from the 1922 Palestine census

Many Palestinian Christians hold high-ranking positions in Palestinian society, particularly at the political and social levels. They manage the high ranking schools, universities, cultural centers and hospitals, however, Christian communities in the Palestinian Authority and the Gaza Strip have greatly dwindled over the last two decades. The causes of the Palestinian Christian exodus are widely debated and it started since the Ottoman times.[225] Reuters reports that many Palestinian Christians emigrate in pursuit of better living standards,[221] while the BBC also blames the economic decline in the Palestinian Authority as well as pressure from the security situation upon their lifestyle.[226] The Vatican saw the Israeli occupation and the general conflict in the Holy Land as the principal reasons for the Christian exodus from the territories.[227] The decline of the Christian community in Palestine follows the trend of Christian emigration from the Muslim-dominated Middle East. Some churches have attempted to ameliorate the rate of emigration of young Christians by building subsidized housing for them and expanding efforts at job training.[228]

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Syria[edit]

The Arab Christians of Syria are Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholic (Melkites) as well as some Latin Rite Roman Catholics. Non-Arab Syrian Christians include Assyrians (mainly in the northeast), Greeks and Armenians. Assyrian Iraqi Christian refugees fled to Syria after massacres in Turkey and Iraq during and after WWI and then post-2003. Due to the Syrian civil war, a large number of Christians fled the country to Lebanon, Jordan, and Europe, though the major share of the population still resides in Syria (some being internally displaced). Western Aramaic is spoken by Arab Christians and Muslims alike in remote villages in Syria, including Maaloula, Jubb'adin and Bakhah.[229]

Orthodox Easter in As-Suwayda

The largest Christian denomination in Syria is the Greek Orthodox church, most of whom are Arab Christians, followed in second place by the Syriac Orthodox, many of whose followers espouse an Assyrian identity.[230] The combined population of Syria and Lebanon in 1910 was estimated at 30% in a population of 3.5 million. According to the 1960 census in Syria which recorded just over 4.5 million inhabitants, Christians formed just under 15% of the population (or 675,000).[231] Since 1960 the population of Syria has increased five-fold, but the Christian population only 3.5 times. Due to political reasons, no newer census has been taken since. Most recent estimates prior to the Syrian civil war suggested that overall Christians comprised about 10% of the overall population of Syrian 23 million citizens, due to having lower birth rates and higher emigration rates than their Muslim compatriots.[232]

Although religious freedom is allowed in the Syrian Arab Republic, all citizens of Syria including Christians, are subject to the Shari'a-based personal status laws regulating child custody, inheritance, and adoption.[230] For example, in the case of divorce, a woman loses the right to custody of her sons when they reach the age of thirteen and her daughters when they reach the age of fifteen, regardless of religion.[230]

Tunisia[edit]

Turkey[edit]

Antiochian Greeks who mostly live in Hatay Province, are one of the Arabic-speaking communities in Turkey, their number approximately 18,000.[233] They are Greek Orthodox. However, they are sometimes known as Arab Christians, primarily because of their language. Antioch (capital of Hatay Province) is also the historical capital of Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch. Turkey is also home to a number of non-Arab Armenians (who number around 70,000),[234] Greeks (who number around 5,000 not including Antiochian Greeks) and Assyrian Christians in the southeast. The village of Tokaçlı in Altınözü District has an entirely Arab Christian population and is one of the few Christian villages in Turkey.[235]

Yemen[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chapman, Colin (2012). "Christians in the Middle East – Past, Present and Future". Transformation: An International Journal of Holistic Mission Studies. 29 (2): 91–110. doi:10.1177/0265378812439955. S2CID 145722860.
  2. ^ a b c d "Christians of the Middle East – Country by Country Facts and Figures on Christians of the Middle East". Middleeast.about.com. 9 May 2009. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
  3. ^ "Minority Rights Group International : Lebanon : Lebanon Overview". www.minorityrights.org. 22 February 2014. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014.
  4. ^ a b Kildani, Hanna (8 July 2015). "The percentage of Jordanian Christians residing is 3.68%" الأب د. حنا كلداني: نسبة الأردنيين المسيحيين المقيمين 3.68% (in Arabic). Abouna.org. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  5. ^ "CBS data on Christian population in Israel (2016)" (in Hebrew). Cbs.gov.il. Archived from the original on 15 November 2018. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  6. ^ "The Beleaguered Christians of the Palestinian-Controlled Areas, by David Raab". Jcpa.org. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
  7. ^ Chehata, Hanan (22 March 2016). "The plight and flight of Palestinian Christians" (PDF). Middle East Monitor. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 June 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  8. ^ Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung. "Christen in der islamischen Welt". Archived from the original on 26 October 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  9. ^ "Who are Egypt's Christians?". BBC News. 26 February 2000. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
  10. ^ see #Chaldeans below
  11. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20120320104234/http://www.census2010.gov.bh/results_en.php
  12. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20180814154256/http://stat.paci.gov.kw/arabicreports/#DataTabPlace:ColumnChartEduAge
  13. ^ www.religjournal.com/pdf/ijrr11010.pdf
  14. ^ "'House-Churches' and Silent Masses —The Converted Christians of Morocco Are Praying in Secret". Vice. 23 March 2015. Archived from the original on 7 July 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
  15. ^ "Morocco: No more hiding for Christians".
