Arachniodes

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Arachniodes
Starr 080117-1775 Arachniodes simplicior.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pteridophyta
Class: Polypodiopsida/Pteridopsida
(disputed)
Order: Polypodiales
Family: Dryopteridaceae
Subfamily: Dryopteridoideae
Genus: Arachniodes
Blume 1828
Synonyms
  • Byrsopteris C.V.Morton 1960
  • Leptorumohra (H.Itô) H.Itô 1938
  • Polystichopsis (J.Sm.) Holttum 1947[1]

Arachniodes is a fern genus in the family Dryopteridaceae (wood ferns). A number of species in this genus are known as "holly ferns".[2]

The genus Arachniodes was first published by Carl Ludwig von Blume in 1828, with the single Indonesian species Arachniodes aspidioides.[3] But the genus wasn't widely recognized until Mary Douglas Tindale transferred the two species Byrsopteris amabilis and Byrsopteris aristata into it in 1961.[4]

Species[edit]

Arachniodes species include but are not limited to those in the following list. A species name preceded by (=) is considered by the referenced authority to be a synonym of the accepted species name listed above it.

1828 Blume[edit]

Carl Ludwig von Blume published a description of the first Arachniodes species in Enumeratio Plantarum Javae et Insularum Adjacentium (An Enumeration of the Plants of Java and Adjacent Islands) in 1828.

1961 Tindale[edit]

The next Arachniodes species descriptions were published by Mary Douglas Tindale in Contributions from the New South Wales National Herbarium, volume 3, number 1, in 1961. This transferred two species from Conrad Vernon Morton's one-year-old Byrsopteris genus to Blume's 133-year-old Arachniodes genus.

Arachniodes aristata
(=) Byrsopteris amabilis (Blume) C.V.Morton 1960
(=) Polystichopsis amabilis (Blume) Tagawa 1958
(=) Rumohra amabilis (Blume) Ching 1934
(=) Nephrodium amabile (Blume) Hand.-Mazz. 1929
(=) Dryopteris amabilis (Blume) Kuntze 1891
(=) Polystichum amabile (Blume) J.Sm. 1866
(=) Aspidium amabile Blume 1828
Arachniodes aristata
(=) Byrsopteris aristata (G.Forst.) C.V.Morton 1960
(=) Polystichopsis aristata (G.Forst.) Tagawa 1959 (nom. illeg.)
(=) Polystichopsis aristata (G.Forst.) Holttum 1954
(=) Rumohra aristata (G.Forst.) Ching 1934
(=) Polystichum lobatum var. aristatum (G.Forst.) C.Chr. 1906
(=) Dryopteris aristata (G.Forst.) Kuntze 1891
(=) Lastrea aristata (G.Forst.) T. Moore 1858
(=) Polystichum aristatum (G.Forst.) C.Presl 1836
(=) Nephrodium aristatum (G.Forst.) C.Presl 1825
(=) Aspidium aristatum (G.Forst.) Sw. 1801
(=) Polypodium aristatum G.Forst. 1786

1962 Ohwi[edit]

Jisaburo Ohwi published the following Arachniodes species in the Journal of Japanese Botany, volume 37, number 3, in 1962.

