|Traded as||Tadawul: 2222|
|Industry||Oil and gas|
|Predecessor||Arabian Standard Oil Company|
|Headquarters||Dhahran, Saudi Arabia|
|Amin H. Al-Nasser, President & CEO |
Yasir Al-Rumayyan, Chairman
Wes Meadows, Executive Director
|Products||Petroleum, natural gas and other petrochemicals|
|Revenue||US$355.9 billion (2018)|
|US$111.1 billion (2018)|
|Total assets||1,494,126,000,000 Saudi riyal (31 December 2019)|
|Owner||Government of Saudi Arabia (98.5%)|
Number of employees
Saudi Aramco (Arabic: أرامكو السعودية ʾArāmkū s-Saʿūdiyyah), officially the Saudi Arabian Oil Company (formerly Arabian-American Oil Company), is a Saudi Arabian multinational petroleum and natural gas company based in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
It is one of the largest companies in the world by revenue. Saudi Aramco has both the world's second-largest proven crude oil reserves, at more than 270 billion barrels (4.3×1010 m3), and largest daily oil production of all oil producing companies.
On 11 December 2019, the company's shares commenced trading on the Tadawul stock exchange. The shares rose to 35.2 riyals, giving it a market capitalisation of about $1.88 trillion, and surpassed the $2 trillion mark on the second day of trading.
Saudi Aramco operates the world's largest single hydrocarbon network, the Master Gas System. Its 2013 crude oil production total was 3.4 billion barrels (540,000,000 m3), and it manages over one hundred oil and gas fields in Saudi Arabia, including 288.4 trillion standard cubic feet (scf) of natural gas reserves. Saudi Aramco operates the Ghawar Field, the world's largest onshore oil field, and the Safaniya Field, the world's largest offshore oil field.
On 9 April 2019, Aramco issued bonds collectively valued at US$12 billion. Its first international bond issue received more than $100 billion in orders from foreign investors, which breaks all records for a bond issue by an emerging market entity.
On Wednesday, 12 June 2019, Aramco reported its net income at $111.1 billion in 2018 compared to $75.9 billion in 2017, with total revenues at $355.9 billion in 2018.
Saudi Aramco's origins trace to the oil shortages of World War I and the exclusion of American companies from Mesopotamia by the United Kingdom and France under the San Remo Petroleum Agreement of 1920. The US administration at the time had popular support for an "Open Door policy", which Herbert Hoover, secretary of commerce, initiated in 1921. Standard Oil of California (SoCal) was among those US companies seeking new sources of oil from abroad.
Through its subsidiary company, the Bahrain Petroleum Co. (BAPCO), SoCal struck oil in Bahrain in May 1932. This event heightened interest in the oil prospects of the Arabian mainland. On 29 May 1933, the Saudi Arabian government granted a concession to SoCal in preference to a rival bid from the Iraq Petroleum Co. The concession allowed SoCal to explore for oil in Saudi Arabia. SoCal assigned this concession to a wholly owned subsidiary, California-Arabian Standard Oil (CASOC). In 1936, with the company having had no success at locating oil, the Texas Oil Co. (Texaco) purchased a 50% stake of the concession. After four years of fruitless exploration, the first success came with the seventh drill site in Dhahran in 1938, a well referred to as Dammam No. 7. This well immediately produced over 1,500 barrels per day (240 m3/d), giving the company confidence to continue. On 31 January 1944, the company name was changed from California-Arabian Standard Oil Co. to Arabian American Oil Co. (or Aramco). In 1948, Standard Oil of New Jersey (later known as Exxon) purchased 30% and Socony Vacuum (later Mobil) purchased 10% of the company, with SoCal and Texaco retaining 30% each. The newcomers were also shareholders in the Iraq Petroleum Co. and had to get the restrictions of the Red Line Agreement lifted in order to be free to enter into this arrangement.
In 1949, ARAMCO had made incursions into the Emirate of Abu Dhabi (now part of the UAE), leading to a border dispute between Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia. In 1950, King Abdulaziz threatened to nationalize his country's oil facilities, thus pressuring Aramco to agree to share profits 50/50.