  16. ^ "Tunisia - Open Doors USA - Open Doors USA".
  17. ^ Miller, Duane A. "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  18. ^ Haber, M; Platt, DE; Badro, DA; et al. (2011). "Influences of history, geography, and religion on genetic structure: the Maronites in Lebanon". European Journal of Human Genetics. 19 (3): 334–40. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.177. PMC 3062011. PMID 21119711.
  19. ^ Haber et al. 2013. Quote:1-"We show that religious affiliation had a strong impact on the genomes of the Levantines. In particular, conversion of the region's populations to Islam appears to have introduced major rearrangements in populations' relations through admixture with culturally similar but geographically remote populations, leading to genetic similarities between remarkably distant populations like Jordanians, Moroccans, and Yemenis. Conversely, other populations, like Christians and Druze, became genetically isolated in the new cultural environment. We reconstructed the genetic structure of the Levantines and found that a pre-Islamic expansion Levant was more genetically similar to Europeans than to Middle Easterners."
    2-"The predominantly Muslim populations of Syrians, Palestinians and Jordanians cluster on branches with other Muslim populations as distant as Morocco and Yemen."
    3-Lebanese Christians and all Druze cluster together, and Lebanese Muslims are extended towards Syrians, Palestinians, and Jordanians, which are close to Saudis and Bedouins."
  20. ^ a b c d e f Pacini, Andrea (1998). Christian Communities in the Arab Middle East: The Challenge of the Future. Clarendon Press. pp. 38, 55. ISBN 978-0-19-829388-0. Archived from the original on 10 March 2021. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  21. ^ C. Ellis, Kail (2004). Nostra Aetate, Non-Christian Religions, and Interfaith Relations. Springer Nature. p. 172. ISBN 9783030540081.
  22. ^ Hourani, Albert (1983) [First published 1962]. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1798–1939 (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-27423-4.
  23. ^ Prioreschi, Plinio (1 January 2001). A History of Medicine: Byzantine and Islamic medicine. Horatius Press. p. 223. ISBN 9781888456042. Archived from the original on 6 January 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  24. ^ Ira M. Lapidus, Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History, (Cambridge University Press, 2012), 200.
  25. ^ "Demographics". Arab American Institute. Archived from the original on 23 October 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  26. ^ "Coptic assembly of America – Reactions in the Egyptian Press To a Lecture Delivered by a Coptic Bishop in Hudson Institute". Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  27. ^ Cambridge history of Christanity, pp.197
  28. ^ Khoury, George (22 January 1997). "The Origins of Middle Eastern Arab Christianity". melkite.com. Archived from the original on 22 February 2001.
  29. ^ Parry, Ken (1999). Melling, David (ed.). The Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-631-23203-2.
  30. ^ Rimon, Ofra. "The Nabateans in the Negev". Hecht Museum. Archived from the original on 20 November 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
  31. ^ Philip K. Hitti. History of the Arabs. 6th ed.; Macmillan and St. Martin's Press, 1967, pp. 78–84 (on the Ghassanids and Lakhmids) and pp. 87–108 (on Yemen and the Hijaz).
  32. ^ Philip K. Hitti, History of the Arabs, 6th ed. (Macmillan and St. Martin's Press, 1967), pp. 78–84 (on the Ghassanids and Lakhmids) and pp. 87–108 (on Yemen and the Hijaz).
  33. ^ The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church. Catholic Encyclopedia Incorporated. 1913. Archived from the original on 5 May 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  34. ^ Noble, Samuel; Treiger, Alexander (15 March 2014). The Orthodox Church in the Arab World, 700–1700: An Anthology of Sources. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-1-5017-5130-1. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  35. ^ Sabet, Amr (2006), The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 24:4, Oxford; page 99–100
  36. ^ Khadduri, Majid (2010). War and Peace in the Law of Islam, Johns Hopkins University Press; pages 162–224; ISBN 978-1-58477-695-6
  37. ^ Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (1991). The Holy Quran. Medina: King Fahd Holy Qur-an Printing Complex.
  38. ^ John Louis Esposito, Islam the Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 15 January 1998, p. 34.