(=) Arachniodes assamica (Kuhn) Ching 1962 (nom. illeg.)
(=) Byrsopteris assamica (Kuhn) C.V. Morton 1960
(=) Polystichopsis assamica (Kuhn) Tagawa 1958
(=) Polystichum assamicum (Kuhn) Ching 1934
(=) Rumohra assamica (Kuhn) Ching 1934
(=) Dryopteris speciosa var. assamica (Kuhn) C.Chr. 1931
(=) Aspidium aristatum var. assamicum (Kuhn) Baker 1874
(=) Aspidium assamicum Kuhn 1869
Arachniodes simplicior
Arachniodes simplicior
(=) Arachniodes cavalerii (H.Christ) Ching 1962 (nom. illeg.)
(=) Polystichopsis cavalerii (H.Christ) Tagawa 1958
(=) Rumohra cavaleriei (H.Christ) Ching 1934
(=) Dryopteris cavalerii (H.Christ) C.Chr. 1905
(=) Aspidium cavalerii H.Christ 1904
(=) Arachniodes maximowiczii (Baker) Ching 1962 (nom. illeg.)
(=) Byrsopteris maximowiczii (Baker) C.V.Morton 1961
(=) Polystichopsis maximowiczii (Baker) Tagawa 1958
(=) Rumohra maximowiczii (Baker) Ching 1934
(=) Nephrodium maximowiczii Baker 1874
(=) Polystichopsis miqueliana (Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav.) Tagawa 1958
(=) Leptorumohra miqueliana (Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav.) H. Itô 1938[8]
(=) Rumohra miqueliana (Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav.) Ching 1934
(=) Dryopteris miqueliana (Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav.) C.Chr 1905
(=) Nephrodium miquelianum (Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav.) Kom. 1901
(=) Aspidium miquelianum Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav. 1876
(=) Polystichopsis mutica (Franch. & Sav.) Tagawa 1958
(=) Leptorumohra mutica (Franch. & Sav.) Czerep. 1981[9]
(=) Rumohra mutica (Franch. & Sav.) Ching 1934
(=) Dryopteris mutica (Franch. & Sav.) C.Chr. 1905
(=) Aspidium muticum Franch. & Sav. 1876
Arachniodes standishii
Arachniodes standishii
(=) Arachniodes nipponica (Rosenst.) Ching 1962 (nom. illeg.)
(=) Polystichopsis nipponica (Rosenst.) Tagawa 1958
(=) Rumohra nipponica (Rosenst.) Ching 1934
(=) Polystichum nipponicum Rosenst. 1914
(=) Arachniodes pseudoaristata (Tagawa) Ching 1962
(=) Polystichopsis pseudoaristata (Tagawa) Tagawa 1958
(=) Rumohra pseudoaristata (Tagawa) H.Itô 1935
(=) Polystichum pseudoaristatum Tagawa 1932
(=) Arachniodes parasimplicior Ching ex Y.T.Hsieh 1991[11]
(=) Arachniodes simplicior (Makino) Ching 1962
(=) Polystichopsis simplicior (Makino) Tagawa 1958
(=) Rumohra simplicior (Makino) Ching 1934
(=) Polystichum simplicius (Makino) Tagawa 1932
(=) Polystichum aristatum var. simplicior (Makino) Matsum. 1904
(=) Aspidium aristatum var. simplicior Makino 1901
(=) Polystichopsis sinomiqueliana (Ching) Tagawa 1958
(=) Leptorumohra sinomiqueliana (Ching) Tagawa 1939[12]
(=) Rumohra sinomiqueliana Ching 1934
(=) Byrsopteris standishii (T. Moore) C.V. Morton 1961
(=) Polystichopsis standishii (T. Moore) Tagawa 1958
(=) Lastrea standishii T. Moore 1863

1962 Ching[edit]

The following species were transferred into Arachniodes by Ren Chang Ching in an article entitled "On the Nomenclature of the Compound-leaved Polysticha", published in the journal Acta Botanica Sinica, volume 10, number 3, Peking, China, September, 1962. Besides those listed below, a number of his species had already been published by Ohwi a few months earlier, and so appear in the section above, listed as synonyms marked nom. illeg.

