Arachniodes

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Arachniodes
Starr 080117-1775 Arachniodes simplicior.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Polypodiopsida
Order: Polypodiales
Suborder: Polypodiineae
Family: Dryopteridaceae
Subfamily: Dryopteridoideae
Genus: Arachniodes
Blume
Synonyms[1]
  • Byrsopteris C.V.Morton
  • Leptorumohra (H.Ito) H.Ito
  • Lithostegia Ching
  • Phanerophlebiopsis Ching

Arachniodes is a fern genus in the family Dryopteridaceae (wood ferns).[1] A number of species in this genus are known as "holly ferns".[2]

The genus Arachniodes was first published by Carl Ludwig von Blume in 1828, with the single Indonesian species Arachniodes aspidioides.[3] The genus was not widely recognized until Mary Douglas Tindale transferred the two species (Byrsopteris amabilis and Byrsopteris aristata) into it in 1961.[4]

Species[edit]

The Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016 (PPG I) considers Arachniodes to have 60 species.[1] Species include but are not limited to those in the following list. A species name preceded by (=) is considered by the referenced authority to be a synonym of the accepted species name listed above it.

1828 Blume[edit]

Carl Ludwig von Blume published a description of the first Arachniodes species in Enumeratio Plantarum Javae et Insularum Adjacentium (An Enumeration of the Plants of Java and Adjacent Islands) in 1828.

1961 Tindale[edit]

The next Arachniodes species descriptions were published by Mary Douglas Tindale in Contributions from the New South Wales National Herbarium, volume 3, number 1, in 1961. This transferred two species from Conrad Vernon Morton's one-year-old genus Byrsopteris to Blume's 133-year-old genus Arachniodes.

Arachniodes aristata
(=) Byrsopteris amabilis (Blume) C.V.Morton
(=) Polystichopsis amabilis (Blume) Tagawa
(=) Rumohra amabilis (Blume) Ching
(=) Nephrodium amabile (Blume) Hand.-Mazz.
(=) Dryopteris amabilis (Blume) Kuntze
(=) Polystichum amabile (Blume) J.Sm.
(=) Aspidium amabile Blume
Arachniodes aristata
(=) Byrsopteris aristata (G.Forst.) C.V.Morton
(=) Polystichopsis aristata (G.Forst.) Tagawa (nom. illeg.)
(=) Polystichopsis aristata (G.Forst.) Holttum
(=) Rumohra aristata (G.Forst.) Ching
(=) Polystichum lobatum var. aristatum (G.Forst.) C.Chr.
(=) Dryopteris aristata (G.Forst.) Kuntze1
(=) Lastrea aristata (G.Forst.) T. Moore
(=) Polystichum aristatum (G.Forst.) C.Presl
(=) Nephrodium aristatum (G.Forst.) C.Presl
(=) Aspidium aristatum (G.Forst.) Sw.
(=) Polypodium aristatum G.Forst.

1962 Ohwi[edit]

Jisaburo Ohwi published the following Arachniodes species in the Journal of Japanese Botany, volume 37, number 3, in 1962.

