|Tolkien's legendarium character|
|Aliases||See Names and titles below|
|Book(s)||The Fellowship of the Ring
The Two Towers
The Return of the King
Aragorn II, son of Arathorn is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium. He is one of the main protagonists of The Lord of the Rings. Aragorn was a Ranger of the North, first introduced with the name Strider at Bree, as the Hobbits continued to call him throughout The Lord of the Rings. He was eventually discovered to be the heir of Isildur and rightful claimant to the thrones of Arnor and Gondor. He was also a confidant of Gandalf and an integral part of the quest to destroy the One Ring and defeat the Dark Lord Sauron.
Aragorn led the Fellowship of the Ring following the loss of Gandalf in the Mines of Moria while fighting the Balrog. When the Fellowship was broken, he tracked the hobbits Meriadoc Brandybuck and Peregrin Took with the help of Legolas the elf and Gimli the dwarf to Fangorn Forest. Then he fought in the battle at Helm's Deep and the Battle of the Pelennor Fields. After defeating Sauron's forces in Gondor, he led an army of Gondor and Rohan against the Black Gate of Mordor to distract Sauron's attention so that Frodo Baggins and Samwise Gamgee could have a chance to destroy the One Ring.
At the end of The Lord of the Rings, Aragorn was crowned King Elessar Telcontar ("Elfstone Strider") of Gondor. He married Elrond's daughter, Arwen, and assumed the Sceptre of Annúminas as King of Arnor, uniting the two kingdoms for the first time since the reign of Isildur.
- 1 Appearances in literature
- 2 Characteristics
- 3 Names and titles
- 4 Concept and creation
- 5 Adaptations
- 6 Reception
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Appearances in literature
The son of Arathorn II and his wife Gilraen, Aragorn was born on 1 March, T.A. 2931. Through his ancestor Elendil (whom he closely resembled) Aragorn was a descendant of the first king of Númenor, Elros Tar-Minyatur; the twin brother of Elrond.
When Aragorn was two years old, his father was killed while pursuing orcs. Aragorn was afterwards fostered in Rivendell by Elrond. At the bidding of Elrond, his lineage was kept secret, as Elrond feared he would be killed like his father and grandfather if his true identity as Isildur's heir became known. Aragorn was renamed Estel ("hope" in Sindarin) to hide his existence from Sauron and his servants. He was not told about his heritage until he came of age in 2951.
Elrond revealed to Aragorn his true name and ancestry, and delivered to him the shards of Elendil's sword Narsil, and also the Ring of Barahir. He withheld the Sceptre of Annúminas from him until he earned the right to possess it. Aragorn met and fell in love with Arwen, Elrond's daughter (whom he mistook for Tinúviel), when she returned from Lórien, her mother's homeland.
Aragorn thereafter assumed his role as the sixteenth Chieftain of the Dúnedain, the Rangers of the North, and went into the wild, living with the remnants of his people, whose kingdom had been destroyed through civil and regional wars centuries before.
Aragorn met Gandalf the Grey in 2956, and they became close friends. The Rangers help to guard the Shire, inhabited by the diminutive, agrarian Hobbits. In the areas around the Shire and Bree he became known as "Strider".
From 2957 to 2980, Aragorn undertook great journeys, serving in the armies of King Thengel of Rohan (King Théoden's father) and of Steward Ecthelion II of Gondor (father of Denethor). His tasks helped to raise morale in the West and to counter the growing threat of Sauron and his allies, and he acquired experience that he would later put to use in the War of the Ring. Aragorn served his lords during that time under the name Thorongil (Eagle of the Star). With a small squadron of ships from Gondor, he led an assault on Umbar in 2980, burning many of the Corsairs' ships and personally slaying their lord during the Battle of the Havens. After the victory at Umbar, "Thorongil" left the field, to the dismay of his men, and went East.