A similar process had taken place with American oil companies in Venezuela a few years earlier. The American government granted US Aramco member companies a tax break known as the golden gimmick equivalent to the profits given to King Abdulaziz. In the wake of the new arrangement, the company's headquarters were moved from New York to Dhahran. In 1951, the company discovered the Safaniya Oil Field, the world's largest offshore field. In 1957, the discovery of smaller connected oil fields confirmed the Ghawar Field as the world's largest onshore field.
In 1975, the Saudi Arabia second five-year economic plan included a Master Gas Plan. Natural gas would be used to generate power, rather than flaring the gas. The plan counted on using the associated gas, but by 1985, Aramco was able to include a billion standard cubic foot per day (Bscfd) of non-associated gas. This non-associated gas was produced from the Kuff Formation, which is a limestone 650 m below the oil producing Arab Zone. In 1994, Aramco discovered more non-associated gas in the deeper Jawf sandstone formation, and built plants in Hawiyah and Haradh to process it. This increased the capacity of the Master Gas System to 9.4 billion scfd.:98–100,104,129–130,229
In 1973, following US support for Israel during the Yom Kippur War, the Saudi Arabian government acquired a 25% "participation interest" in Aramco's assets. It increased its participation interest to 60% in 1974 and acquired the remaining 40% interest in 1976. Aramco continued to operate and manage the former Aramco assets, including its concessionary interest in certain Saudi Arab oil fields, on behalf of the Saudi Arab Government until 1988. In November 1988, a royal decree created a new Saudi Arab company, the Saudi Arabian Oil Company, to take control of the former Aramco assets (or Saudi Aramco) and took the management and operations control of Saudi Arabia's oil and gas fields from Aramco and its partners. In 1989–90, high-quality oil and gas were discovered in three areas south of Riyadh: the Raghib area about 77 miles southeast of the capital.
In Sept. 1990, after the start of the Gulf War, Aramco was expected to replace much of the oil production removed from the global market due to the embargo of Iraq and occupied Kuwait. This amounted to producing an extra 4.8 million barrels per day (Mbpd) to keep the global oil market stable. In addition, Aramco was expected to provide all of the coalition aviation and diesel needs. Aramco recommissioned 146 Harmaliyah, Khurais, and Ghawar oil wells with associated gas oil separation plants, and saltwater treatment pipeline, that had been mothballed during the 1980s oil price collapse. Daily production increased from 5.4 Mbpd in July to 8.5 Mbpd in Dec. 1990 after a three-month de-mothball effort.:125,135,148–149,155–156
Starting in 1990, Aramco embarked on an expansion of crude oil sales in the Asian market. Agreements with Korea, the Philippines, and China resulted. By 2016, about 70% of Aramco's crude oil sales were to Asia.:168,176,184–185
In May 2001, Saudi Arabia announced the Gas Initiative, which proposed forming 3 joint ventures with 8 IOCs for gas exploration on pure upstream acreage. Core Venture 1 included south Ghawar and north Rub' Al-Khali, Core Venture 2 included the Red Sea, while Core Venture 3 involved Shaybah and Kidan. In 2003, Royal Dutch Shell and Total S.A. formed a partnership with Saudi Aramco in Core Venture 3. In 2004, Core Venture 1 became three separate joint ventures with Saudi Aramco holding 20%, one with Lukoil, a second with Sinopec, and a third with Repsol.:228–232
By 2004, Aramco was producing 8.6 million barrels per day (mbpd) out of a potential 10 mbpd. In 2005, Aramco launched a five-year plan to spend $50 billion to increase their daily capacity to 12.5 mbpd by increasing production and refining capacity and doubling the number of drilling rigs.:241–242
In 2005, Saudi Aramco was the world's largest company with an estimated market value of $781 billion.