(=) Arachniodes assamica (Kuhn) Ching (nom. illeg.)
(=) Byrsopteris assamica (Kuhn) C.V. Morton
(=) Polystichopsis assamica (Kuhn) Tagawa
(=) Polystichum assamicum (Kuhn) Ching
(=) Rumohra assamica (Kuhn) Ching
(=) Dryopteris speciosa var. assamica (Kuhn) C.Chr.
(=) Aspidium aristatum var. assamicum (Kuhn) Baker
(=) Aspidium assamicum Kuhn
Arachniodes simplicior
Arachniodes simplicior
(=) Arachniodes cavalerii (H.Christ) Ching (nom. illeg.)
(=) Polystichopsis cavalerii (H.Christ) Tagawa
(=) Rumohra cavaleriei (H.Christ) Ching
(=) Dryopteris cavalerii (H.Christ) C.Chr.
(=) Aspidium cavalerii H.Christ
(=) Arachniodes maximowiczii (Baker) Ching (nom. illeg.)
(=) Byrsopteris maximowiczii (Baker) C.V.Morton
(=) Polystichopsis maximowiczii (Baker) Tagawa
(=) Rumohra maximowiczii (Baker) Ching
(=) Nephrodium maximowiczii Baker
(=) Polystichopsis miqueliana (Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav.) Tagawa
(=) Leptorumohra miqueliana (Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav.) H. Itô[8]
(=) Rumohra miqueliana (Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav.) Ching
(=) Dryopteris miqueliana (Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav.) C.Chr
(=) Nephrodium miquelianum (Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav.) Kom.
(=) Aspidium miquelianum Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav.
(=) Polystichopsis mutica (Franch. & Sav.) Tagawa
(=) Leptorumohra mutica (Franch. & Sav.) Czerep.[9]
(=) Rumohra mutica (Franch. & Sav.) Ching
(=) Dryopteris mutica (Franch. & Sav.) C.Chr.
(=) Aspidium muticum Franch. & Sav.
Arachniodes standishii
Arachniodes standishii
(=) Arachniodes nipponica (Rosenst.) Ching (nom. illeg.)
(=) Polystichopsis nipponica (Rosenst.) Tagawa
(=) Rumohra nipponica (Rosenst.) Ching
(=) Polystichum nipponicum Rosenst.
(=) Arachniodes pseudoaristata (Tagawa) Ching
(=) Polystichopsis pseudoaristata (Tagawa) Tagawa
(=) Rumohra pseudoaristata (Tagawa) H.Itô
(=) Polystichum pseudoaristatum Tagawa
(=) Arachniodes parasimplicior Ching ex Y.T.Hsieh[11]
(=) Arachniodes simplicior (Makino) Ching
(=) Polystichopsis simplicior (Makino) Tagawa
(=) Rumohra simplicior (Makino) Ching
(=) Polystichum simplicius (Makino) Tagawa
(=) Polystichum aristatum var. simplicior (Makino) Matsum.
(=) Aspidium aristatum var. simplicior Makino
(=) Polystichopsis sinomiqueliana (Ching) Tagawa
(=) Leptorumohra sinomiqueliana (Ching) Tagawa[12]
(=) Rumohra sinomiqueliana Ching
(=) Byrsopteris standishii (T. Moore) C.V. Morton
(=) Polystichopsis standishii (T. Moore) Tagawa
(=) Lastrea standishii T. Moore

1962 Ching[edit]

The following species were transferred into Arachniodes by Ren Chang Ching in an article entitled "On the Nomenclature of the Compound-leaved Polysticha", published in the journal Acta Botanica Sinica, volume 10, number 3, Peking, China, September, 1962. Besides those listed below, a number of his species had already been published by Ohwi a few months earlier, and so appear in the section above, listed as synonyms marked nom. illeg.