In 2980, he visited Lórien, and there again met Arwen. He gave her an heirloom of his House, the Ring of Barahir, and, on the hill of Cerin Amroth, Arwen pledged her hand to him in marriage, renouncing her Elvish lineage and accepting mortality, the "Gift of Men". Elrond withheld from Aragorn permission to marry his daughter until such time as his foster son should be king of Gondor and Arnor reunited. To marry a mortal, Arwen would be required to choose mortality and thus eventually separate the immortal Elrond from his daughter; and Elrond feared that in the end Arwen might find the prospect of death too difficult to bear.
Gandalf grew suspicious of the ring belonging to the hobbit Bilbo Baggins, which was later discovered to be Sauron's One Ring. Gandalf asked Aragorn to track Gollum, who had previously possessed the Ring. This hunt led Aragorn across Rhovanion, and he finally captured Gollum in the Dead Marshes northwest of Mordor and brought him captive to King Thranduil’s halls in Mirkwood, where Gandalf questioned him.
The Lord of the Rings
In The Fellowship of the Ring, Aragorn joined Frodo Baggins, Bilbo's adopted heir, and three of Frodo's friends at the Inn of the Prancing Pony in Bree; a letter from Gandalf convinced Frodo to trust Aragorn. The four hobbits had set out from the Shire to bring the One Ring to Rivendell. Aragorn, going by the nickname "Strider", was then aged 87, nearing the prime of life for one of royal Númenórean descent. With Aragorn's help the Hobbits escaped the pursuing Nazgûl and reached Rivendell. There Frodo volunteered to destroy the Ring in the fires of Mount Doom, and Aragorn was chosen as a member of the Fellowship of the Ring to accompany him, along with Gandalf, Legolas the elf, Gimli the dwarf, Boromir of Gondor, and the hobbits Pippin, Merry, and Frodo's faithful gardener Samwise Gamgee. Elven-smiths reforged the shards of Narsil into a new sword, setting into the design of the blade seven stars (for Elendil) and a crescent moon (for Isildur), as well as many runes. Aragorn renamed the sword Andúril (meaning "flame of the west" in Sindarin), and it was said to have shone with the light of the Sun and the Moon.
Aragorn accompanied the group through their attempted crossing of the pass of Caradhras, and subsequently through the mines of Moria. After Gandalf was lost in a battle with a Balrog, Aragorn led the company to Lothlórien and then down the river Anduin to the Falls of Rauros. Originally he planned to go to Gondor to aid its people in the war, but after the loss of Gandalf he became increasingly concerned about his responsibilities to Frodo and the quest.
In The Two Towers, the Fellowship quickly fell apart: Frodo had decided to continue his journey alone (accompanied by Sam) and Boromir was slain while defending Merry and Pippin, who were captured by orcs. Aragorn, Legolas, and Gimli (calling themselves the Three Hunters) set off to track the Uruk-hai, hoping to rescue Merry and Pippin. They encountered Éomer, who was pursuing rumours of an orc raid in the area. From Éomer, Aragorn learned that the orcs who kidnapped Merry and Pippin had been slaughtered, and that no hobbits were found among the remains. Dejected, he led Legolas and Gimli to the site of the battle. Clues led Aragorn to believe that the hobbits might still be alive, prompting him to lead the party into Fangorn Forest. They found not the hobbits, but Gandalf the White (whom they initially mistook for Saruman), sent back from death to continue his duties in Middle-earth. Gandalf told them that the hobbits were in the care of the Ents of Fangorn. Together, the four travelled to Edoras in Rohan, where Gandalf freed Théoden from Saruman's enchantment and helped him muster the Rohirrim against Saruman. Aragorn, Legolas and Gimli then helped the people of Rohan in the Battle of the Hornburg, in which Saruman's army was destroyed.