  • Arachniodes amoena (Ching) Ching 1962 (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang)
(=) Arachniodes subamoena Ching 1986[14]
(=) Rumohra amoena Ching 1934
(=) Polystichum amabile var. controversum Hance ex Y.C.Wu 1932
  • Arachniodes arisanica (Rosenst.) Ching 1962
= Arachniodes globisora (Hayata) Ching 1964
(=) Byrsopteris carvifolia (Kunze) C.V.Morton 1960
(=) Rumohra carvifolia (Kunze) Ching 1934
(=) Dryopteris carvifolia (Kunze) C.Chr. 1924
(=) Polystichum carvifolium (Kunze) C.Chr. 1906 (nom. illeg.)
(=) Aspidium carvifolium Kunze 1848
(=) Polystichopsis chinensis (Rosenst.) Holttum 1954
(=) Rumohra chinensis (Rosenst.) Ching 1934
(=) Polystichum amabile var. chinense Rosenst. 1914
(=) Byrsopteris coniifolia (T. Moore) C.V. Morton 1960
(=) Rumohra wallichii Ching 1934
(=) Lastrea coniifolia T. Moore 1857
(=) Aspidium coniifolium Wall. ex Kunze 1851 (nom. illeg.)
(=) Arachniodes denticulata (Sw.) Proctor 1965 (nom. illeg.)
(=) Byrsopteris denticulata (Sw.) C.V.Morton 1960
(=) Lastrea denticulata (Sw.) T.Moore 1858
(=) Nephrodium denticulatum (Sw.) Fée 1852
(=) Rumohra denticulata (Sw.) Copel. 1947
(=) Dryopteris denticulata (Sw.) Kuntze 1891
(=) Nephrodium denticulatum (Sw.) Hook. 1862
(=) Polystichum denticulatum (Sw.) J.Sm. 1841
(=) Aspidium denticulatum (Sw.) Sw. 1801
(=) Polypodium denticulatum Sw. 1788
  • Arachniodes diffracta (Baker) Ching 1962
= Acrorumohra diffracta (Baker) H. Itô 1938 (Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan, Japan, Vietnam)
(=) Polystichum diffractum (Baker) Masam. 1936
(=) Rumohra diffracta (Baker) Ching 1934
(=) Dryopteris diffracta (Baker) C. Chr. 1905
(=) Aspidium diffractum (Baker) H.Christ 1899
(=) Nephrodium diffractum Baker 1898
(=) Rumohra dimorphophylla (Hayata) H. Itô 1935
(=) Polystichum dimorphophyllum Hayata 1911
(=) Aspidium exile Hance 1883
(=) Arachniodes erythrosora Ching 1986
(=) Dryopteris festina (Hance) C.Chr. 1934
(=) Rumohra festina (Hance) Ching 1934
(=) Dryopteris fargesii (H.Christ) C. Chr. 1905
(=) Aspidium festinum Hance 1883
(=) Rumohra grossa Tardieu & C.Chr. 1938
  • Arachniodes hasseltii (Blume) Ching 1962
= Acrorumohra hasseltii (Blume) Ching 1964 (Hainan, Taiwan, India, Nepal)
(=) Byrsopteris hasseltii (Blume) C.V.Morton 1960
(=) Polystichopsis hasseltii (Blume) Holttum 1954
(=) Athyrium hasseltii (Blume) Ching 1940
(=) Rumohra hasseltii (Blume) Ching 1934
(=) Dryopteris hasseltii (Blume) C.Chr. 1905
(=) Phegopteris hasseltii (Blume) Mett. 1858
(=) Polypodium hasseltii Blume 1851
(=) Rumohra hainanensis Ching 1934
(=) Byrsopteris henryi (H.Christ) C.V.Morton 1960
(=) Rumohra henryi (H.Christ) Ching 1934
(=) Dryopteris henryi (H.Christ) C.Chr. 1931
(=) Polystichum henryi H.Christ 1909
(=) Byrsopteris leucostegioides (C.Chr.) C.V.Morton 1961
(=) Dryopteris leucostegioides C.Chr. 1920
(=) Rumohra nigrospinosa (Ching) Ching 1934
(=) Polystichum nigrospinosum Ching 1931
(=) Acrorumohra obtusissima (Mett. ex Kuhn) Ching 1964
(=) Rumohra obtusissima (Mett. ex Kuhn) Ching 1934
(=) Dryopteris obtusissima (Mett. ex Kuhn) H. Christ 1908
(=) Lastrea sparsa var. obtusissima (Mett. ex Kuhn) Bedd. 1876/1883
(=) Aspidium obtusissimum Mett. ex Kuhn 1869
(=) Rumohra simulans Ching 1934
(=) Byrsopteris speciosa (D.Don) C.V.Morton 1960
(=) Nephrodium speciousum (D.Don) Hand.-Mazz. 1929
(=) Dryopteris speciosa (D.Don) C. Chr. 1924
(=) Rumohra speciosa (D.Don) Ching 1934
(=) Polystichum speciosum (D.Don) J. Sm. 1842
(=) Aspidium speciosum D.Don 1825
(=) Rumohra spectabilis Ching 1934
  • Arachniodes subreflexipinna (Ogata) Ching 1962
= Acrorumohra subreflexipinna (Ogata) H. Itô in Nakai & Honda 1938
(=) Rumohra subreflexipinna (Ogata) H.Itô 1935
(=) Dryopteris subreflexipinna Ogata 1935
(=) Arachniodes obtusipinnula Ching & Y.T. Xie 1984
(=) Rumohra tonkinensis Ching 1934
(=) Rumohra zeylanica Ching 1934
(=) Aspidium undulatum Thwaites 1864 (nom. illeg.)