In June 2008, in response to crude oil prices exceeding $130 a barrel, Aramco announced it would increase production to 9.7 million barrels per day (mbpd). Then as prices plummeted, Aramco stated in Jan. 2009, that it would reduce production to 7.7 mbpd.:265–267
In 2011, Saudi Aramco started production from the Karan Gas Field, with an output of more than 400 million scf per day.
In January 2016, the Deputy Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, Mohammad bin Salman Al Saud, announced he was considering listing shares of the state-owned company, and selling around 5% of them in order to build a large sovereign fund.
In June 2019, a report by Financial Times claimed that Aramco had been bearing the ministry-related expenses; boosting the finance ministry budget allocation. It also included Energy Minister Khalid Al Falih’s company-related and diplomatic trips, as well as his stays in luxurious hotels. However, an ally mentioned that Falih’s policies have delivered additional oil revenues that far exceeded his expenses.
In September 2019, Saudi Arabia appointed Yasir Al-Rumayyan as the Chairman of Aramco. Al-Rumayyan became head of the country’s sovereign wealth fund by replacing Khalid Al-Falih, who was holding the position since 2015.
In June 2020, Saudi Aramco laid off nearly 500 of its more than 70,000 employees, while the global energy firms were reducing their workforce due to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, majority of the workers who lost their job at Aramco were foreigners.
On August 9, 2020, Saudi Aramco reported a 50 per cent fall in net income for the first half of its financial year, as demand for oil and prices continued to fall due to the coronavirus crisis. This came after Saudi Aramco lost its title as the world’s largest listed company by market capitalization to Apple, on July 31, 2020.
2012 cyber attack
Aramco computers were attacked by a virus on 15 August 2012. The following day Aramco announced that none of the infected computers were part of the network directly tied to oil production, and that the company would soon resume full operations. Hackers claimed responsibility for the spread of the computer virus. The virus hit companies within the oil and energy sectors. A group named "Cutting Sword of Justice" claimed responsibility for an attack on 30,000 Saudi Aramco workstations, causing the company to spend months restoring their services. The group later indicated that the Shamoon virus had been used in the attack. Due to this attack, the main site of Aramco went down and a message came to the home page apologizing to customers. Computer security specialists said that "The attack, known as Shamoon, is said to have hit 'at least one organization' in the sector. Shamoon is capable of wiping files and rendering several computers on a network unusable." Richard Clarke suggests the attack was part of Iran's retaliation for the U.S. involvement in Stuxnet. Security researcher Chris Kubecka, who helped the company establish security after the attack, detailed the level of sophistication in her Black Hat USA 2015 presentation  and episode 30 of Darknet Diaries.
2019 drone attack
On 14 September 2019, there was a drone attack on two Saudi Aramco plants: the Abqaiq oil processing facility and Khurais oil field. Houthi rebels claimed responsibility for the attack. The attack cut 5.7 million barrels per day (bpd) of Saudi crude output, over 5 percent of the world's supply. There were discussions by Saudi Arabian officials on postponing Aramco's IPO, because the attacks "sidelined more than half of the kingdom's output" of oil.
2019 Initial public offering (IPO)
Since around 2018, Saudi Arabia had been considering to put a portion of Saudi Aramco's ownership, up to 5%, onto public trading via a staged initial public offering (IPO), as to reduce the cost to the government of running the company. While the IPO had been vetted by major banks, the IPO was delayed over concerns of Aramco's corporate structure through 2018 into 2019. The September 2019 drone attacks on Aramco's facilities also delayed the onset of the IPO.
On November 9, 2019, Saudi Aramco released a 600-page prospectus giving details of the IPO. According to the specifications provided, up to 0.5 per cent of the shares were locked for individual retail investors.
On 4 December 2019, Saudi Aramco priced its offering at 32 Saudi riyal (approximately $8.53) per share. The company generated subscriptions of total amount equals $119 billion representing 456% of total offer shares. It raised $25.6 billion in its IPO, making it the world's largest IPO to date, succeeding that of the Alibaba Group in 2014. The company commenced trading on Tadawul on 11 December 2019, with shares rising 10% to 35.2 riyals, giving the company a market capitalisation of about $1.88 trillion, and making Saudi Aramco the world's largest listed company.