In The Return of the King, Aragorn used a palantír and revealed himself to Sauron as the heir of Isildur, in order to distract Sauron's attention from Frodo, who was approaching Mordor, and to draw Sauron forth from Mordor. Sauron subsequently made his assault on Minas Tirith prematurely and without adequate preparation. In order to reach the city in time to defend it, Aragorn entered the Paths of the Dead, and summoned the Dead Men of Dunharrow who owed allegiance to the heir of Isildur. It had been prophesied by Isildur and Malbeth the Seer that the Dead would be summoned to pay their debt for betraying Gondor millennia before. With their aid the Corsairs of Umbar were defeated at the port of Pelargir. Aragorn then sailed up the Anduin to Minas Tirith with a small force of Rangers and a large contingent of men and soldiers from the southern regions of Gondor. As they approached Minas Tirith, Aragorn unfurled the royal standard that Arwen had made for him, showing both the White Tree of Gondor and the jewelled crown and seven stars of the House of Elendil. With the help of the southern forces the armies of Gondor and Rohan rallied and defeated Sauron's army in the Battle of the Pelennor Fields.
To continue to distract Sauron's attention from Frodo's quest, Aragorn led the armies of the West to the gates of Mordor, where Sauron attacked with overwhelming force. But at that moment the Ring was destroyed, and Sauron and his forces were vanquished.
The restoration of the line of Elendil to the throne of Gondor is a subplot of The Lord of the Rings; Aragorn's adventures not only aid Frodo in his quest, but also bring him closer to his own kingship – which, though his by right and lineage, had been left unclaimed for centuries due to historical, legal, and military circumstances. Although Isildur and his brother Anárion had ruled Gondor jointly, the royal house of Gondor descended from Anárion and not directly from Isildur. After Isildur's departure, Meneldil, son of Anárion, ruled Gondor alone, although the formal title of High King remained with the northern line, as Isildur was Elendil's elder son. When Gondor's throne became vacant in T.A. 1944, the separation of the kingdoms had been reinforced when Gondor under Steward Pelendur rejected the claim of the northern prince Arvedui. (Eärnil, a lateral member of the House of Anárion, was eventually chosen king instead.) But Arvedui's wife was also of the House of Anárion, so Aragorn descended not only from Elendil and Isildur but also from the ruling family of Gondor. By the time of the Lord of the Rings, however, Gondor had been under the rule of the Stewards of Gondor for centuries, as it was widely doubted that any of the royal line still lived.
In The Return of the King, the Steward Denethor, who years before had seen "Thorongil" as a rival for his father's favour, declared that he would not bow to a descendant of Isildur. Aragorn healed Faramir, Denethor's heir, who had been expected to die; Faramir, unlike his father, recognized Aragorn as his lord and the rightful heir to the throne. Aragorn's humility and self-sacrifice gained him the hearts of the inhabitants of Gondor's capital city. His healing abilities were noted also by the people of Gondor; as Ioreth said, "The hands of the King are the hands of a healer, and so shall the rightful king be known". The people hailed Aragorn as King that same evening.
Despite his immediate success and popularity, however, Aragorn decided to lay aside his claim to the throne for the time being. To avoid conflict he left Minas Tirith and refused to enter it again until he was crowned King.
In order to ensure safe passage across Mordor for Frodo to fulfil his quest, Aragorn then led the Army of the West out from Minas Tirith to make a diversionary feint on the Black Gate of Mordor itself in the Battle of the Morannon. Gandalf had been given supreme command of the war effort after the Pelennor Fields, and acted as chief spokesman in the parley with the Mouth of Sauron; but Aragorn commanded the allied troops during the battle and its aftermath.