  39. ^ Lewis (1984), pp. 10, 20
  40. ^ a b George, Timothy (2002). Is the Father of Jesus the God of Muhammad?: understanding the differences between Christianity and Islam. Zondervan. ISBN 978-0-310-24748-7. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  41. ^ Book Al-Sheikh Al-Chemor Al-Hakum Al-Akoura Al-Hakum Al-Zawyia, Ignatios Tannous Al-Khoury, Beirut, 1948, pg. 2. Book Al-Sheikh Al-Chemor.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  42. ^ a b Radai, Itamar (2008). "The collapse of the Palestinian-Arab middle class in 1948: The case of Qatamon" (PDF). Middle Eastern Studies. 43 (6): 961–982. doi:10.1080/00263200701568352. ISSN 0026-3206. S2CID 143649224. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
  43. ^ a b Belt, Don (15 June 2009). "Pope to Arab Christians: Keep the Faith". HuffPost. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  44. ^ "A Church at War: Clergy & Politics in Wartime Lebanon (1975–82)". Providence. 25 September 2019. Archived from the original on 28 January 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  45. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Lebanon". Refworld. Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 17 March 2021.
  46. ^ Allen, Roger; Allen, Roger M. A.; DeYoung, Terri; Lowry, Joseph Edmund; Germain, Mary S. St; Stewart, Devin J. (2009). Essays in Arabic Literary Biography: 1850–1950. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-06141-4. Archived from the original on 17 September 2021. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
  47. ^ Maalouf (2003).
  48. ^ Nashef, 2002, p. 13.
  49. ^ Suleiman Mousa: Simplified Biography in English, by Yazan Suheil Mousa
  50. ^ "Renowned Syrian Novelist Hanna Mina Dies at 94". Asharq AL-awsat. Archived from the original on 13 August 2021. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  51. ^ "Eight reasons why Fairouz is the greatest Arab diva of all time". The National. 21 November 2016. Archived from the original on 6 September 2021. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
  52. ^ "Arab Christian celebrities attacked for celebrating Easter by extremist trolls!". www.albawaba.com. Archived from the original on 20 April 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  53. ^ "Canaanite Lydia". 14 December 2020. Archived from the original on 20 April 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  54. ^ Starr, Stephen (2012). Revolt in Syria: Eye-witness to the Uprising. Hurst. ISBN 978-1-84904-197-3. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  55. ^ "Fadi Andraos biography". Last.fm. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  56. ^ eliefares (24 March 2013). "Lebanese Lina Makhoul Wins The Voice Israel". A Separate State of Mind | A Blog by Elie Fares. Archived from the original on 20 April 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  57. ^ "The Syrian Social Nationalist Party's (SSNP) Expansion in Syria – By Jesse McDonald". 22 April 2018. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  58. ^ Khalid; Khālid, Manṣūr; Kh\-alid, Man\ s\-ur (2003). War and Peace in Sudan: A Tale of Two Countries. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7103-0663-0. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  59. ^ "Neville J. Mandel. The Arabs and Zionism before World War I. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. 1977. Pp. xxiv, 258. $15.00". The American Historical Review. 1977. doi:10.1086/ahr/82.4.1031. ISSN 1937-5239. Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  60. ^ Aflaq, Michel (1977). Choice of Texts from the Baʻth Party Founder's Thought. Unity Freedom Socialism. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  61. ^ Asian and African Studies. Jerusalem Academic Press. 1973. Archived from the original on 3 May 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  62. ^ Segev, Tom (2000). One Palestine, complete : Jews and Arabs under the Mandate. Internet Archive. New York : Metropolitan Books. ISBN 978-0-8050-4848-3.
  63. ^ Antonius, George (1939). The Arab awakening : the story of the Arab national movement. McGill University Library. Philadelphia : J.B. Lippincott.
  64. ^ "About". 17 May 2006. Archived from the original on 17 May 2006. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  65. ^ "Ludington Daily News – Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  66. ^ Merrill, A. Fisher, John Calhoun, Harold. The world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers. la University of Michigan. p. 52.
  67. ^ "Veteran Lebanese journalist Ghassan Tueni dies". BBC News. 8 June 2012. Archived from the original on 11 April 2021. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
  68. ^ Structure familiale et structure foncière dans un quartier de Beyrouth : le quartier Saint-Nicolas. Kamel, Leyla. Université Paris V-René Descartes, 1998.
  69. ^ "Mapping Digital Media: Lebanon" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 12 July 2021.
  70. ^ Regan, Bernard (30 October 2018). The Balfour Declaration: Empire, the Mandate and Resistance in Palestine. Verso Books. ISBN 978-1-78663-248-7. Archived from the original on 30 April 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  71. ^ Gran, Peter (January 2002). "Tahtawi in Paris". Al-Ahram Weekly Online (568). Archived from the original on 24 June 2003.
  72. ^ Boueiz Kanaan, Claude. Lebanon 1860–1960: A Century of Myth and Politics. la University of Michigan. p. 127.