Saudi Aramco is headquartered in Dhahran, but its operations span the globe and include exploration, production, refining, chemicals, distribution and marketing. All these activities of the company are monitored by the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources together with the Supreme Council for Petroleum and Minerals. However, the ministry has much more responsibility in this regard than the council.
Board of directors
- Yasir Othman Al-Rumayyan (chairman), member of the Council of Economic and Development Affairs (Saudi Arabia)
- Ibrahim Abdulaziz Al-Assaf, former Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Finance
- Mohammed Al-Jadaan, current Minister of Finance
- Mohammad M. Al-Tuwaijri, former Minister of Economy and Planning
- Nabil Al-Amoudi, former Minister of Transport
- Mark Moody-Stuart, former chairman of Anglo American, HSBC, and the Foundation for the United Nations Global Compact
- Andrew N. Liveris, former chairman and CEO of Dow Chemical
- Lynn Elsenhans, former chairwoman and CEO of Sunoco
- Peter Cella, former president and CEO of Chevron Philips Chemical
- Mark Weinberger, former chairman and CEO of Ernst & Young
- Amin H. Nasser, president and CEO of Saudi Aramco
A significant portion of the Saudi Aramco workforce consists of geophysicists and geologists. Saudi Aramco has been exploring for oil and gas reservoirs since 1982. Most of this process takes place at the EXPEC Advanced Research Center. Originally, Saudi Aramco used Cray Supercomputers (CRAY-1M) in its EXPEC Advanced Research Center (ECC) to assist in processing the colossal quantity of data obtained during exploration and in 2001, ECC decided to use Linux clusters as a replacement for the decommissioned Cray systems. ECC installed a new supercomputing system in late 2009 with a disk storage capacity of 1,050 terabytes (i.e, exceeding one petabyte), the largest storage installation in Saudi Aramco's history to support its exploration in the frontier areas and the Red Sea.
Refining and chemicals
While the company did not originally plan on refining oil, the Saudi government wished to have only one company dealing with oil production. Therefore, on 1 July 1993, the government issued a royal decree merging Saudi Aramco with Samarec, the country's oil refining company. The following year, a Saudi Aramco subsidiary acquired a 40% equity interest in Petron Corporation, the largest crude oil refiner and marketer in the Philippines. Since then, Saudi Aramco has taken on the responsibility of refining oil and distributing it in the country. In 2008, Saudi Aramco sold its entire stake to the Ashmore Group, a London-listed investment group. Ashmore acquired an additional 11% when it made a required tender offer to other shareholders. By July 2008, Ashmore, through its SEA Refinery Holdings B.V., had a 50.57 percent of Petron's stock. Ashmore's payment was made in December 2008. In December 2008, Ashmore acquired PNOC's 40% stake. In the same month, San Miguel Corporation (SMC) said it was in the final stages of negotiations with the Ashmore Group to buy up to 50.1 percent of Petron. In 2010, SMC acquired majority control of Petron Corporation.
Currently,[when?] Saudi Aramco's refining capacity is 5.4 million barrels per day (860,000 m3/d) (International joint and equity ventures: 2,500 Mbbl/d (400,000,000 m3/d), domestic joint ventures: 1,900 mpbd, and wholly owned domestic operations: 1,000 Mbbl/d (160,000,000 m3/d).)
Saudi Aramco's downstream operations are shifting emphasis to integrate refineries with petrochemical facilities. Their first venture into it is with Petro Rabigh, which is a joint venture with Sumitomo Chemical Co. that began in 2005 on the coast of the Red Sea. In order to become a global leader in chemicals, Aramco will acquire 50% of Royal Dutch Shell's stake in their refiner in Saudi Arabia for $631 million.
List of refineries
List of domestic refineries:
- Jazan Refinery and terminal projects (JRTP) (400,000 bbl/d (64,000 m3/d)), Jazan construction is ongoing.