1962 Sa.Kurata[edit]

In 1962, Satoru Kurata published descriptions of the following species in the Science Report of the Yokosuka City Museum, Yokosuka, Japan.

(=) Byrsopteris × kenzosatakei Sa.Kurata 1961

[16]

1964 Ching & Chu H.Wang[edit]

Ren Chang Ching and Chu Hao Wang published the following species in Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica, volume 9, number 4, 1964.

  • Arachniodes acuminata Ching & Chu H.Wang 1964
= Arachniodes sphaerosora (Tagawa) Ching 1965
(=) Arachniodes australis Y.T.Hsieh 1991
(=) Polystichopsis simplicior var. major (Tagawa) Tagawa 1958
(=) Rumohra simplicior var. major (Tagawa) H. Itô 1935
(=) Polystichum simplicius var. majus Tagawa 1932
(=) Arachniodes arisanica (Rosenst.) Ching 1962
(=) Rumohra globisora (Hayata) H. Itô 1938
(=) Rumohra arisanica (Rosenst.) Ching 1934
(=) Polystichum arisanicum Rosenst. 1915
(=) Polystichum globisorum Hayata 1914
(=) Aspidium controversum Hance 1862
(=) Aspidium rhomboideum (Schott) Wall. ex Mett. 1858
(=) Polystichum rhomboideum Schott 1834
(=) Polystichum yoshinagae (Makino) Makino 1909
(=) Aspidium yoshinagae Makino 1899

1965 Ching[edit]

Ren Chang Ching in Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica, volume 10, number 3, 1965, published:

(=) Arachniodes acuminata Ching & Chu H.Wang 1964[17]
(=) Dryopteris sphaerosora Tagawa 1934

1965 Sa.Kurata[edit]

Satoru Kurata published the following Arachniodes species name in the Journal of Geobotany (Hokuriku Journal of Botany), volume 13, in 1965.

1965 Proctor[edit]

Published by George Richardson Proctor in the British Fern Gazette. volume 9, number 6, 1965

  • Arachniodes denticulata (Sw.) Proctor 1965 (nom. illeg.)
= Arachniodes denticulata (Sw.) Ching 1962
(=) Byrsopteris rigidissima (Hook.) C.V. Morton 1960
(=) Dryopteris rigidissima (Hook.) C. Chr. 1920
(=) Polystichum denticulatum var. rigidissima (Hook.) Hieron. 1904
(=) Nephrodium denticulatum var. rigidissimum Hook. 1860

1967 Schelpe[edit]

Edmund André Charles Louis Eloi Schelpe published the following species in Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana, sér. 2, vol. 41, 1967.

(=) Aspidium webbianum A. Braun 1841
  • Arachniodes foliosa Schelpe 1967
(=) Arachniodes webbiana var. foliosa (C. Chr.) Gibby, Rasbach, Reichst., Widén & Viane 1992
(=) Dryopteris foliosa C. Chr. 1937

1968 Sa.Kurata[edit]

In 1968, Satoru Kurata published the following Arachniodes species names in the Journal of Geobotany (Hokuriku Journal of Botany), volume 16.

1969 & 1970 Nakaike[edit]

Toshiyuki Nakaike published the following new species in Journal of Geobotany (Hokuriku Journal of Botany), volume 17, 1969, and volume 18, 1970.

1974 Ching[edit]

In Flora Tsinlingensis, volume 2, 1974, Ren Chang Ching published:

  • Arachniodes centrochinensis Ching 1974
= Arachniodes simulans (Ching) Ching 1962 (China)

1975 R.M.Tryon & D.S.Conant[edit]

Rolla Milton Tryon and Davis S. Conant published the following species in Acta Amazonica, volume 5, number 1, in 1975.