  73. ^ Teague, Michael (2010). "The New Christian Question". Al Jadid Magazine. 16 (62). Archived from the original on 27 February 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  74. ^ Moubayed, Sami M. (2006). Steel & Silk: Men and Women who Shaped Syria 1900-2000. Cune Press. ISBN 978-1-885942-41-8. Archived from the original on 13 September 2021. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  75. ^ Lattouf, 2004, p. 70
  76. ^ محطات مارونية من تاريخ لبنان، مرجع سابق، ص.185
  77. ^ The Reformed Presbyterian and Covenanter. 1851. Archived from the original on 8 May 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  78. ^ Lutsky, Vladimir Borisovich (1969). "Modern History of the Arab Countries". Progress Publishers. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
  79. ^ a b Ghazal, Rym (14 April 2015). "Lebanon's dark days of hunger: The Great Famine of 1915–18". The National. Archived from the original on 4 June 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  80. ^ BBC staff (26 November 2014). "Six unexpected WW1 battlegrounds". BBC News. BBC. BBC News Services. Archived from the original on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  81. ^ "Le centenaire de la Grande famine au Liban : pour ne jamais oublier". L'Orient-Le Jour. 18 April 2015. Archived from the original on 27 February 2021. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  82. ^ Bardi, Ariel Sophia (2016). "The "Architectural Cleansing" of Palestine". American Anthropologist. 118 (1): 165–171. doi:10.1111/aman.12520. ISSN 1548-1433. Archived from the original on 30 April 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  83. ^ Khalid; Khālid, Manṣūr; Kh\-alid, Man\ s\-ur (2003). War and Peace in Sudan: A Tale of Two Countries. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7103-0663-0. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  84. ^ a b Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Lebanon". Refworld. Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  85. ^ Samaha, Nour. "The Eagles of the Whirlwind". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 18 May 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  86. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | Assad's Hurricane: A Profile of the Paramilitary Wing of the Syrian Social Nationalist Party". Refworld. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  87. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | Syria: The situation of Christians, including whether Christians are perceived to be loyal to President Assad; treatment of Christians by the regime and the opposition forces, including incidents of violence against them; state protection (2013 – July 2015)". Refworld. Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  88. ^ Telegraph, Ruth Sherlock, The. "How The Free Syrian Army Became A Largely Criminal Enterprise". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  89. ^ "British intelligence suggests al-Nusra start cooperating with West – diplomatic source". TASS. Archived from the original on 31 May 2021. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  90. ^ "Lebanese Republic". 23 September 2015. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  91. ^ Oualalou, Lamia (1 July 2017). "Being Arab in Latin America". Le Monde diplomatique. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 29 March 2021.
  92. ^ "Arab Americans: Demographics". Arab American Institute. 2006. Archived from the original on 1 June 2006. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  93. ^ "Syro-Lebanese Migration (1880–Present): "Push" and "Pull" Factors". Middle East Institute. Archived from the original on 28 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  94. ^ "Emigration and Power A Study of Sects in Lebanon, 1860–2010". Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  95. ^ Fahrenthold, Stacy (2014). Making Nations, in the Mahjar: Syrian and Lebanese Long-distance Nationalisms in New York City, São Paulo, and Buenos Aires, 1913–1929. Northeastern University. Archived from the original on 8 May 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  96. ^ Hanssen, Jens; Weiss, Max (22 December 2016). Arabic Thought beyond the Liberal Age: Towards an Intellectual History of the Nahda. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-13633-5. Archived from the original on 7 May 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  97. ^ Benson, Kathleen; Kayal, Philip M.; Museum of the City of New York (2002). A community of many worlds : Arab Americans in New York City. Internet Archive. New York : Museum of the City of New York ; Syracuse : Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-0739-7.
  98. ^ Moreh, Shmuel (1 January 1976). Modern Arabic Poetry: 1800 – 1970 ; the Development of Its Forms and Themes Under the Influence of Western Literature. Brill Archive. ISBN 978-90-04-04795-2. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  99. ^ Starkey, Paul (2006). Modern Arabic literature. Edinburgh University Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-7486-1290-1.
  100. ^ Estevez, Dolia (19 November 2013). "Mexican Billionaire Carlos Slim Is Quietly Transferring Assets To His Children". Forbes. Archived from the original on 28 October 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
  101. ^ Cadwalladr, Carole (24 November 2012). "Nassim Taleb: my rules for life". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 6 March 2021. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
  102. ^ "Michael E. DeBakey, M.D." Academy of Achievement. Archived from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  103. ^ Thursday, Daniel Eran Dilger; May 11; 2017; PT, 12:32 pm. "iPod-Father Tony Fadell speaks at Computer History Museum's iPhone 360". AppleInsider. Archived from the original on 3 June 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  104. ^ "ATIYAH, Sir Michael (Francis)". Who's Who. ukwhoswho.com. 2014 (online edition via Oxford University Press ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc. (subscription or UK public library membership required) (subscription required)
  105. ^ Elias James Corey – Autobiography Archived 6 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine. nobelprize.org
  106. ^ Information, Reed Business (12 April 1984). "Sir Peter Medawar". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
  107. ^ Manuel, Diana E. (2002). "Medawar, Peter Brian (1915–1987)". Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia. John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/9780471743989.vse10031. ISBN 978-0471743989.