- Jeddah Refinery (78,000 bbl/d (12,400 m3/d)) Jeddah converted to product storage terminal in Nov. '17.
- Ras Tanura Refinery (550,000 bbl/d (87,000 m3/d)) (includes a Crude Distillation Unit, a Gas Condensate Unit, a hydrocracker, and catalytic reforming)
- Riyadh Refinery (126,000 bbl/d (20,000 m3/d))
- Yanbu Refinery (245,000 bbl/d (39,000 m3/d))
List of domestic refining ventures:
- The Saudi Aramco Mobil Refinery Co. Ltd. (SAMREF), Yanbu (400,000 bbl/d (64,000 m3/d))
- The Saudi Aramco Shell Refinery Co. (SASREF), Jubail (300,000 bbl/d (48,000 m3/d))
- Petro Rabigh, Rabigh (400,000 bbl/d (64,000 m3/d))
- Saudi Aramco Base Oil Co. (Luberef)
- Saudi Aramco Total Refining and Petrochemical Co. (SATORP), Jubail (400,000 bbl/d (64,000 m3/d))
- Yanbu Aramco Sinopec Refinery (YASREF), Yanbu (400,000 bbl/d (64,000 m3/d))
List of international refining ventures:
- Fujian Refining and Petrochemical Co. (FRPC), People's Republic of China
- Sinopec SenMei (Fujian) Petroleum Co. Ltd. (SSPC), People's Republic of China
- Motiva Enterprises LLC, United States, Port Arthur Texas 635,000 bbl/d (101,000 m3/d)
- Showa Shell, Japan 445,000 bbl/d (70,700 m3/d)
- S-Oil, Republic of Korea 669,000 bbl/d (106,400 m3/d)
- Saudi Refining Inc., United States
- Reliance Industries,(no investment) India
Saudi Aramco has employed several tankers to ship crude oil, refined oil, and natural gas to various countries. It used to have its own created subsidiary company, Vela International Marine, which was merged with Bahri company, to handle shipping to North America, Europe, and Asia. It is a stakeholder in the King Salman Global Maritime Industries Complex, a shipyard that will be the largest in the world when complete.
Saudi Aramco expanded its presence worldwide to include the three major global energy markets of Asia, Europe, and North America. In April 2019, Aramco has signed a deal to acquire a 13% stake in South Korean oil refiner Hyundai Oilbank for $1.24 billion. Moreover, on 11 April 2019, Aramco signed an agreement with Poland’s leading oil refiner PKN Orlen to supply it with Arabian Crude Oil.
Liquefied natural gas
Aramco is planning to be a major producer of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the world. It sold its first cargo of LNG from Singapore to an Indian buyer. The company is looking globally for potential joint ventures and partnerships to achieve its goal regarding LNG market.
The original concession agreement included Article 23; as Ali Al-Naimi pointed out, this was a "key building block in the shaping of Saudi society for decades to come." It reads, "The enterprise under this contract shall be directed and supervised by Americans who shall employ Saudi nationals as far as practicable, and in so far as the company can find suitable Saudi employees it will not employ other nationals." The first company school was started in May 1940 in the Al-Khobar home of Hijji bin Jassim, company interpreter, translator and first instructor. Al-Naimi pointed out, "From the beginning, the development of Aramco was directly tied to the betterment of Saudi Arabia." Another school was located in Dhahran in 1941, and was called the Jebel School. Boys hired into entry-level positions attended at 7 AM for four hours, followed by four hours of work in the afternoon. In 1950, Aramco built schools for 2,400 students. In 1959, Aramco sent the first group of Saudi students to college in the States. In 1970, Aramco started hiring its first high school graduates, and in 1979 started offering college scholarships. In 1965, Zafer H. Husseini was named the first Saudi manager and in 1974, Faisal Al-Bassam was named the first Saudi vice president. One of the early students was Al-Naimi, who was named the first Saudi president of Aramco in Nov. 1983. As Al-Naimi states, "The oil company committed itself to developing qualified Saudis to become fully educated and trained industry professionals." Al-Naimi acknowledged Thomas Barger's championing of Saudization, "You, of all of Aramco's leaders, had the greatest vision when you supported the training effort of Saudi Arab employees during its early days. That visionary support and effort is bearing fruit now and many executive positions are filled by Saudis because of that effort." In 1943, 1,600 Saudis were employed at Aramco, but by 1987, nearly two-thirds of Aramco's 43,500 strong workforce were Saudis. In 1988, Al-Naimi became CEO and Hisham Nazer became chairman, the first Saudis to hold those positions. The "pinnacle of Saudization" occurred when the Shaybah oil field came on line in July 1998, after a three-year effort by a team consisting of 90% Saudis. The Aramco of 2016 still maintained an expatriate workforce of about 15%, so Aramco can, in the words of Al-Naimi, "be sure it is getting access to the latest innovations and technical expertise."