  • Arachniodes amoena (Ching) Ching (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang)
(=) Arachniodes subamoena Ching[14]
(=) Rumohra amoena Ching
(=) Polystichum amabile var. controversum Hance ex Y.C.Wu
  • Arachniodes arisanica (Rosenst.) Ching
= Arachniodes globisora (Hayata) Ching
(=) Byrsopteris carvifolia (Kunze) C.V.Morton
(=) Rumohra carvifolia (Kunze) Ching
(=) Dryopteris carvifolia (Kunze) C.Chr.
(=) Polystichum carvifolium (Kunze) C.Chr. (nom. illeg.)
(=) Aspidium carvifolium Kunze
(=) Polystichopsis chinensis (Rosenst.) Holttum
(=) Rumohra chinensis (Rosenst.) Ching
(=) Polystichum amabile var. chinense Rosenst.
(=) Byrsopteris coniifolia (T. Moore) C.V. Morton
(=) Rumohra wallichii Ching
(=) Lastrea coniifolia T. Moore
(=) Aspidium coniifolium Wall. ex Kunze (nom. illeg.)
(=) Arachniodes denticulata (Sw.) Proctor (nom. illeg.)
(=) Byrsopteris denticulata (Sw.) C.V.Morton
(=) Lastrea denticulata (Sw.) T.Moore
(=) Nephrodium denticulatum (Sw.) Fée
(=) Rumohra denticulata (Sw.) Copel.
(=) Dryopteris denticulata (Sw.) Kuntze
(=) Nephrodium denticulatum (Sw.) Hook.
(=) Polystichum denticulatum (Sw.) J.Sm.
(=) Aspidium denticulatum (Sw.) Sw.
(=) Polypodium denticulatum Sw.
  • Arachniodes diffracta (Baker) Ching
= Acrorumohra diffracta (Baker) H. Itô (Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan, Japan, Vietnam)
(=) Polystichum diffractum (Baker) Masam.
(=) Rumohra diffracta (Baker) Ching
(=) Dryopteris diffracta (Baker) C. Chr.
(=) Aspidium diffractum (Baker) H.Christ
(=) Nephrodium diffractum Baker
(=) Rumohra dimorphophylla (Hayata) H. Itô
(=) Polystichum dimorphophyllum Hayata
(=) Aspidium exile Hance
(=) Arachniodes erythrosora Ching
(=) Dryopteris festina (Hance) C.Chr.
(=) Rumohra festina (Hance) Ching
(=) Dryopteris fargesii (H.Christ) C. Chr.
(=) Aspidium festinum Hance
(=) Rumohra grossa Tardieu & C.Chr.
  • Arachniodes hasseltii (Blume) Ching
= Acrorumohra hasseltii (Blume) Ching (Hainan, Taiwan, India, Nepal)
(=) Byrsopteris hasseltii (Blume) C.V.Morton
(=) Polystichopsis hasseltii (Blume) Holttum
(=) Athyrium hasseltii (Blume) Ching
(=) Rumohra hasseltii (Blume) Ching
(=) Dryopteris hasseltii (Blume) C.Chr.
(=) Phegopteris hasseltii (Blume) Mett.
(=) Polypodium hasseltii Blume
(=) Rumohra hainanensis Ching
(=) Byrsopteris henryi (H.Christ) C.V.Morton
(=) Rumohra henryi (H.Christ) Ching
(=) Dryopteris henryi (H.Christ) C.Chr.
(=) Polystichum henryi H.Christ
(=) Byrsopteris leucostegioides (C.Chr.) C.V.Morton
(=) Dryopteris leucostegioides C.Chr.
(=) Rumohra nigrospinosa (Ching) Ching
(=) Polystichum nigrospinosum Ching
(=) Acrorumohra obtusissima (Mett. ex Kuhn) Ching
(=) Rumohra obtusissima (Mett. ex Kuhn) Ching
(=) Dryopteris obtusissima (Mett. ex Kuhn) H. Christ
(=) Lastrea sparsa var. obtusissima (Mett. ex Kuhn) Bedd.
(=) Aspidium obtusissimum Mett. ex Kuhn
(=) Rumohra simulans Ching
(=) Byrsopteris speciosa (D.Don) C.V.Morton
(=) Nephrodium speciousum (D.Don) Hand.-Mazz.
(=) Dryopteris speciosa (D.Don) C. Chr.
(=) Rumohra speciosa (D.Don) Ching
(=) Polystichum speciosum (D.Don) J. Sm.
(=) Aspidium speciosum D.Don
(=) Rumohra spectabilis Ching
  • Arachniodes subreflexipinna (Ogata) Ching
= Acrorumohra subreflexipinna (Ogata) H. Itô in Nakai & Honda
(=) Rumohra subreflexipinna (Ogata) H.Itô
(=) Dryopteris subreflexipinna Ogata
(=) Arachniodes obtusipinnula Ching & Y.T. Xie
(=) Rumohra tonkinensis Ching
(=) Rumohra zeylanica Ching
(=) Aspidium undulatum Thwaites (nom. illeg.)

1962 Sa.Kurata[edit]

In, Satoru Kurata published descriptions of the following species in the Science Report of the Yokosuka City Museum, Yokosuka, Japan.

(=) Byrsopteris × kenzosatakei Sa.Kurata

[16]

1964 Ching & Chu H.Wang[edit]

Ren Chang Ching and Chu Hao Wang published the following species in Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica, volume 9, number 4, 1964.

  • Arachniodes acuminata Ching & Chu H.Wang
= Arachniodes sphaerosora (Tagawa) Ching
(=) Arachniodes australis Y.T.Hsieh
(=) Polystichopsis simplicior var. major (Tagawa) Tagawa
(=) Rumohra simplicior var. major (Tagawa) H. Itô
(=) Polystichum simplicius var. majus Tagawa
(=) Arachniodes arisanica (Rosenst.) Ching
(=) Rumohra globisora (Hayata) H. Itô
(=) Rumohra arisanica (Rosenst.) Ching
(=) Polystichum arisanicum Rosenst.
(=) Polystichum globisorum Hayata
(=) Aspidium controversum Hance
(=) Aspidium rhomboideum (Schott) Wall. ex Mett.
(=) Polystichum rhomboideum Schott
(=) Polystichum yoshinagae (Makino) Makino
(=) Aspidium yoshinagae Makino

1965 Ching[edit]

Ren Chang Ching in Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica, volume 10, number 3, 1965, published:

(=) Arachniodes acuminata Ching & Chu H.Wang[17]
(=) Dryopteris sphaerosora Tagawa

1965 Sa.Kurata[edit]

Satoru Kurata published the following Arachniodes species name in the Journal of Geobotany (Hokuriku Journal of Botany), volume 13, in 1965.

1965 Proctor[edit]

Published by George Richardson Proctor in the British Fern Gazette. volume 9, number 6, 1965

  • Arachniodes denticulata (Sw.) Proctor (nom. illeg.)
= Arachniodes denticulata (Sw.) Ching
(=) Byrsopteris rigidissima (Hook.) C.V. Morton
(=) Dryopteris rigidissima (Hook.) C. Chr.
(=) Polystichum denticulatum var. rigidissima (Hook.) Hieron.
(=) Nephrodium denticulatum var. rigidissimum Hook.

1967 Schelpe[edit]

Edmund André Charles Louis Eloi Schelpe published the following species in Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana, sér. 2, vol. 41, 1967.

(=) Aspidium webbianum A. Braun
  • Arachniodes foliosa Schelpe
(=) Arachniodes webbiana var. foliosa (C. Chr.) Gibby, Rasbach, Reichst., Widén & Viane
(=) Dryopteris foliosa C. Chr.

1968 Sa.Kurata[edit]

In 1968, Satoru Kurata published the following Arachniodes species names in the Journal of Geobotany (Hokuriku Journal of Botany), volume 16.

1969 & 1970 Nakaike[edit]

Toshiyuki Nakaike published the following new species in Journal of Geobotany (Hokuriku Journal of Botany), volume 17, 1969, and volume 18, 1970.

1974 Ching[edit]

In Flora Tsinlingensis, volume 2, 1974, Ren Chang Ching published:

  • Arachniodes centrochinensis Ching
= Arachniodes simulans (Ching) Ching (China)

1975 R.M.Tryon & D.S.Conant[edit]

Rolla Milton Tryon and Davis S. Conant published the following species in Acta Amazonica, volume 5, number 1, in 1975.

(=) Arachniodes macrostegia (Hook.) Proctor (nom. illeg.)
(=) Dryopteris macrostegia (Hook.) Kuntze
(=) Nephrodium macrostegium Hook.
Arachniodes sporadosora

1975 Nakaike[edit]

In 1975, Toshiyuki Nakaike published the following species names in his Enumeratio Pteridophytarum Japonicarum, Filicales.

(=) Aspidium sporadosorum Kunze
(=) Arachniodes chinensis var. japonica Sa.Kurata

1978 Sa.Kurata[edit]

Satoru Kurata published the following Arachniodes species names in the Journal of Geobotany (Hokuriku Journal of Botany), volume 25, in 1978.

1982 Proctor[edit]

(=) Polystichopsis argillicola Proctor
(=) Polystichopsis chaerophylloides (Poir.) C.V.Morton
(=) Lastreopsis chaerophylloides (Poir.) Tindale
(=) Thelypteris chaerophylloides (Poir.) Proctor
(=) Rumohra chaerophylloides (Poir.) Ching
(=) Dryopteris chaerophylloides (Poir.) C.Chr.
(=) Polypodium chaerophylloides Poir.

1983 Y.T.Hsieh[edit]

Yin Tang Hsieh in Acta Botanica Yunnanica, volume 5, number 1, 1983.

(=) Arachniodes chinensis var. jinpingensis (Y.T. Hsieh) S.K.Wu & H.He

1984 Y.T.Hsieh, Ching, et al.[edit]

Yin Tang Hsieh in Bulletin of Botanical Research, volume 4, number 2, 1984.

(=) Arachniodes caudata var. kansuensis Ching

Yin Tang Hsieh and Ren Chang Ching, in Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica, volume 22, number 2, 1984.

(=) Arachniodes yixinensis Ching & Y.T.Hsieh
  • Arachniodes obtusipinnula Ching & Y.T.Xie
= Arachniodes tonkinensis (Ching) Ching

Ren Chang Ching and Zheng-yu Liu, in Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica, volume 22, number 4, 1984.

1986 Ching[edit]

Ren Chang Ching published the following species names in the Bulletin of Botanical Research, volume 6, number 3, in 1986.

= Arachniodes festina (Hance) Ching (Guangdong)
= Arachniodes amoena (Ching) Ching

1986 Seriz.[edit]

= Leptorumohra borealis ( Seriz. ) Shmakov

1986 Y.T.Hsieh[edit]

Yin Tang Hsieh published the following species names in the Bulletin of Botanical Research, volume 6, number 4, in 1986.

1991 Ching & Hsieh[edit]

Ren Chan Ching and Yin Tang Hsieh, in the Bulletin of Botanical Research volume 11, number 2, 1991, published:

(=) Rumohra assamica fo. basipinnata Ching
(=) Arachniodes assamica fo. basipinnata Ching (nom. illeg.)
= Arachniodes simplicior (Makino) Ohwi
  • Arachniodes fengyangshanensis Ching & C.F.Zhang ex Y.T.Hsieh
= Arachniodes exilis (Hance) Ching

1992 Nakaike[edit]

(=) Aspidium aristatum var. davalliaeforme (H.Christ) H.Christ

[23]

1993 W.H.Wagner[edit]

1995 S.F.Wu[edit]

The following two species were published by Shi Fu Wu in Keys to the Vascular Plants of the Wuling Mountains Area (edited by Wang Wentsai) 572–573, pl. 5. Beijing 1995.

1998 R.C.Moran & B.Øllg.[edit]

2008 Fraser-Jenk.[edit]

In 2008, Christopher Roy Fraser-Jenkins published the following new Arachniodes species in his Taxonomic revision of three hundred Indian subcontinental pteridophytes with a revised census-list: a new picture of fern-taxonomy and nomenclature in the Indian subcontinent.