  108. ^ "Florida Supreme Court Historical Society – 2014 – Judge Rosemary Barkett". www.flcourthistory.org. Archived from the original on 22 July 2018. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
  109. ^ "Orthodox Christianity in the 21st Century". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 8 November 2017. Archived from the original on 25 January 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021. Egypt has the Middle East's largest Orthodox population (an estimated 4 million Egyptians, or 5% of the population), mainly members of the Coptic Orthodox Church.
  110. ^ Harvard Divinity School, THE RELIGIOUS LITERACY PROJECT. "Coptic Christianity in Egypt". rlp.hds.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2021. The Coptic Church experienced a religious revival beginning in the 1950s, and currently claims some seven million members inside of Egypt.
  111. ^ "BBC – Religions – Christianity: Coptic Orthodox Church". bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 3 May 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021. The Coptic Orthodox Church is the main Christian Church in Egypt, where it has between 6 and 11 million members.
  112. ^ Matt Rehbein. "Who are Egypt's Coptic Christians?". CNN. Archived from the original on 19 August 2018. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  113. ^ Gabra, Gawdat (2009). The A to Z of the Coptic Church. Scarecrow Press. pp. 1, 10, 11. ISBN 978-0-8108-7057-4. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  114. ^ a b "Who are Egypt's Coptic Christians and why are they persecuted?". www.abc.net.au. 9 April 2017. Archived from the original on 1 July 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  115. ^ Gabra, Gawdat; Takla, Hany N. (2017). Christianity and Monasticism in Northern Egypt: Beni Suef, Giza, Cairo, and the Nile Delta. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-977-416-777-5. Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  116. ^ a b "BBC – Religions – Christianity: Coptic Orthodox Church". www.bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 28 February 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  117. ^ a b c d e Roberson, Ronald G. "The Eastern Catholic Churches 2017" (PDF). Eastern Catholic Churches Statistics. Catholic Near East Welfare Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 October 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
  118. ^ "Aspects of Christian-Muslim Relations in Contemporary Lebanon" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 July 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  119. ^ "البطريركية المارونية – بكركي". www.bkerke.org.lb. Archived from the original on 11 April 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  120. ^ "Maronite liturgy draws from Eastern and Western traditions". Catholics & Cultures. 12 May 2016. Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  121. ^ "Maronite Church". Catholics & Cultures. 15 March 2010. Archived from the original on 22 March 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  122. ^ "X. János lett az új, ortodox antiókiai pátriárka". Magyar Kurír (in Hungarian). Archived from the original on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  123. ^ Stiffler, Matthew W. (2010). AUTHENTIC ARABS, AUTHENTIC CHRISTIANS: ANTIOCHIAN ORTHODOX AND THE MOBILIZATION OF CULTURAL IDENTITY (PDF). The University of Michigan. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  124. ^ Demeter, Daniel (16 July 2014). "Damascus – al-Mariyamiyeh Church دمشق – كنيسة المريمية". Syria Photo Guide. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  125. ^ Development, Grind Design and. "Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East". www.antiochpatriarchate.org. Archived from the original on 4 March 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  126. ^ "CNEWA – The Syrian Orthodox Church". cnewa.org. Archived from the original on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  127. ^ "Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East – World Council of Churches". oikoumene.org. Archived from the original on 8 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  128. ^ "The SYRIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH OF ANTIOCH". www.syriacchristianity.info. Archived from the original on 15 August 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  129. ^ "Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Archived from the original on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  130. ^ Baarda 2020, pp. Section 5"The Syriac Orthodox and Paul Bihnām's al-Mashriq: Holders of a Middle Position... The Arab nationalism they supported did not discriminate according to religion and was therefore also acceptable to them, even if it recognized the special relationship between the Arabic language and Islam."
  131. ^ "Holy Qurobo – St. George Patriarchal Cathedral – Damascus". Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch. 27 August 2017. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  132. ^ a b "Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch". Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch. Archived from the original on 11 April 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  133. ^ Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad. "Identity Among Middle East Christians". Middle East Forum. Archived from the original on 27 February 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  134. ^ "Cathédrale patriarchale Notre-Dame de la Dormition". GCatholic. Archived from the original on 8 October 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  135. ^ "Melkite Parish – Melkite UK". www.melkite.uk. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  136. ^ "Melkite :: Splash". www.melkitepat.org. Archived from the original on 11 April 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  137. ^ "Chaldeans". Minority Rights Group. Archived from the original on 2 May 2021. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  138. ^ Baarda 2020, pp. Section 4"The Chaldean Patriarchate and Sulaymān Ṣāʾigh's al-Najm: Strong Commitment to the State and its Arab Identity... The Arab nationalism they supported did not discriminate according to religion and was therefore also acceptable to them, even if it recognized the special relationship between the Arabic language and Islam."