In a letter sent to nine international banks reportedly hired by Aramco to assist it in arranging its $2tn market debut, 10 green groups warned about the listing causing a highly possible hindrance in the fight against greenhouse gas emissions and human rights abuses committed by the Saudi regime.
On 6 November 2019, Saudi Aramco joined the World Bank's initiative to reduce gas flaring to zero by 2030. The firm reported flaring of less than 1 per cent of its total raw gas production in the first half of 2019.
- Max Steineke
- List of oil fields: All of those located in Saudi Arabia are owned by Saudi Aramco.
- Aramco Financial Services Company
- Aramco Training Services Company
- Golden gimmick
- Thomas Barger
- Discovery! The Search for Arabian Oil
- Saudi Aramco Medical Services Organization
- Saudi Aramco Residential Camp in Dhahran
- List of largest companies of Saudi Arabia
- List of corporations by market capitalization
- Ras Tanura
- Hui-Hai Liu
- "Saudi oil company named world's most profitable business". Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "The Aramco Accounts: Inside the World's Most Profitable Company". Archived from the original on 13 April 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
- https://www.saudiaramco.com/-/media/publications/corporate-reports/saudi-aramco-ara-2019-english.pdf?la=en; annual report; publication date: 2020.
- "Saudi Aramco raises $25.6 billion in the world's biggest IPO". CNN Business. 25 September 2019.
- "Key facts and figures". Saudi Aramco. Archived from the original on 6 June 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
- The Report: Saudi Arabia 2009. Oxford Business Group. 2009. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-907065-08-8. Archived from the original on 29 June 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
- "Our company. At a glance". Saudi Aramco. Archived from the original on 17 October 2018. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
The Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco) is the state-owned oil company of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
- OPEC, Annual Statistical Bulletin 2016 Archived 21 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine
- "International - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)". www.eia.gov. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
- Saudi Arabia - Overview (PDF) (Report). Energy Information Administration. 20 October 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 May 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- Riley, Charles. "The world has its first $2 trillion company. But for how long?". CNN. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- Aramco Overseas Company - About Saudi Aramco Archived 18 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine, aramcooverseas.com. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- "About that $100bn+ Saudi Aramco order book". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- "Aramco smashes market record with $100bn orders for new bonds". Arab News. 9 April 2019. Archived from the original on 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- "Orders for first Saudi Aramco bond smash $100bn". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- "Saudi Aramco reports 2018 net income of $111.1 billion". Reuters. 12 June 2019. Archived from the original on 16 June 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
- "Conference of San Remo". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- Owen, E.W. (1975). Trek of the Oil Finders: A History of Exploration for Petroleum. Tulsa: AAPG. pp. 1290–93.
- Yergin, Daniel (2008). The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money and Power. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 265–74. ISBN 978-1439110126.
- "Oil Company Histories". Virginia University. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- "Seven Wells Of Dammam". Saudi Aramco World. Archived from the original on 24 December 2017. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
- "Saudi Arabian Oil Company History from Fundinguniverse.com". Funding Universe. Archived from the original on 28 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- "The Story of Oil in Saudi Arabia". