Arak, Iran

Coordinates: 34°05′29″N 49°41′36″E / 34.09139°N 49.69333°E / 34.09139; 49.69333
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Arak
Persian: اراک
City
Clockwise from top: Bakhtyari Bridge, Valiasr Square, Senjan, City Park, and the old bazaar.
Clockwise from top: Bakhtyari Bridge, Valiasr Square, Senjan, City Park, and the old bazaar.
Official seal of Arak
Arak is located in Iran
Arak
Arak
Coordinates: 34°05′29″N 49°41′36″E / 34.09139°N 49.69333°E / 34.09139; 49.69333[1]
CountryIran
ProvinceMarkazi
CountyArak
DistrictCentral
Government
 • MayorAlireza Mahmoudi[2]
Elevation
1,718 m (5,636 ft)
Population
 (2016)[3]
 • Total520,944
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
Area code086
ClimateDsa
Websitearak.ir

Arak (Persian: اراک, Arâk; IPA: [æˈɾɒːk] )[4] is a city in the Central District of Arak County, Markazi province, Iran, serving as capital of the province, the county, and the district.[5]

At the 2006 National Census, its population was 438,338 in 121,597 households.[6] The following census in 2011 counted 484,212 people in 148,249 households.[7] The 2016 census showed a population of 520,944 people in 165,709 households.[3]

The city is nicknamed the "Industrial Capital of Iran".[8][9] As a major industrial city, Arak hosts several industrial factories inside and within a few kilometers outside the city, including the factory of Machine Sazi Arak and the Iranian Aluminium Company. These factories produce nearly half of the needs of the country in steel, petrochemical, and locomotive industries.

Etymology[edit]

Arâk[edit]

The term Arâk remains from a name given to the region since the medieval period. It derives from Arabic al-ʿIrāq, meaning "root",[10] itself derived possibly from Akkadian Uruk (Hebrew: אֶרֶךְ, Erech). But new research has shown that the word Arak has the same roots with the words Iran and Arran, and the name Iraq is an Arabicized Persian word.[11]

During the Seljuk era, a region comprising the whole territory of Media (northwestern Iran) and the lower part of Mesopotamia was referred to as Iraq; with the Median part called ʿErâq-e ʿAjam ("Iraq of the Ajam [non-Arabic speakers]"), and the Mesopotamian part called ʿErâq-e ʿArab ("Iraq of the Arab").[12]

Soltân Âbâd[edit]

The term Soltân Âbâd is a Persian compound word.

Soltân, deriving from Arabic sulṭān ("power", "authority"), is a Near Eastern noble title given to a powerful governor. Modern Persian âbâd, meaning "settlement" or "abode", derives from Middle Persian āpāt ("populous"). However, according to linguist Sasha Lubotsky, the Persian term ābād might derive from Proto-Iranian *āpāta ("protected"), rooting from Proto-Indo-European *peh₂- ("to protect").

History[edit]

Bowl, Sultanabad ware, first half of the 14th century, fritware, underglaze-painted, Iran. Metropolitan Museum of Art.[13]

Originally named Soltan Abad, the modern-day city of Arak was founded in 1808 by Yusef Khan-e Gorji,[14] a pro-Iranian warlord of Georgian Muslim origin who was given refuge by Qajar ruler Agha Mohammad Khan following a territorial dispute with his cousins, who were supported by Russian empress Catherine the Great.

Between 1795 and 1797, Yusef Khan-e Gorji, renamed Yusef Khan-e Sepahdar by the Qajar ruler, settled his army in the fertile but poorly-controlled territory that would become the modern-day Arak. Hostile tribes in the region had operated autonomously from the Qajar rule. With the Shah's approval, Yusef Khan diverted the main river to drive out the hostiles and build the war fortress of Soltan Abad to act as a buffer.

According to early modern historians, Yusef Khan built the city with the aid of effluents. Until 1892, the town remained a military base and fortress. The fortress of Soltan Abad had a thick wall surrounded by 7-meter-deep moats. Eight towers were constructed around the town and the governmental building was established in its northern part.[citation needed]

In 1891, shops, gardens, and government buildings of Soltan Abad were repaired by the order of deputy governor Mirza Hasan (Etemad os-Saltane). Large parts of the city were formerly annexed as personal property to the pre-existing army commanders, and were then ultimately turned over to the state around 1918–1922.

Beginning by the last quarter of the 19th century, the city achieved major developments in carpet industry, and eventually became Iran's most important center of carpet production for export markets, continuing up until at least 1940.[15]

National Garden Square in 1969.

