Aram Shah

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Aram Shah
Sultan of Delhi
ReignDecember 1210 – June 1211
PredecessorQutb al-Din Aibak
SuccessorIltutmish
Bornunknown
DiedJune 1211
HouseMamluk dynasty
FatherQutb al-Din Aibak
ReligionIslam

Aram Shah (r. 1210-1211) was the second sultan of the Mamluk dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. He briefly held the throne after the unexpected death of Qutb al-Din Aibak before being defeated and dethroned by Iltutmish.

Origins[edit]

Aram Shah is an obscure figure, and his relationship to his predecessor Qutb al-Din Aibak is not certain. In some manuscripts of Minhaj-i-Siraj's Tabaqat-i Nasiri, the words "bin Aibak" ("son of Aibak") appear after his name in a chapter heading, and later writers believed him to be a son of Aibak. However, the words "bin Aibak" in the headline may have been an erroneous addition made by a scribe.[1] Minhaj-i-Siraj refers to only three daughters of Aibak elsewhere in the text, and Ata-Malik Juvayni's Tarikh-i Jahangushay explicitly states that Aibak did not have any son.[2]

Reign[edit]

In 1210, Qutb al-Din Aibak died unexpectedly in Lahore during a sport game, without having named a successor. To prevent instability in the kingdom, the Turkic nobles (maliks and amirs) in Lahore appointed Aram Shah as his successor at Lahore.[3][2] However, the Turkish nobles in different parts of the Sultanate opposed his ascension, and some of them - such as the Khalji nobles of Bengal - rebelled against him. According to the 16th century historian Firishta, the kingdom also suffered an invasion from the neighbouring ruler Nasir ad-Din Qabacha of Multan.[1]

A group of nobles, led by the military justiciar (Amir-i Dad) Ali-yi Ismail, invited Iltutmish to occupy the throne.[4] Iltutmish, a former slave of Aibak and the governor of Badaun, had a distinguished record of service and was called a son by Aibak, because of which the nobles considered him as a good candidate for the throne.[5] Iltutmish marched to Delhi, where he seized the power, and later defeated Aram Shah's forces at Bagh-i Jud. According to the Tabaqat-i Nasiri, Aram Shah was "martyred": it is not clear if he was killed on the battlefield, or put to death as a prisoner of war.[4] Two of his important officers - Aqsanqar and Farrukh Shah - were killed on the battlefield. Iltutmish subsequently consolidated his power .[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b K. A. Nizami 1992, p. 207.
  2. ^ a b K. A. Nizami 1992, p. 206.
  3. ^ Satish Chandra 2004, p. 39.
  4. ^ a b Peter Jackson 2003, p. 29.
  5. ^ K. A. Nizami 1992, pp. 207-208.
  6. ^ K. A. Nizami 1992, p. 208.

Bibliography[edit]

  • K. A. Nizami (1992). "The Early Turkish Sultans of Delhi". In Mohammad Habib; Khaliq Ahmad Nizami (eds.). A Comprehensive History of India: The Delhi Sultanat (A.D. 1206-1526). 5 (Second ed.). The Indian History Congress / People's Publishing House. OCLC 31870180.
  • Peter Jackson (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3.
  • Satish Chandra (2004). Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals-Delhi Sultanat (1206-1526). 1. Har-Anand Publications. ISBN 978-81-241-1064-5.