  139. ^ "Chaldean Church of Mary Mother of Sorrows". GCatholic. Archived from the original on 25 June 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  140. ^ "Chaldean Catholic Church". Catholics & Cultures. 15 March 2010. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  141. ^ "البطريركية الكلدانية". البطريركية الكلدانية (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 11 March 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  142. ^ "Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and All Africa — World Council of Churches". oikoumene.org. Archived from the original on 6 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  143. ^ "President Lauds Orthodox faith on 100 Years | Uganda Media Centre". mediacentre.go.ug. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  144. ^ Kårtveit, Bård (2018). "Social relations between the Christian communities of Alexandria: Re-examining social boundaries in times of decline". Égypte/Monde arabe. 17 (17): 97–117. doi:10.4000/ema.3810. hdl:10852/72712. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  145. ^ a b "-- [ Greek Orthodox ] --". www.patriarchateofalexandria.com. Archived from the original on 5 August 2019. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  146. ^ "Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and All Africa". World Council of Churches. Archived from the original on 3 April 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  147. ^ The Eastern Catholic Churches 2017Archived 24 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved December 2010. Information sourced from 'Annuario Pontificio' 2017 edition.
  148. ^ Baarda 2020, pp. Section 3"The Assyrians around Joseph de Kelaita: Arabic for Practical Purposes... I will start my discussion with the Syriac Christian group that shows the least enthusiasm in using the Arabic language and assimilating to an Arab identity."
  149. ^ a b c "Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East". Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East. Archived from the original on 11 April 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  150. ^ "Syriac Catholic Church identity – Chwiliwch Google". www.google.com. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  151. ^ Diana Darke, Syria. Bradt Travel Guides, 2006. S. 91. The Christian quarter: Syrian Catholic Cathedral of Mar Paulus.
  152. ^ "Syriac Catholic Patriarchate Official Website". syr-cath.org. Archived from the original on 10 March 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  153. ^ a b "Cathédrale Notre-Dame d'Egypte". GCatholic. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  154. ^ IMEU. "Palestinian Christians in the Holy Land | IMEU". imeu.org. Archived from the original on 19 June 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  155. ^ Vatikiotis, P. J. (1994). "The Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem between Hellenism and Arabism". Middle Eastern Studies. 30 (4): 916–929. doi:10.1080/00263209408701029. ISSN 0026-3206. JSTOR 4283681. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  156. ^ "404 – Madain Project (en)". madainproject.com. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  157. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Holy Sepulchre". www.newadvent.org. Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  158. ^ "Αρχική". Πατριαρχείοv Ιεροσολύμων – Επίσημη Πύλη Ειδησεογραφίας. Archived from the original on 11 January 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  159. ^ Baumer, Christoph (28 April 2006). The Church of the East: An Illustrated History of Assyrian Christianity. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-1-84511-115-1. Archived from the original on 17 August 2021. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  160. ^ a b Baarda 2020, pp. 143–170.
  161. ^ "COPTIC ASSEMBLY OF AMERICA – Reactions in the Egyptian Press To a Lecture Delivered by a Coptic Bishop In Hudson Institute". 14 July 2011. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  162. ^ "Phoenician or Arab? A never-ending debate in Lebanon". The Independent. 18 September 2011. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  163. ^ Papastathis, Konstantinos (26 February 2020). Arabic vs. Greek: the Linguistic Aspect of the Jerusalem Orthodox Church Controversy in Late Ottoman Times and the British Mandate. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-42322-0. Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  164. ^ "Issa al Issa's Unorthodox Orthodoxy:Banned in Jerusalem, Permitted in Jaffa" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  165. ^ "Issa al Issa's Unorthodox Orthodoxy: Banned in Jerusalem, Permitted in Jaffa" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  166. ^ a b c Katz, Itamar; Kark, Ruth (2005). "The Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem and Its Congregation: Dissent over Real Estate". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 37 (4): 509–534. doi:10.1017/S0020743805052189. ISSN 0020-7438. JSTOR 3879643. S2CID 159569868. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  167. ^ "Greek Patriarch rift: no end in sight yet". www.churchtimes.co.uk. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  168. ^ "Orthodox leader demoted to monk". 16 June 2005. Archived from the original on 16 November 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  169. ^ Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991). Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press. pp. 1533–1534. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.
  170. ^ "(Appadurai 1996, 13)". (Appadurai 1996, 13).
  171. ^ Meyendorff, John (1989). Imperial Unity and Christian Divisions: The Church, 450–680 AD. St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. ISBN 978-0-88141-056-3. Archived from the original on 14 May 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  172. ^ Segaert 2008, p. 36.
  173. ^ Hanoosh, Yasmeen (2016). "Minority Identities Before and After Iraq: The Making of the Modern Assyrian and Chaldean Appellations". The Arab Studies Journal. 24 (2): 8–40. ISSN 1083-4753. JSTOR 44742878. Archived from the original on 24 April 2021. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  174. ^ Street Journal, Nicholas KulishStaff Reporter of The Wall (13 March 2001). "Ancient Split of Assyrians and Chaldeans Leads to Modern-Day Battle Over Census". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  175. ^ a b Donabed, Sargon (1 December 2012). "Rethinking Nationalism and an Appellative Conundrum: Historiography and Politics in Iraq". National Identities. 14 (4): 407–431. doi:10.1080/14608944.2012.733208. ISSN 1460-8944. S2CID 145265726.
  176. ^ "Assyrians are an ethnically, linguistically and religiously distinct minority in the Middle Eastern region." Archived 13 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine (PDF)
  177. ^ "2010 Census Results". Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
  178. ^ Fahlbusch, Erwin; Bromiley, Geoffrey William; Lochman, Jan Milic; Mbiti, John; Pelikan, Jaroslav; Vischer, Lukas; Barrett, David B. (2003). The Encyclopedia of Christianity: J-O. ISBN 9780802824158. Archived from the original on 26 August 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  179. ^ "Rising numbers of Christians in Islamic countries could pose threat to social order". World Review. 2013. Archived from the original on 20 March 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  180. ^ *(in French) Sadek Lekdja, Christianity in Kabylie, Radio France Internationale, 7 mai 2001 Archived 18 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  181. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld – Morocco: General situation of Muslims who converted to Christianity, and specifically those who converted to Catholicism; their treatment by Islamists and the authorities, including state protection (2008–2011)". Refworld. Archived from the original on 1 March 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  182. ^ International Religious Freedom Report 2007: Tunisia Archived 9 March 2021 at the Wayback Machine. United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (14 September 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  183. ^ Miller, Duane Alexander; Johnstone, Patrick (2015). "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census" (PDF). Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion. 11: 10. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 November 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  184. ^ News, Morning Star. "Christian Converts in Morocco Fear Fatwa Calling for Their Execution". News & Reporting. Archived from the original on 3 April 2017. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  185. ^ "'House-Churches' and Silent Masses —The Converted Christians of Morocco Are Praying in Secret". www.vice.com. Archived from the original on 8 September 2020. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  186. ^ "Morocco: No more hiding for Christians". Evangelical Focus. Archived from the original on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  187. ^ "Christian Persecution in Tunisia | Open Doors USA". Open Doors USA. Archived from the original on 19 April 2021. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  188. ^ "Migratory flows (16th–19th century) – Syro-Lebanese migration towards Egypt (18th to early 20th century) – Marwan Abi Fadel". hemed.univ-lemans.fr. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  189. ^ Ahmed, Hussam Eldin. "From Nahda to exile: a story of the Shawam in Egypt in the early twentieth century". escholarship.mcgill.ca. Laila Parsons (Internal/Supervisor). Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  190. ^ Cole, Ethan (8 July 2008). "Egypt's Christian-Muslim Gap Growing Bigger". The Christian Post. Archived from the original on 1 February 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2008.
  191. ^ "The World Factbook". Archived from the original on 10 January 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  192. ^ "Symbol of ISIS hate becomes rallying cry for Christians". www.cbsnews.com. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  193. ^ "Statistical Abstract of Israel 2010". Archived from the original on 19 May 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  194. ^ "CBS report: Christian population in Israel growing". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
  195. ^ Adelman, Jonathan (28 August 2015). "The Christians of Israel: A Remarkable Group". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  196. ^ a b "The Christian communities in Israel". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 1 May 2014. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  197. ^ "חדשות – בארץ nrg – ...המגזר הערבי נוצרי הכי מצליח במערכת". Nrg.co.il. 25 December 2011. Archived from the original on 5 January 2019. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  198. ^ "المسيحيون العرب يتفوقون على يهود إسرائيل في التعليم". Bokra. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  199. ^ a b c Druckman, Yaron (20 June 1995). "Christians in Israel: Strong in education – Israel News, Ynetnews". Ynetnews. Ynetnews.com. Archived from the original on 1 October 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  200. ^ "An inside look at Israel's Christian minority". Arutz Sheva. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  201. ^ "Christian Arabs top country's matriculation charts". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 21 January 2019. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
  202. ^ http://www.nrg.co.il/online/1/ART2/663/447.html Archived 18 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine 2% מהישראלים יחגגו מחר עם סנטה קלאוס
  203. ^ "הלמ"ס: עלייה בשיעור הערבים הנרשמים למוסדות האקדמיים".