Upon Sauron's defeat, Aragorn was crowned as King Elessar (a Quenya name given to him by Galadriel, translated as Elfstone), and he married Arwen shortly afterward. He became the twenty-sixth King of Arnor, thirty-fifth King of Gondor and the first High King of the Reunited Kingdom. His line was called the House of Telcontar (Quenya for "Strider", his name in Bree). The Appendices of Return of the King explain that Aragorn ruled the Kingdoms of Gondor and Arnor until the year 120 of the Fourth Age. His reign was marked by great harmony and prosperity within Gondor and Arnor, and by a renewal of communication and cooperation between Men, Elves, and Dwarves, fostered by his vigorous rebuilding campaign following the war. Aragorn led the forces of the Reunited Kingdom on military campaigns against some Easterlings and Haradrim, re-establishing rule over much territory that Gondor had lost in previous centuries. He died at the age of 210, after 122 years as king. The graves of Merry and Pippin (who had died in Gondor 58 years prior) were set beside his. He was succeeded on the throne by his son, Eldarion. Arwen, gravely saddened by the loss of her husband, gave up her mortal life shortly afterward in Lothlórien. Arwen and Aragorn also had at least two daughters. Upon hearing of Aragorn's death, Legolas built a grey ship in Ithilien, and sailed to the Undying Lands, along with Gimli. "And when that ship passed an end was come in Middle-earth of the Fellowship of the Ring."
Tolkien gives a brief but detailed description of Strider in The Fellowship of the Ring: lean, dark and tall, with shaggy dark hair "flecked with grey", grey eyes, and a stern pale face. It is also stated that he was the tallest of the Company. Some time after the publication of the books, Tolkien wrote that he was at least 6 ft 6 in (198 cm) tall. Although he was 87 years old at the time of the War of the Ring, this was the prime of life for a Dunadan of royal blood, and Tolkien wrote that to those unaware of his lineage "in character Aragorn was a hardened man of say 45". In "The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen", found in the Appendices, he was said to be often grim and sad, with unexpected moments of levity.
Aragorn possessed Elven wisdom – due to his childhood in Rivendell with Elrond – and the foresight of the Dúnedain. He was a skilled healer, notably with the plant athelas (also known as Kingsfoil). He was a mighty warrior and an unmatched commander; after the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, he, Éomer and Imrahil were said to be left unscathed, even though they had been in the thick of the fighting. Due to his position as Isildur's heir, Aragorn had impressive powers for a man, and, as the rightful owner of the palantír of Orthanc used it to declare himself as the heir of Isildur to Sauron, seeking to distract Sauron from Frodo.
Though he was wise and strong, he was not immune to self-doubt. He doubted the wisdom of his decisions while leading the Fellowship after the loss of Gandalf in Moria, and blamed himself for many of their subsequent misfortunes.
Names and titles
Aragorn, son of Arathorn was called the Dúnadan ("Man of the West/Númenórean", given by Arwen in Lothlórien and much used by Bilbo), Longshanks (given by Bill Ferny in Bree), Strider (by which he was known in Bree and the outlying areas), and Wingfoot (given by Éomer after discovering that Aragorn had travelled 45 leagues in four days in pursuit of Pippin, Merry, and their Uruk-hai captors).
He was the founder of the House of Telcontar (Telcontar is "Strider" in Quenya, after the nickname given him by the rustics of the North), which ruled Gondor well into the Fourth Age of Middle-earth; in records, his full regnal name is given as Elessar Telcontar ("Elfstone Strider"). In the Houses of Healing, he called himself Envinyatar, the renewer.
Before coming of age, he was known as Estel ("hope") to hide his true lineage from Sauron's forces, who sought the heir of Isildur. He was known as Thorongil ("Eagle of the Star") in his younger days when he travelled across Middle-earth and took up service in Rohan and Gondor (often by protecting camps and raiding enemy strongholds as he did when he fought the Corsairs in Umbar).
Concept and creation
Aragorn's character and story arc underwent a series of developments and name changes before the version seen in The Lord of the Rings, as Tolkien did not have the full plot of the story or its background planned out when he started writing.
The "first germ" of the character that later evolved into Aragorn or Strider was a peculiar hobbit met by Bingo Bolger-Baggins (precursor of Frodo Baggins) at the inn of The Prancing Pony. His description and behaviour, however, was already quite close to the final story, with the difference that the hobbit wore wooden shoes, and was nicknamed Trotter for the "clitter-clap" sound that they produced. He was also accounted to be "one of the wild folk – rangers", and he played the same role in Frodo's journey to Rivendell as in The Lord of the Rings.