Under the reign of Reza Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty, the city was renamed Arak. Modern factories for vegetable oil, soap, sugar beet, and wool industries were established within the city. Arak also became an important station for the Trans-Iranian Railway, a major railway project directed by Reza Shah which was completed in 1938.[citation needed]

In 1972, two major state-owned enterprises were established in the city, including an aluminum smelter and a heavy engineering plant. The aluminum smelter was built under the Regional Cooperation for Development project of the Central Treaty Organization, in cooperation with the company of Reynolds and Reynolds. The engineering plant was processed with equipment and technical advice from the Soviets, in return of gas sales to the Soviet Union.[citation needed]

The city officially became a metropolis on April 6, 2013, after the merger with Karahrud and Senjan.[16][17]

Geography[edit]

Arak is surrounded by mountains in the south, west, and east, and its average altitude is about 1750m above sea level. It is located 260 km from the city of Tehran, and is in the vicinity of the cities of Qom and Isfahan.

Climate[edit]

Arak has a hot-summer mediterranean continental climate (Köppen: Dsa, Trewartha: Dc), that is, in general, relatively cold and dry.

The weather of the city is hot and dry in summer, cool in autumn, cold and snowy in winter, and mild in spring. Its maximum temperature may rise to above 35 °C or 95 °F in summer and fall to below −25 °C or −13 °F in winter. The average annual precipitation is around 337 millimetres or 13.3 inches and the annual relative humidity is about 47%.

Climate data for Arak (1991-2020, extremes 1961-2020)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.2
(64.8)
23.6
(74.5)
27.8
(82.0)
31.0
(87.8)
35.4
(95.7)
41.0
(105.8)
44.0
(111.2)
41.0
(105.8)
38.0
(100.4)
31.2
(88.2)
25.0
(77.0)
22.0
(71.6)
44.0
(111.2)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 5.2
(41.4)
8.8
(47.8)
14.4
(57.9)
19.9
(67.8)
25.8
(78.4)
32.5
(90.5)
35.7
(96.3)
34.9
(94.8)
30.7
(87.3)
23.4
(74.1)
14.0
(57.2)
8.3
(46.9)
21.1
(70.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.3
(31.5)
2.8
(37.0)
8.0
(46.4)
13.4
(56.1)
18.7
(65.7)
25.0
(77.0)
28.1
(82.6)
26.9
(80.4)
22.2
(72.0)
15.5
(59.9)
7.5
(45.5)
2.6
(36.7)
14.2
(57.6)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −5.0
(23.0)
−2.5
(27.5)
2.0
(35.6)
7.0
(44.6)
11.3
(52.3)
16.2
(61.2)
19.8
(67.6)
18.5
(65.3)
13.5
(56.3)
8.1
(46.6)
2.0
(35.6)
−2.0
(28.4)
7.4
(45.3)
Record low °C (°F) −29.6
(−21.3)
−30.5
(−22.9)
−22
(−8)
−7.0
(19.4)
0.0
(32.0)
4.0
(39.2)
12.0
(53.6)
10.0
(50.0)
2.0
(35.6)
−4.0
(24.8)
−17
(1)
−23
(−9)
−30.5
(−22.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 36.0
(1.42)
35.5
(1.40)
57.3
(2.26)
55.2
(2.17)
26.9
(1.06)
3.6
(0.14)
1.4
(0.06)
1.7
(0.07)
1.1
(0.04)
17.5
(0.69)
39.1
(1.54)
40.2
(1.58)
315.5
(12.43)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 5.8 5 6.6 6.8 4.6 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.2 2.7 5.1 5.5 43.9
Average snowy days 7 5.6 2.7 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 4.5 20.7
Average relative humidity (%) 70 62 51 48 40 27 25 24 27 41 60 69 45
Average dew point °C (°F) −5.9
(21.4)
−4.8
(23.4)
−3.1
(26.4)
1.1
(34.0)
3.1
(37.6)
2.7
(36.9)
4.5
(40.1)
3.4
(38.1)
0.7
(33.3)
0.4
(32.7)
−0.9
(30.4)
−3.4
(25.9)
−0.2
(31.7)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 159 182 217 230 287 338 327 334 304 256 177 153 2,964
Source: NOAA NCEI[18] (snow days 1981-2010)[19] (1961-1990 extremes)[20]
Climate data for Arak
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.0
(62.6)
21.0
(69.8)
25.2
(77.4)
29.0
(84.2)
35.0
(95.0)
41.0
(105.8)
44.0
(111.2)
41.0
(105.8)
38.0
(100.4)
31.0
(87.8)
24.0
(75.2)
20.0
(68.0)
44.0
(111.2)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 4.2
(39.6)
7.3
(45.1)
13.7
(56.7)
19.7
(67.5)
25.6
(78.1)
32.5
(90.5)
35.7
(96.3)
34.9
(94.8)
30.7
(87.3)
23.2
(73.8)
14.5
(58.1)
7.7
(45.9)
20.8
(69.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.8
(30.6)
1.9
(35.4)
7.8
(46.0)
13.4
(56.1)
18.2
(64.8)
24.0
(75.2)
27.3
(81.1)
26.4
(79.5)
21.9
(71.4)
15.6
(60.1)
8.4
(47.1)
2.8
(37.0)
13.9
(57.0)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −5.7
(21.7)
−3.4
(25.9)
2.0
(35.6)
7.0
(44.6)
10.9
(51.6)
15.5
(59.9)
19.0
(66.2)
17.9
(64.2)
13.1
(55.6)
7.9
(46.2)
2.4
(36.3)
−2.1
(28.2)
7.0
(44.7)
Record low °C (°F) −29.6
(−21.3)
−30.5
(−22.9)
−22
(−8)
−7.0
(19.4)
0.0
(32.0)
4.0
(39.2)
12.0
(53.6)
10.0
(50.0)
2.0
(35.6)
−4.0
(24.8)
−17
(1)
−23
(−9)
−30.5
(−22.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 51.6
(2.03)
43.3
(1.70)
57.1
(2.25)
53.6
(2.11)
30.0
(1.18)
2.8
(0.11)
1.2
(0.05)
1.6
(0.06)
0.9
(0.04)
16.9
(0.67)
33.7
(1.33)
44.4
(1.75)
337.1
(13.28)
Average rainy days 10.8 9.8 11.4 9.4 7.1 1.1 0.9 0.6 0.6 4.3 6.1 8.9 71
Average snowy days 7.6 6.4 3.2 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.7 4.6 23.1
Average relative humidity (%) 72 66 54 48 41 29 28 27 28 41 57 68 47
Mean monthly sunshine hours 152.0 170.9 206.2 225.7 288.3 345.0 334.8 330.9 305.1 259.3 185.9 154.3 2,958.4
Source: NOAA (1961-1990) [20]

