Arabhi

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Arabhi
ArohanamS R₂ M₁ P D₂ 
Avarohanam N₃ D₂ P M₁ G₃ R₂ S

Arabhi or Aarabhi (pronounced ārabhi) is a ragam (musical scale) in Carnatic music (South Indian classical music). It is a Janya raga (derived scale), whose Melakarta raga (parent scale, also known as janaka) is Shankarabharanam, 29th in the 72 Melakarta raga system.

Arabhi is a raga that dates back to 7 AD. Originally, it was called as pazhanthakkam in Ancient Tamil music[citation needed]. A very auspicious ragam that emanates Veera rasa (valour), Arabhi is one of the five Ghana ragams that shine with special brilliance when Thanam is played on Veena.[1]

Structure and Lakshana[edit]

Ascending scale with Shadjam at C
Descending scale with Shadjam at C

Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure (ascending and descending scale) is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms):

Arabhi raga is an Owdava-sampoorna raga meaning, 5 swaras occur in the arohana (so it is called Owdava) and in avarohana all swaras occur (so sampoorna).

It is a raga without much gamakas and frequency variations, relying instead on flat notes. The important point is the swara "ga" always comes very close to "ma" so when we sing the phrase "ma ga ri" it sounds like "ma ma ri". Likewise the swara "ni" always comes very close to the swara "sa" hence when we sing the phrase "sa ni da" it sounds like "sa sa da".[citation needed]

The closest raga to this one is Devagandhari. There are few aspects which make Arabhi different (though both share the same ascending and desce

  1. In Arabhi the swara "ga" is close to "ma" but in Devagandhari it is not the same.
  2. The swara "ri" is not fluctuated in Arabhi but it is given "asaivu" in Devagandhari
  3. The phrase "pa ma da sa" should not be sung in Arabhi, as it is exclusive for Devagandhari
  4. Devagandhari is sung with gamakas and vilambita kala prayogas (usages with elongated notes)[2]
  5. Devagandhari is sung with deergha gandharam (elongated G3)[2]

Arabhi raga is a very energetic and it lends itself to creativity in brigas (fast-paced swara usages) more than gamakas.

Popular Compositions[edit]

The 3rd of Pancharatna Kritis (five gems of compositions), Sadhinchanae(also known as "Samayaniki Tagu Mataladene") by Saint Thyagaraja is a famous composition set in Arabhi raga. Here we can note that Thyagaraja uses phrases like "sa sa da" in the charanam although there are phrases like "sa ni da" also.

Here are some more compositions set to Arabhi.