Later Tolkien hesitated about the true identity of "Trotter" for a long time. One of his notes suggested that the Rangers should not be hobbits as originally planned, and that this would mean that Trotter was either a man, or a hobbit who associated himself with the Rangers and was "very well known" (within the story). The latter suggestion was linked to an early comment of Bingo: "I keep on feeling that I have seen him somewhere before". Tolkien considered that Trotter might be Bilbo Baggins himself, but soon rejected that idea after Aragorn identified himself.
Another suggestion was that Trotter was Fosco Took (Bilbo's first cousin), who "vanished when a lad, owing to Gandalf". This story was further elaborated, making Trotter a nephew of Bilbo, named Peregrin Boffin, and an elder cousin of Frodo. He was said to have run away after he came of age, some 20 years before Bilbo left the Shire, and had helped Gandalf in tracking Gollum later. A hint was also given as to why Trotter wore wooden shoes: he had been captured by the Dark Lord in Mordor and tortured, but saved by Gandalf; a note was added by Tolkien in the margin, saying that it would later be revealed that Trotter had wooden feet.
The conception of Trotter as a hobbit was eventually discarded. Another short-lived idea was to make Trotter "a disguised elf-friend of Bilbo's in Rivendell," and a scout from Rivendell who "pretends to be a ranger".
It was not until after Book I was written that Tolkien finally settled on making Trotter a man, introducing him from the beginning as Aragorn, a "descendant of the ancient men of the North, and one of Elrond's household". While the history of Númenor and the descendants of Elros and Elendil was not yet fully developed, the germs of it were in existence, and would come to be connected with The Lord of the Rings as the character of Aragorn developed.
Further character developments
The development of Aragorn's connection to Gondor was long and complex, as was his association with Boromir. Initially it is said that Aragorn's forefathers were the exiles of Númenor who ruled over the people of Ond (the early name of Gondor) but were driven out by the Witch King "when Sauron raised a rebellion". The story of the two branches of Elendil's descendants ruling over two kingdoms of Men through many generations only emerged gradually; at one time, Tolkien even seems to have conceived only three generations between Isildur and Aragorn.
Aragorn's relationship with Arwen was established very late in the writing. When Tolkien first introduced Éowyn, the interest she showed towards Aragorn was not one-sided, with suggestions in notes that they would marry at the end of the story. Another proposal was that Éowyn would die to save or avenge Théoden, and Aragorn would never marry after her death.
The first mention of Elrond's daughter, named Finduilas, was made in reference to the banner she made for Aragorn, but Tolkien did not give any hint whether she had any further part to play. The references to her marriage with Aragorn came later, but it was explicitly stated only near the completion of the book. Only in his work on the appendices for The Lord of the Rings did Tolkien record the full tale of Aragorn and Arwen.
A passing idea was that Galadriel gave her Ring to Aragorn, and that he would accordingly be titled the "Lord of the Ring".
The original nickname Trotter was retained for a long time, and Tolkien decided to change it to Strider only after the story was completed. There were also several experimental translations of Trotter to Sindarin: Padathir, Du-finnion, and Rimbedir, with Ethelion possibly an equivalent of Peregrin (Boffin). Before the later title "the Dúnadan" emerged, Tarkil (Quenya for 'noble Man') was used, as a synonym for Númenórean.
Tolkien hesitated for some time over Strider's "real" name. Although Aragorn was the first suggestion when his Mannish descent was determined, the name was changed a number of times. At one point Tolkien decided that an Elvish name does not suit a Man, and thus altered it from Aragorn via Elfstone to Ingold, an Old English name with ing- representing "west". Later, however, a new plot element was introduced: Galadriel's gift of a green stone, and Tolkien reverted to Elfstone in order to make an additional connection. This was retained into the final version of the legendarium as a translation of Elessar.
Among other names Tolkien considered Elfstan, Elfmere, Elf-friend, Elfspear, Elfwold and Erkenbrand, with various Elvish forms: Eldamir, Eldavel, Eledon, Qendemir. The name of Aragorn's father also passed through many transient forms: Tolkien paired Aramir or Celegorn with Aragorn before settling upon Arathorn; Elfhelm and Eldakar with Elfstone and Eldamir; and Ingrim with Ingold.