Transport[edit]

Airport[edit]

Arak Airport

Arak is served by the International Airport of Arak, which is located north of the city. The airport was opened in 1938, and is one of the oldest airports of Iran.

Rail[edit]

The railway system of Arak was connected to the Iranian Railways in 1935. Destinations stretch directly from Bandar-e-Shapur in the southwestern Iran to Bandar-e-Torkman under the Caspian Sea.

High-speed rail[edit]

Arak–Qom High Speed Rail is the second high-speed rail project in Iran which will have a junction with Tehran–Qom–Isfahan High Speed Rail at one of the stations in Qom province.[21] The Islamic Republic of Iran Railways signed a €1.2 billion deal with its Italian counterpart for establishing a high-speed railroad between the Iranian cities of Qom and Arak.[22] Iran decided to delegate the project to the Chinese following the withdrawal of an Italian firm due to US sanctions on Iran.[23] This new High Speed Line, part of the Iran National Railway Network, will be a double track passenger railway line and will have an operational speed of 300 km/h.[21]

Public transportation[edit]

Buses provide the bulk of the local public transport in Arak.

Industry[edit]

Arak is one of industrial cities of Iran, that in terms of diversity is the 1st, in terms of heavy industries is the 2nd and totally is one of four industrial hubs of Iran. This city because of the heavy industries, manufacturing 80% of Iran energy equipment, the largest Iranian Machinery company (MSA), the largest heavy equipment manufacturer in the Middle East, the largest locomotive and wagon manufacturer in the Middle East, the largest Aluminum company in Iran, the largest crane manufacturer in the Middle East, Iran's largest mineral company and the largest combine manufacturer in the Middle East; nicknamed the Industrial Capital of Iran.[24][25][26]

Arak has chemical, construction, energy, food, machinery, metal, mining, textile, petroleum and petrochemical Industries that some of those are between basic industries of Iran.[24][26]

The following are a number of important industrial factories based in Arak.

Agriculture and handicrafts[edit]

The main agricultural products of the city are grain, barley, and fruits including grape, apple, walnut, and almond. Arak also exports hand-knotted carpets which are referred to as Sarouk rugs. Saruq is a small village outside Arak, and its name is used in order to prevent confusion with rug from the modern-day country of Iraq.