(=) Aspidium cornucervi D.Don
(=) Aspidium palmipes Kunze

Leptorumohra[edit]

The genus Leptorumohra was segregated from the genus Rumohra in 1938 by Hiroshi Itô.[25] In 1962, Jisaburo Ohwi included at least three of the Leptorumohra species in Arachniodes, but these placements were not universally accepted.[25] In 2006, Alan Reid Smith & al. in "A classification for extant ferns" included the genus Leptorumohra in Arachniodes.[26] Leptorumohra species, which may be considered part of the genus Arachniodes, include:

(=) Dryopteris amurensis H.Christ
(=) Leptorumohra borealis ( Seriz.) Shmakov[27]
(=) Polystichopsis miqueliana (Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav.) Tagawa
(=) Leptorumohra miqueliana (Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav.) H. Itô[8]
(=) Rumohra miqueliana (Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav.) Ching
(=) Dryopteris miqueliana (Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav.) C.Chr
(=) Nephrodium miquelianum (Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav.) Kom.
(=) Aspidium miquelianum Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav.
(=) Polystichopsis mutica (Franch. & Sav.) Tagawa
(=) Leptorumohra mutica (Franch. & Sav.) Czerep.[9]
(=) Rumohra mutica (Franch. & Sav.) Ching
(=) Dryopteris mutica (Franch. & Sav.) C.Chr.
(=) Aspidium muticum Franch. & Sav.
(=) Leptorumohra quadripinnata (Hayata) H.Itô[29]
(=) Microlepia quadripinnata Hayata
(=) Polystichopsis sinomiqueliana (Ching) Tagawa
(=) Leptorumohra sinomiqueliana (Ching) Tagawa[12]
(=) Rumohra sinomiqueliana Ching

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c PPG I (2016). "A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 54 (6): 563–603. doi:10.1111/jse.12229.
  2. ^ Arachniodes Flora of North America 26 Jan 2012
  3. ^ Blume, Carl (Karl) Ludwig von; Enumeratio Plantarum Javae fasc. 2: 241. 1828.
  4. ^ Tindale, Mary Douglas; Contributions from the New South Wales National Herbarium 3(1): 90. 1961.
  5. ^ Blume, Carl (Karl) Ludwig von: Enumeratio Plantarum Javae fasc. 2: 241. 1828.
  6. ^ A. aristata Archived April 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine Hardy fern library 26 Jan 2012
  7. ^ a b Ohwi, Jisaburo: Journal of Japanese Botany 37(3): 76. 1962.
  8. ^ a b A. miqueliana Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Jan 2012
  9. ^ a b A. mutica Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Jan 2012
  10. ^ "Arachniodes simplicior". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 26 Jan 2012.
  11. ^ A. parasimplicior Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Jan 2012
  12. ^ a b A. sinomiqueliana Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Jan 2012
  13. ^ A. standishii Archived April 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine Hardy fern library 26 Jan 2012
  14. ^ A. subamoena Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Jan 2012
  15. ^ A. carvifolia Ensyclopedia of Life (EOL) 27 Jan 2012
  16. ^ Kurata, Satoru: Journal of Geobotany/Hokuriku Journal of Botany 10: 36. 1961.
  17. ^ A. acuminata Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Jan 2012
  18. ^ Kurata, Satoru: Journal of Geobotany/Hokuriku Journal of Botany 13: 99–100. 1965.
  19. ^ Kurata, Satoru: Journal of Geobotany/Hokuriku Journal of Botany 16: 98. 1968.
  20. ^ "Arachniodes chaerophylloides". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 26 Jan 2012.
  21. ^ A. borealis International Plant Names Index (IPNI) 30 Jan 2012
  22. ^ Arachniodes Archived 2008-10-17 at the Wayback Machine World species list. 27 Jan 2012
  23. ^ A. davalliaeformis International Plant Names Index (IPNI) 27 Jan 2012
  24. ^ "Arachniodes insularis". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 26 Jan 2012.
  25. ^ a b Leptorumohra Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Jan 2012
  26. ^ Smith & al. Smith, A.R.; Pryer, K.M.; Schuettpelz, E.; Korall, P.; Schneider, H.; Wolf, P.G. "A classification for extant ferns". Taxon 55: 705–731. (2006)
  27. ^ Leptorumohra borealis International Plant Names Index (IPNI) 26 Dec 2011
  28. ^ A. quadripinnata International Plant Names Index (IPNI) 26 Jan 2012
  29. ^ Leptorumohra quadripinnata Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Jan 2012

External links[edit]