(=) Arachniodes macrostegia (Hook.) Proctor 1982 (nom. illeg.)
(=) Dryopteris macrostegia (Hook.) Kuntze 1891
(=) Nephrodium macrostegium Hook. 1862
Arachniodes sporadosora

1975 Nakaike[edit]

In 1975, Toshiyuki Nakaike published the following species names in his Enumeratio Pteridophytarum Japonicarum, Filicales.

(=) Aspidium sporadosorum Kunze 1848
(=) Arachniodes chinensis var. japonica Sa.Kurata 1965

1978 Sa.Kurata[edit]

Satoru Kurata published the following Arachniodes species names in the Journal of Geobotany (Hokuriku Journal of Botany), volume 25, in 1978.

1982 Proctor[edit]

(=) Polystichopsis argillicola Proctor 1961
(=) Polystichopsis chaerophylloides (Poir.) C.V.Morton 1960
(=) Lastreopsis chaerophylloides (Poir.) Tindale 1957
(=) Thelypteris chaerophylloides (Poir.) Proctor 1953
(=) Rumohra chaerophylloides (Poir.) Ching 1934
(=) Dryopteris chaerophylloides (Poir.) C.Chr. 1920
(=) Polypodium chaerophylloides Poir. 1804

1983 Y.T.Hsieh[edit]

Yin Tang Hsieh in Acta Botanica Yunnanica, volume 5, number 1, 1983.

(=) Arachniodes chinensis var. jinpingensis (Y.T. Hsieh) S.K.Wu & H.He 1996

1984 Y.T.Hsieh, Ching, et al.[edit]

Yin Tang Hsieh in Bulletin of Botanical Research, volume 4, number 2, 1984.

(=) Arachniodes caudata var. kansuensis Ching 1974

Yin Tang Hsieh and Ren Chang Ching, in Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica, volume 22, number 2, 1984.

(=) Arachniodes yixinensis Ching & Y.T.Hsieh 1984
  • Arachniodes obtusipinnula Ching & Y.T.Xie 1984
= Arachniodes tonkinensis (Ching) Ching 1962

Ren Chang Ching and Zheng-yu Liu, in Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica, volume 22, number 4, 1984.

1986 Ching[edit]

Ren Chang Ching published the following species names in the Bulletin of Botanical Research, volume 6, number 3, in 1986.

= Arachniodes festina (Hance) Ching 1962 (Guangdong)
= Arachniodes amoena (Ching) Ching 1962

1986 Seriz.[edit]

= Leptorumohra borealis ( Seriz. ) Shmakov 2009

1986 Y.T.Hsieh[edit]

Yin Tang Hsieh published the following species names in the Bulletin of Botanical Research, volume 6, number 4, in 1986.

1991 Ching & Hsieh[edit]

Ren Chan Ching and Yin Tang Hsieh, in the Bulletin of Botanical Research volume 11, number 2, 1991, published:

(=) Rumohra assamica fo. basipinnata Ching 1934
(=) Arachniodes assamica fo. basipinnata Ching 1934 (nom. illeg.)
= Arachniodes simplicior (Makino) Ohwi 1962
  • Arachniodes fengyangshanensis Ching & C.F.Zhang ex Y.T.Hsieh 1991
= Arachniodes exilis (Hance) Ching 1962

1992 Nakaike[edit]

(=) Aspidium aristatum var. davalliaeforme (H.Christ) H.Christ

[23]

1993 W.H.Wagner[edit]

1995 S.F.Wu[edit]

The following two species were published by Shi Fu Wu in Keys to the Vascular Plants of the Wuling Mountains Area (edited by Wang Wentsai) 572–573, pl. 5. Beijing 1995.

1998 R.C.Moran & B.Øllg.[edit]

2008 Fraser-Jenk.[edit]

In 2008, Christopher Roy Fraser-Jenkins published the following new Arachniodes species in his Taxonomic revision of three hundred Indian subcontinental pteridophytes with a revised census-list: a new picture of fern-taxonomy and nomenclature in the Indian subcontinent.