Main sites[edit]

A ceiling at the Four Seasons Bath.
Yard of the old Sepahdar school.
A ceiling at the old bazaar of Arak.
Arak University, Faculty of Science

Parks and gardens[edit]

  • Nezam Lashgar Garden (Garden of Esmaeili)
  • City Park
  • Amir Kabir Park
  • Jangali Park
  • Kelale Mountain Park
  • Arak Zoo
  • Madar Park

Museums[edit]

  • Soltan Abad Museum
  • Four Seasons Bathroom
  • Museum of Artifacts (Hassan Pour Museum)
  • Museum of Famous Figures (The Hall of Fame of Arak)
  • Grand Museum of Arak

Sports complexes[edit]

Imam Khomeini Stadium
  • Amir Kabir Entertainment and Sports Complex
  • Tufan Entertainment and Sports Complex
  • Shahin Horse Riding Complex

Universities[edit]

Other[edit]

  • The old bazaar of Arak
  • Doab Bridge (built over the Shara River)
  • Mostowfi Mansion
  • Gerdoo Valley (known for its walnut trees and ranges)

Notable people[edit]

Morteza-Qoli Bayat, a former Prime Minister of Iran.

Statesmen and politicians:

Literary, painting, and photography figures:

Sportsmen:

Scientists:

Singers:

Cinema and television artists:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ OpenStreetMap contributors (29 August 2023). "Arak, Arak County" (Map). OpenStreetMap. Retrieved 29 August 2023.
  2. ^ "حکم شهردار اراک ابلاغ شد". isna.ir (in Persian). 22 November 2023. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  3. ^ a b "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1395 (2016)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 00. Archived from the original (Excel) on 17 October 2020. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  4. ^ Arak, Iran can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3053519" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  5. ^ Habibi, Hassan (21 June 1369). "Approval of the organization and chain of citizenship of the elements and units of Markazi province's divisions to the citizenship of Arak city". Lamtakam (in Persian). Ministry of Interior, Political Commission of Defense of the Government Board. Archived from the original on 18 January 2024. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  6. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 00. Archived from the original (Excel) on 20 September 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  7. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1390 (2011)". Syracuse University (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 00. Archived from the original (Excel) on 19 January 2023. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  8. ^ "Industry in Arak". Archived from the original on 7 November 2013.
  9. ^ Network, Creative (4 July 2017). "پایتخت صنعتی ایران". پایگاه خبری روزنامه عطریاس. Archived from the original on 15 August 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  10. ^ Boesch, Hans H. (1 October 1939). "El-'Iraq". Economic Geography. 15 (4): 329. doi:10.2307/141771. JSTOR 141771.
  11. ^ Nourai, Ali. An Etymological Dictionary of Persian, English and other Indo-European Languages. p. 15.
  12. ^ C. Edmund Bosworth, "ʿERĀQ-E ʿAJAM(Ī)". Encyclopaedia Iranica.
  13. ^ "Bowl, Iranian, first half 14th century". Metropolitan Museum of Art website.
  14. ^ de Planhol, X. (1986). "ARĀK". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. II, Fasc. 3. pp. 247–248.
  15. ^ "Arak: Modern Town and Industry". Encyclopaedia Iranica.
  16. ^ Rahimi, Mohammad Reza (25 November 2013). "Approval letter regarding country divisions in Markazi province". Islamic Parliament Research Center (in Persian). Ministry of Interior, Council of Ministers. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2023.
  17. ^ "تبدیل یک شهر دیگر به کلان شهر-سه شنبه، 25 تير -رجانیوز1392 15:57". Archived from the original on 22 December 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  18. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1991-2020: Arak" (CSV). ncei.noaa.gov. NOAA. Retrieved 2 February 2024.
  19. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate normals for 1981-2010: Arak (WMO number:40769)" (XLS). ncei.noaa.gov. NOAA. Retrieved 2 February 2024. Parameter code: 80 Number of days with Sleet/Snow
  20. ^ a b "Arak Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  21. ^ a b scoding607. "Preliminary design of Qom-Arak High Speed Railway Line". Coding. Retrieved 16 June 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  22. ^ "Iran, Italy Sign High-Speed Rail Deal". Financial Tribune. 11 July 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  23. ^ Bharti (10 September 2018). "Construction of High-speed Rail line Project in Iran". Global Tenders global tender world tender notices. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  24. ^ a b "صنایع و معادن اراک درگاه اینترنتی استان مرکزی". markaziportal.ir (in Persian). 17 August 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  25. ^ "Industrial tourism,the neglected capacity of Central Province" گردشگری صنعتی ظرفیت مغفول مانده استان مرکزی (in Persian). Mehr new Agency. Mehr. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  26. ^ a b "WebCite query result". www.webcitation.org. Archived from the original on 7 November 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2018. {{cite web}}: Cite uses generic title (help)
  27. ^ "BEDLĪSĪ, ŠARAF-AL-DĪN KHAN – Encyclopaedia Iranica".

External links[edit]

Media related to Arak at Wikimedia Commons