Araliaceae

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Araliaceae
Temporal range: Eocene–present
Aralia elata en fleur4081.jpg
Aralia elata
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Araliaceae
Juss.[1]
Subfamilies and genera
  • See text
Synonyms

The Araliaceae is a family of flowering plants composed of 55 genera and 1500 species consisting of primarily woody plants and some herbaceous plants.[2][3] The morphology of Araliaceae varies widely, but it is predominantly distinguishable based on its woody habit, tropical distribution, and the presence of simple umbels.[4]

There are numerous plants of economic importance. Some genera, such as Hedera (the ivies) and Schefflera (the umbrella trees), are used as ornamental foliage plants. The family also includes Panax ginseng, the root of which is ginseng, used in traditional Chinese medicine.

Overview[edit]

The morphology of Araliaceae varies widely. Many studies have found that there is no unifying characteristic capable of classifying the family.[5] In general, Araliaceae has large, usually alternate leaves, often with aromatic ethereal oils, five-petaled flowers, two to five carpels, simple umbels, and berries without carpophores or oil cavities.[6] Some taxa carry prickles, and the family is often woody but also occasionally herbaceous. While Araliaceae is predominantly a tropical family, some taxa are also endemic to temperate climates. They are found in the Americas, Eurasia, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, and Pacific islands.

Some examples of Araliaceae include the angelica tree (Aralia spinosa), the devil's club (Oplopanax horridus), ivy (Hedera spp., including Hedera helix), and herbs such as ginseng Panax spp. Leaves are sometimes lauroid (resembling Laurus) and simple to compound; when compound, they are ternate, pinnate, or palmate.

Araliaceae are found in the pluvial montane forest, very humid montane forest, and humid lowland river forest regions. They are present, too, in laurel forest, cloud forest, and warm, humid habitats.

Taxonomy and Systematics[edit]

Araliaceae is one of six angiosperm families recognized by APG IV belonging to the Apiales, an order within the Asterids.[7] Araliaceae is accepted to be a monophyletic branch within the Apiales.[8]

Within Araliaceae, there are four accepted groups:[9]

1. The Greater Raukaua group, sister to the rest of the main Araliaceae clades.

2. The Aralia-Panax group, consisting of the mostly monophyletic genera Aralia and Panax.

3. The Polyscias-Pseudopanax group, sister to both genus Cussonia and the Asian Palmate group.

4. The Asian Palmate group, largest of the groups representing Araliaceae.

There are also multiple taxa that float around these groups, but are not within them.

The generic level classification of the Araliaceae has been unstable and remains under study. For instance, numerous genera have been synonymized under Schefflera, within which about half the species within Araliaceae are placed. Recent molecular phylogenies have shown that this large pantropical genus is polyphyletic[10] and some believe it should be divided again into several genera, though these would probably not correspond with the previously recognized genera.

Recent molecular systematics techniques have made major improvements into understanding of the evolution of Araliaceae, leading to the knowledge existing today. Due to widely varying morphological characters, the systematics of Araliaceae had been largely debated over the past century, especially in the absence of molecular evidence. For instance, Araliaceae were previously merged into the closely related Apiaceae (synonym: Umbelliferae) in some taxonomic treatments that have since been rejected.[11][12] The family is closely related to the Apiaceae and Pittosporaceae, but some of the exact boundaries between Araliaceae and the other families of Apiales are still uncertain and are currently being examined.

One example group that proved problematic for Araliaceae systematics is subfamily Hydrocotyloideae. Molecular phylogenies suggest at least some of the genera traditionally spanning across Araliaceae and Apiaceae as Hydrocotyloideae[13][14] appear to be more closely related to Araliaceae. It has been recommended that subfamily Hydrocotyloideae be narrowed to just include genera Hydrocotyle, Trachymene, and Harmsiopanax to form a monophyletic group in Araliaceae.[15]

Subfamilies and genera[edit]

See also[edit]

List of foliage plant diseases (Araliaceae)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161 (2): 105–121, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x, archived from the original on 2017-05-25, retrieved 2010-12-10
  2. ^ Kim, Kyunghee; Nguyen, Van Binh; Dong, Jingzhou; Wang, Ying; Park, Jee Young; Lee, Sang-Choon; Yang, Tae-Jin (December 2017). "Evolution of the Araliaceae family inferred from complete chloroplast genomes and 45S nrDNAs of 10 Panax-related species". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 4917. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-05218-y. ISSN 2045-2322.
  3. ^ "Araliaceae". succulent-plant.com. Retrieved 2018-02-07.
  4. ^ Elpel, Thomas J., author. Botany in a day : the patterns method of plant identification : an herbal field guide to plant families of North America. ISBN 978-1-892784-35-3. OCLC 1037950883.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ Plunkett, Gregory M.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S. (1996). "Higher level relationships of Apiales (Apiaceae and Araliaceae) based on phylogenetic analysis of rbc L sequences". American Journal of Botany. 83 (4): 499–515. doi:10.1002/j.1537-2197.1996.tb12731.x.
  6. ^ Plant systematics : a phylogenetic approach. Judd, Walter S., Campbell, Christopher S., Kellogg, Elizabeth Anne. (Third ediiton ed.). Sunderland, MA. ISBN 978-0-87893-407-2. OCLC 126229888.CS1 maint: others (link)
  7. ^ The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385.
  8. ^ Kim, Kyunghee; Nguyen, Van Binh; Dong, Jingzhou; Wang, Ying; Park, Jee Young; Lee, Sang-Choon; Yang, Tae-Jin (December 2017). "Evolution of the Araliaceae family inferred from complete chloroplast genomes and 45S nrDNAs of 10 Panax-related species". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 4917. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-05218-y. ISSN 2045-2322.
  9. ^ Li, Rong; Wen, Jun (2016). "Phylogeny and diversification of Chinese Araliaceae based on nuclear and plastid DNA sequence data: Phylogeny and diversification of Chinese Araliaceae". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 54 (4): 453–467. doi:10.1111/jse.12196.
  10. ^ Wen, J., G. M. Plunkett, A. D. Mitchell, and S.J. Wagstaff. 2001. The Evolution of Araliaceae: A Phylogenetic Analysis Based on ITS Sequences of Nuclear Ribosomal DNA. Systematic Botany 26: 144–167 (abstract).
  11. ^ "Araliaceae". succulent-plant.com. Retrieved 2018-02-07.
  12. ^ Judd, Walter S. (1994). Angiosperm family pairs : preliminary phylogenetic analyses. Harvard Papers in Botany. OCLC 30923673.
  13. ^ Plunkett, G.M., Soltis, D.E. & Soltis, P.S. 1997. Clarification of the relationship between Apiaceae and Araliaceae based on MATK and RBCL sequence data. American Journal of Botany 84: 565-580 (available online; pdf file).
  14. ^ Chandler, G. T.; Plunkett, G. M. (2004). "Evolution in Apiales: Nuclear and chloroplast markers together in (almost) perfect harmony". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 144 (2): 123–147. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2003.00247.x.
  15. ^ Nicolas, Antoine N.; Plunkett, Gregory M. (2009). "The demise of subfamily Hydrocotyloideae (Apiaceae) and the re-alignment of its genera across the entire order Apiales". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 53 (1): 134–151. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.06.010.
  16. ^ Manchester, S.R. (1994). "Fruits and Seeds of the Middle Eocene Nut Beds Flora, Clarno Formation, Oregon". Palaeontographica Americana. 58: 30–31.

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