Comparisons to Christ
Aragorn has been referred to as a Christ-as-King character; Tolkien's use of prophesy has been compared to the Old Testament's foretelling of the coming of the Messiah.
Basis on real historical characters
According to archaeologist Max Adams in his book The King of the North: the life and times of Oswald of Northumbria Tolkien based Aragorn on Oswald, a prince of the Northumbrian royal house exiled to the Kingdom of Dal Riata after Cadwallon King of Gwynedd and Penda King of Mercia laid waste to his ancestral homelands, and who returned years later with a raised army of Anglian exiles and retook his kingdom slaying Cadwallon in the process.
Aragorn was voiced by John Hurt in Ralph Bakshi's 1978 animated film version of The Lord of the Rings. Bakshi's Aragorn, unlike all other portrayals that were to follow to date, has no beard. This actually conforms to a statement appearing in Unfinished Tales that implicitly says that Aragorn was not supposed to have one, due to his Elvish ancestry (Elves did not grow beards). However, Tolkien actually wrote elsewhere that Elves did have beards; in The Lord of the Rings itself Círdan is described as having a beard. Also, some viewers and critics have said that this version of Aragorn looks Native American.
Aragorn was voiced by Theodore Bikel in the 1980 Rankin/Bass animated version of The Return of the King, made for television. Robert Stephens voiced Aragorn in the 1981 BBC Radio serial of The Lord of the Rings. Kari Väänänen portrayed him in the 1993 Finnish television miniseries Hobitit.
In the Lord of the Rings film trilogy (2001–2003) directed by Peter Jackson, Aragorn is played by Danish-American actor Viggo Mortensen who took over the role from Stuart Townsend after four days of shooting because Jackson felt Townsend was too young for the role. In these movies, Aragorn begins his journey with the Fellowship with no desire to claim the kingship; he only arrives at such a decision in the third film after spending much time battling his own self-doubt. This specific element of self-doubt is not present in Tolkien's book, where Aragorn intends to claim the throne all along once he has the opportunity. Another notable difference in Jackson's films is that Aragorn does not at first wield Andúril. Instead he uses a different, unnamed sword throughout the first two films and receives his ancestor's reforged sword in the third film. Mortensen's portrayal of Aragorn won him the title of 15th greatest movie characters of all time (in 2015) by Empire.
The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies, the third and last part of Jackson's film adaptation of The Hobbit, refers to Aragorn near the end of the film. The Elven-king Thranduil tells his son Legolas to seek a young Dúnedan Ranger called Strider. He goes on to say that he is the son of Arathorn and has greatness in him. This is a clear reference to Aragorn, though by the timeline in Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings, he would have been only 10 at the time. This may be explained by the fact that the filmmakers compressed the events of The Fellowship of the Ring, changing the timeline so that Frodo sets off on his journey almost immediately after receiving the One Ring, rather than seventeen years later, as in the novel. In the film version of The Two Towers, Aragorn describes himself to Éowyn as being eighty-seven years old, as he was at that point in the books. However, as the filmmakers cut seventeen years from the time period between the events of the Hobbit and the beginning of Frodo's journey in The Fellowship of the Ring, Aragorn would have had to have been in his twenties, and an established Ranger, at the time the film The Battle of the Five Armies takes place.
In the 2009 fan film The Hunt for Gollum, Aragorn is portrayed by Adrian Webster. The film is set during the time of The Fellowship of the Ring. It takes place after Gandalf has discovered the true nature of Bilbo Baggins's ring and just before Frodo leaves the Shire for Rivendell.