  204. ^ "Israeli Christians Flourishing in Education but Falling in Number". Terrasanta.net. Archived from the original on 7 January 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
  205. ^ "Christians in Israel Well-Off, Statistics Show: Christians in Israel are prosperous and well-educated – but some fear that Muslim intimidation will cause a mass escape to the West". Arutz Sheva. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
  206. ^ "פרק 4 פערים חברתיים-כלכליים בין ערבים לבין יהודים" (PDF). Abrahamfund.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
  207. ^ "In Heartwarming Christmas Story, IDF Welcomes More Pro-Israel Christian Arabs". 23 December 2015. Archived from the original on 30 June 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  208. ^ TLV1 (21 January 2016). "Israeli-Arab Christians take to the streets of Haifa for an unusual protest". TLV1 Radio. Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
  209. ^ Vela, Justin (14 February 2015). "Jordan: The safe haven for Christians fleeing ISIL". The National. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
  210. ^ Fleishman, Jeffrey (10 May 2009). "For Christian enclave in Jordan, tribal lands are sacred". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
  211. ^ Miller, Duane Alexander (30 July 2010). "The Episcopal Church in Jordan: Identity, Liturgy, and Mission". Journal of Anglican Studies. 9 (2): 134–153. doi:10.1017/s1740355309990271. S2CID 144069423.
  212. ^ "Home – Minority Rights Group". minorityrights.org. Archived from the original on 11 December 2020. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
  213. ^ Freij, Muath (12 August 2015). "Iraqi Christians return to school in Jordan after a year in limbo". jordantimes.com. Archived from the original on 14 August 2015.
  214. ^ http://www.jordantimes.com/news/region/hundreds-syrian-christians-flee-daesh-%E2%80%94-activists[dead link]
  215. ^ "Request Rejected". kingabdullah.jo. Archived from the original on 30 October 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  216. ^ "Nationality By Religion and Nationality" (in Arabic). Government of Kuwait. Archived from the original on 14 August 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
  217. ^ a b c d Sharaf, Nihal (2012). "'Christians Enjoy Religious Freedom': Church-State ties excellent". Arabia Times. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.
  218. ^ Kraidy, Marwan (2005). Hybridity, OR the Cultural Logic of Globalization. Temple University. p. 119. ISBN 978-1-59213-144-0.
  219. ^ "The Lebanese census of 1932 revisited. Who are the Lebanese?". yes. Source: British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, Nov99, Vol. 26 Issue 2, p219, 23p. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
  220. ^ Bahout, Joseph. "The Unraveling of Lebanon's Taif Agreement: Limits of Sect-Based Power Sharing". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  221. ^ a b Nasr, Joseph (10 May 2009). "FACTBOX – Christians in Israel, West Bank and Gaza". Reuters. Archived from the original on 16 May 2009. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
  222. ^ "Palestinian Christian Activist Stabbed to Death in Gaza". Haaretz. 7 October 2007. Archived from the original on 9 June 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  223. ^ Oren, Michael. "Israel and the plight of Mideast Christians". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
  224. ^ "No season of goodwill for Christians in the blockaded Gaza Strip". The National. 15 December 2019. Archived from the original on 5 June 2021. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  225. ^ Derfner, Larry (7 May 2009). "Persecuted Christians?". The Jerusalem Post.
  226. ^ Guide: Christians in the Middle East Archived 15 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News. 11 October 2011.
  227. ^ "Israeli-Palestinian conflict blamed for Christian exodus". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  228. ^ Miller, Duane Alexander; Sumpter, Philip (2016). "Between the Hammer and the Anvil: Indigenous Palestinian Christianity in the West Bank". Christianity and Freedom. pp. 372–396. doi:10.1017/CBO9781316408643.014. ISBN 978-1-316-40864-3.
  229. ^ "In the Syrian desert, the language of Jesus lives on". Archdiocese of Baltimore. 19 January 2012. Archived from the original on 6 March 2021. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  230. ^ a b c "Syria". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 26 December 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  231. ^ "Syria". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 26 December 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  232. ^ "Middle East :: Syria — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on 9 January 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  233. ^ Martin, Tamcke. "Christen in der islamischen Welt | APuZ". bpb.de. Archived from the original on 26 October 2017. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  234. ^ Khojoyan, Sara (16 October 2009). "Armenian in Istanbul: Diaspora in Turkey welcomes the setting of relations and waits more steps from both countries". ArmeniaNow.com. Archived from the original on 1 January 2017. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  235. ^ The World In one of Turkey's most religiously diverse provinces, close ties with Syria fuel support for Assad regime Archived 23 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 6 April 2012

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]