Arabic names of Gregorian months

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Arabic names of calendar months)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Arabic names of the months of the Gregorian calendar are usually phonetic Arabic pronunciations of the corresponding month names used in European languages. An exception is the Syriac calendar used in Mesopotamia and the Levant, which is inherited from Classical Arabic and correspond to roughly the same time of year.[1]

Though the lunar Hijri calendar and solar Hijri calendar are prominent in the Mideast, the Gregorian calendar is and has been used in nearly all the countries of the Arab world, in many places long before European occupation of some of them.[citation needed] All Arab states use the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes. The names of the Gregorian months as used in Egypt, Sudan, and Yemen are widely regarded as standard across the Arab world,[citation needed] although their Classical Arabic names are often used alongside them.[citation needed] In other Arab countries, some modification or actual changes in naming or pronunciation of months are observed.

Levant and Mesopotamia[edit]

These names are used primarily in Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine. They are inherited from Classical Arabic and ultimately derived from the Syriac names of the Assyrian calendar. These names are cognate with some of the names of the Babylonian and Hebrew calendars. Nine of these names were used in the Ottoman Turkish calendar, of which five remain in use in the modern Turkish calendar.

No. Month Arabic name Transliteration Syriac name
1 January كَانُون ٱلثَّانِي Kānūn ath-Thānī ܟܢܘܢ ܒ
2 February شُبَاط Shubāṭ ܫܒܛ
3 March آذَار ʾĀḏār ܐܕܪ
4 April نَيْسَان Naysān ܢܝܣܢ
5 May أَيَّار ʾAyyār ܐܝܪ
6 June حَزِيرَان Ḥazīrān ܚܙܝܪܢ
7 July تَمُّوز Tammūz ܬܡܘܙ
8 August آب ʾĀb ܐܒ
9 September أَيْلُول ʾAylūl ܐܝܠܘܠ
10 October تِشْرِين ٱلْأَوَّل Tishrīn al-ʾAwwal ܬܫܪܝܢ ܐ
11 November تِشْرِين ٱلثَّانِي Tishrīn ath-Thānī ܬܫܪܝܢ ܒ
12 December كَانُون ٱلْأَوَّل Kānūn al-ʾAwwal ܟܢܘܢ ܐ

Egypt, Sudan, Arabic Gulf countries[edit]

The names of the Gregorian months in Egypt, Sudan and the Arabic Gulf states are based on the old Latin names.

No. Month Arabic name Transliteration Latin name Egyptian pronunciation
1 January يناير Yanāyir Ianuarius [jæ'næːjeɾ]
2 February فبراير Fibrāyir Februarius [febˈɾɑːjeɾ]
3 March مارس Mārs Martius [ˈmæːɾes]
4 April أبريل / إبريل ʾAbrīl / ʾIbrīl Aprilis [ʔɪbˈɾiːl, ʔæb-]
5 May مايو Māyū Maius [ˈmæːju]
6 June يونيو / يونية Yūnyū / Yūnyah Iunius [ˈjonjæ, -jo]
7 July يوليو / يولية Yūlyū / Yūlyah Iulius [ˈjoljæ, -ju]
8 August أغسطس ʾAghusṭus Augustus [ʔɑˈɣostˤos, ʔoˈ-]
9 September سبتمبر Sibtambar September [sebˈtæmbeɾ, -ˈtem-, -ˈtɑm-]
10 October أكتوبر ʾUktūbar October [okˈtoːbɑɾ, ek-, ɑk-]
11 November نوفمبر Nūfambar November [noˈvæmbeɾ, -ˈvem-, -ˈfæm-,
-ˈfem-, -ˈvɑm-, -ˈfɑm-]
12 December ديسمبر Dīsambar December [deˈsæmbeɾ, -ˈsem-, -ˈsɑm-]

Libya (1969–2011)[edit]

The names of months used in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya were derived from various sources, and were assembled after Muammar al-Gaddafi's seizure of power in 1969 and abolished in 2011 after the 17 February Revolution. The decision of changing calendar names was adopted in June 1986.[2] Although the Libyan calendar followed the same sequence of the (renamed) Gregorian months, it counted the years from the death of the prophet Muhammad.[3] This reckoning was therefore ten years behind the Solar Hijri calendar used in Iran and Afghanistan.

No. Month Arabic name Transliteration Meaning[4]
1 January أي النار Ayy an-Nār that of the fires
2 February النوار an-Nuwwār the mornings
3 March الربيع ar-Rabīʿ the spring
al-Mirrij was also used[5]
4 April الطير aṭ-Ṭayr the bird
5 May الماء al-Māʾ the water
6 June الصيف aṣ-Ṣayf the summer
7 July ناصر Nāṣir from Gamal Abd el-Nasser
8 August هانيبال Hānībāl from Hannibal Barca
9 September الفاتح al-Fātiḥ the lightened
10 October التمور / الثمور at-Tumūr / ath-Thumūr the dates
11 November الحرث al-Ḥarth the tillage
12 December الكانون al-Kānūn the canon

Algeria and Tunisia[edit]

The names of the Gregorian months in Algeria and Tunisia are based on the French names of the months, reflecting France's long colonisation of these countries (1830–1962 in Algeria; 1881–1956 in Tunisia).

No. Month Arabic name Transliteration French name
1 January جانفي Jānvī Janvier
2 February فيفري Fīvrī Février
3 March مارس Mārs / Māris Mars
4 April أفريل Avrīl Avril
5 May ماي Māy Mai
6 June جوان Juwān Juin
7 July جويلية Juwīliyya Juillet
8 August أوت Ūt Août
9 September سبتمبر Sibtambir Septembre
10 October أكتوبر Uktūbir Octobre
11 November نوفمبر Nūvambir Novembre
12 December ديسمبر Dīsambir Décembre

Morocco[edit]

As Morocco was long part of the Roman Empire, the long-standing agricultural Berber calendar of the country preserves the Julian calendar and (in modified form) the names of its months. There are regional variations of the Berber calendar, since some communities did not recognise the Julian 29 February in century years where the Gregorian calendar had no equivalent date. When Morocco adopted the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes, the names of the months were taken from this local tradition.

No. Month Arabic name Transliteration
1 January يناير Yannāyir
2 February فبراير Fibrāyir
3 March مارس Mārs
4 April أبريل ʾIbrīl
5 May ماي Māy
6 June يونيو Yūniyū
7 July يوليوز Yūliyūz
8 August غشت Ghusht
9 September شتنبر Shutanbir
10 October أكتوبر ʾUktūbir
11 November نونبر Nuwanbir
12 December دجنبر Dujanbir

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The months of the Gregorian (Christian) calendar in various languages: Arabic". Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2007.
  2. ^ "Libya Changes Names Of Months On Calendar - Sun Sentinel". Articles.sun-sentinel.com. Agence France-Presse. 23 June 1986. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  3. ^ "ACM: Months". Library.princeton.edu. Archived from the original on 20 June 2010. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  4. ^ "Libyan Arab Jamahiriya - الموقع غير الرسمى للقنصلية الليبية بالاسكندرية". Sites.google.com. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  5. ^ "Tratamiento del árabe". Conf-dts1.unog.ch. Retrieved 25 March 2013.