On stage, Aragorn was portrayed by Evan Buliung in the three-hour production of The Lord of the Rings, which opened in 2006 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. In the London production the role was played by Jerome Pradon, and the role was taken over by Robbie Scotcher on 23 June 2008. In the United States, Aragorn was portrayed by Josh Beshears in the Cincinnati, Ohio production of The Return of the King (2003) for Clear Stage Cincinnati. At Chicago's Lifeline Theatre, Aragorn was played by Robert McLean in the 1999 production of The Two Towers and the 2001 production of The Return of the King.
In the parody Bored of the Rings, Aragorn is portrayed as 'Arrowroot son of Arrowshirt' and nicknamed 'Stomper' and is quite deranged. He is also rather inept at actual fighting and disables an entire battalion of 'Nozdrul' simply with his combative ineptitude and random shouting of nonsensical battle-cries (which induces uncontrollable laughter and allows the group to successfully disable the Nozdrul while they are incapacitated with hysteria). In the Veggie Tales episode "Lord of the Beans", Aragorn is parodied as Larry the Cucumber dressed up as a Ranger named "Ear-o'-Corn".
- Return of the King, appendices
- "He was Aragorn son of Arathorn, the nine and thirtieth heir in the right line from Isildur, and yet more like Elendil than any before him."Tolkien, J. R. R. (1977), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Silmarillion, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 303, ISBN 0-395-25730-1
- The Lord of the Rings, "Strider".
- The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B.
- The Lord of the Rings, "The Shadow of the Past".
- The Lord of the Rings, "The Council of Elrond".
- The Fellowship of the Ring, passim.
- The Two Towers, passim.
- The Return of the King, "The Last Debate".
- The Return of the King, passim.
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1954), The Fellowship of the Ring, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), ISBN 0-395-08254-4
- The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion: "The Ring Goes South," p. 272
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1996), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Peoples of Middle-earth, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, p. 167, ISBN 0-395-82760-4
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1955), The Return of the King, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), ISBN 0-395-08256-0
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1954), The Two Towers, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), ISBN 0-395-08254-4
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1988), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Return of the Shadow, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, pp. 137–8, ISBN 0-395-49863-5
- The Return of the Shadow, pp 223–4.
- The Return of the Shadow, p. 208–8.
- The Return of the Shadow, pp. 371, 385.
- The Return of the Shadow, pp. 401, 413.
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1989), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Treason of Isengard, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, p. 6-t, ISBN 0-395-51562-9
- The Treason of Isengard, p. 116.
- The Treason of Isengard, pp. 360–1.
- The Treason of Isengard, pp. 445–8.
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1990), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The War of the Ring, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, p. 307, ISBN 0-395-56008-X
- The War of the Ring, pp. 425–6.
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1992), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Sauron Defeated, Boston, New York, & London: Houghton Mifflin, p. 52, ISBN 0-395-60649-7
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1996), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Peoples of Middle-earth, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, pp. 262–270, ISBN 0-395-82760-4
- The Return of the Shadow, pp. 476, 478, 488–9.
- The Treason of Isengard, p. 499.
- See the index to The Treason of Isengard and pp. 277–8.
- Hunt, Emily (2005). "Wilderness, Wanderers and Their Theological Significance in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings". In Sugirtharajah, R. S. Wilderness: Essays in Honour of Frances Young. T&T Clark International. pp. 175–186. ISBN 0-567-04142-5.
- Max Adams. The King in the North: The Life and Times of Oswald of Northumbria. ISBN 1781854181.
- "In a note written in 1972 or later, among the last writings of my father's on the subject of Middle-earth, there is a discussion of the Elvish strain in Men, as to its being observable in the beardlessness of those who were so descended (it was a characteristic of all Elves to be beardless)." Tolkien, J. R. R. (1980), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Unfinished Tales, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-29917-9
- Tolkien, J. R. R. The Return of the King; Book 6, Chapter IX, "The Grey Havens": "As they came to the gates Círdan the Shipwright came forth to greet them. Very tall he was, and his beard was long..."
- https://web.archive.org/web/20060617194840/http://www.coldfusionvideo.com/l/lordofrings.html. Archived from the original on 17 June 2006. Retrieved 18 July 2006. Missing or empty
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