Type Composition Composer talam
Varnam Sarasija Mukhiro Pallavi Doraiswamy Iyer Adi
Varnam Annamae aravaa Tiger Varadachariar Adi
Varnam Amba Gauri Irayimman Thampi Adi
Kriti Adidano Ranga (2nd Navaratna Malike) Purandara Dasa Adi
Kriti Lalisidalu Magana Purandara Dasa Adi
Kriti Dangurava Sari Purandara Dasa Adi
Kriti Gubbiyalo Gubbiyalo Vadiraja Tirtha Adi
Kriti Neela Lohita Damaruga Jagannatha Dasa Adi
Kriti Mantralayadolu Rajipa Kamalesha Vittala Dasu Adi
Kriti Dachuko Nee Padalaku Annamacharya Adi
Kriti Saadinchane O Manasa (3rd Pancharatnam) Thyagaraja Adi
Kriti Chaala kallalaadu Thyagaraja Adi
Kriti O Rajeevaksha Thyagaraja Chapu
Kriti Nada sudha rasa Thyagaraja Rupakam
Kriti Patiki Mangala Thyagaraja Adi
Kriti Sundari Ninnu Varnimpa Thyagaraja Misra Chapu
Kriti Pranavakaram Siddhi Vinayakam Ootukadu Venkata Kavi Adi
Kriti Sakala Loka Nayike Twam Eva Sharanam Ootukadu Venkata Kavi Adi
Kriti Ganarajena rakshitoham Muthuswamy Dikshitar Misra Chapu
Kriti Shri Saraswati namostute Muthuswami Dikshitar Rupakam
Kriti Shwetaranyeshwaram Muthuswami Dikshitar Adi
Kriti Adipurishwaram Muthuswami Dikshitar Adi
Kriti Marakoti koti lavanya Muthuswami Dikshitar Jhampa
Kriti Gowrishaya Namaste Muthuswami Dikshitar Triputa
Kriti Palayashumam Paradevate Syama Sastri Triputa
Kriti Paahi Parvata Nandini (Navarathri krithi-9th day) Swathi Thirunal Adi
Kriti Vande Maheshwaram Swathi Thirunal Misra Chapu
Kriti Narasimha Mamava Swathi Thirunal Khanda Chapu
Kriti Shri Ramana Vibho Swathi Thirunal Aadi
Kriti Madhu kaitabha Muthiah Bhagavathar Adi
Kriti Rave Puruhutikamba Maddirala Venkataraya Kavi Misra Chapu
Kriti Maravanu ne ninnu G. N. Balasubramaniam Rupakam
Kriti Durga Lakshmi Saraswati Papanasam Sivan Adi
Kriti Nilakantha Nityananda Nilakanta Sivan Adi
Kriti Sri Sakala Ganadhipa Dr M. Balamuralikrishna Adi
Kriti Mahadeva Sutam Dr. M. Balamuralikrishna Adi
Kriti Maha Balavanta Shri Hanumanta Kalyani Varadarajan Adi

Film Songs[edit]

Language:Tamil[edit]

Song Movie Composer Singer
Indru Namathullame Pongum Thanga Padhumai Viswanathan–Ramamoorthy T. M. Soundararajan, Jikki
Brindavanamum Nandakumaranum (shades of Devagandhari with the explicit Gandharam) Missiamma S. Rajeswara Rao A. M. Rajah, P. Susheela
Yeri Karaiyin Mele Mudhalali K. V. Mahadevan T. M. Soundararajan
Kaviri Paayum(Pallavi,anupallavi only) Maragatham S. M. Subbaiah Naidu
Kanni Paruvam Aval Indira En Selvam C. N. Pandurangan & H.R.Padmanabha Shastri P. B. Sreenivas,Soolamgalam Rajalakshmi
Thendralil Aadidum Madhuraiyai Meetta Sundharapandiyan M. S. Viswanathan K. J. Yesudas, Vani Jairam
Meenakshi Kalyanam(Ragamalika) Meenakshi Thiruvilayadal
Manthaara Malare Naan Avanillai P. Jayachandran, L. R. Eswari
Santhakavigal Metti Ilaiyaraaja Brahmanandam
Aasai Kiliye Thambikku Entha Ooru Malaysia Vasudevan
Madhurai Vaazhum Pudhupatti Ponnuthayi Unni Menon, S. Janaki
Mannavane Mannavane Thanthu Vitten Ennai S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Sandhanam Ennum Aatam Paatam Kondaatam Gangai Amaran Mano, Deepan Chakravarthy
Kaalai Arumbi Kana Kandaen Vidyasagar Srinivas, Kalyani Nair
O Sukumari Anniyan Harris Jayaraj Shankar Mahadevan, Harini
Vidiya Vidiya Samudhiram Sabesh–Murali Udit Narayan, Sadhana Sargam
Rayilin Pathayil Appavi Joshua Sridhar Hariharan, Shreya Ghoshal

Title Song[edit]

Song Tv Serial Composer Singer
Aadugiran Kannan Adugiran Kannan C. Sathya Srinivas

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani: S R M P D 
    • Western: C D F G A C
  2. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani:  N D P M G R S
    • Western: C B A G F E D C

References[edit]

  1. ^ "#19-Arabhi – The Raga with a Pleasing and Haunting Melody". ANURADHA MAHESH. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2021.
  2. ^ a b Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications

External links[edit]