(=) Aspidium cornucervi D.Don 1825
(=) Aspidium palmipes Kunze 1851

Leptorumohra[edit]

The genus Leptorumohra was segregated from the genus Rumohra in 1938 by Hiroshi Itô.[25] In 1962, Jisaburo Ohwi included at least three of the Leptorumohra species in Arachniodes, but these placements were not universally accepted.[25] In 2006, Alan Reid Smith & al. in "A classification for extant ferns" included the genus Leptorumohra in Arachniodes.[26] Leptorumohra species, which may be considered part of the Arachniodes genus include:

(=) Dryopteris amurensis H.Christ 1909
(=) Leptorumohra borealis ( Seriz.) Shmakov 2009[27]
(=) Polystichopsis miqueliana (Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav.) Tagawa 1958
(=) Leptorumohra miqueliana (Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav.) H. Itô 1938[8]
(=) Rumohra miqueliana (Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav.) Ching 1934
(=) Dryopteris miqueliana (Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav.) C.Chr 1905
(=) Nephrodium miquelianum (Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav.) Kom. 1901
(=) Aspidium miquelianum Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav. 1876
(=) Polystichopsis mutica (Franch. & Sav.) Tagawa 1958
(=) Leptorumohra mutica (Franch. & Sav.) Czerep. 1981[9]
(=) Rumohra mutica (Franch. & Sav.) Ching 1934
(=) Dryopteris mutica (Franch. & Sav.) C.Chr. 1905
(=) Aspidium muticum Franch. & Sav. 1876
(=) Leptorumohra quadripinnata (Hayata) H.Itô 1938[29]
(=) Microlepia quadripinnata Hayata 1911
(=) Polystichopsis sinomiqueliana (Ching) Tagawa 1958
(=) Leptorumohra sinomiqueliana (Ching) Tagawa 1939[12]
(=) Rumohra sinomiqueliana Ching 1934

References[edit]

  1. ^ Arachniodes Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Jan 2012
  2. ^ Arachniodes Flora of North America 26 Jan 2012
  3. ^ Blume, Carl (Karl) Ludwig von; Enumeratio Plantarum Javae fasc. 2: 241. 1828.
  4. ^ Tindale, Mary Douglas; Contributions from the New South Wales National Herbarium 3(1): 90. 1961.
  5. ^ Blume, Carl (Karl) Ludwig von: Enumeratio Plantarum Javae fasc. 2: 241. 1828.
  6. ^ A. aristata Archived April 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Hardy fern library 26 Jan 2012
  7. ^ a b Ohwi, Jisaburo: Journal of Japanese Botany 37(3): 76. 1962.
  8. ^ a b A. miqueliana Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Jan 2012
  9. ^ a b A. mutica Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Jan 2012
  10. ^ "Arachniodes simplicior". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 26 Jan 2012. 
  11. ^ A. parasimplicior Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Jan 2012
  12. ^ a b A. sinomiqueliana Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Jan 2012
  13. ^ A. standishii Archived April 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Hardy fern library 26 Jan 2012
  14. ^ A. subamoena Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Jan 2012
  15. ^ A. carvifolia Ensyclopedia of Life (EOL) 27 Jan 2012
  16. ^ Kurata, Satoru: Journal of Geobotany/Hokuriku Journal of Botany 10: 36. 1961.
  17. ^ A. acuminata Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Jan 2012
  18. ^ Kurata, Satoru: Journal of Geobotany/Hokuriku Journal of Botany 13: 99–100. 1965.
  19. ^ Kurata, Satoru: Journal of Geobotany/Hokuriku Journal of Botany 16: 98. 1968.
  20. ^ "Arachniodes chaerophylloides". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 26 Jan 2012. 
  21. ^ A. borealis International Plant Names Index (IPNI) 30 Jan 2012
  22. ^ Arachniodes World species list. 27 Jan 2012
  23. ^ A. davalliaeformis International Plant Names Index (IPNI) 27 Jan 2012
  24. ^ "Arachniodes insularis". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 26 Jan 2012. 
  25. ^ a b Leptorumohra Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Jan 2012
  26. ^ Smith & al. Smith, A.R.; Pryer, K.M.; Schuettpelz, E.; Korall, P.; Schneider, H.; Wolf, P.G. "A classification for extant ferns". Taxon 55: 705–731. (2006)
  27. ^ Leptorumohra borealis International Plant Names Index (IPNI) 26 Dec 2011
  28. ^ A. quadripinnata International Plant Names Index (IPNI) 26 Jan 2012
  29. ^ Leptorumohra quadripinnata Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Jan 2012

External links[edit]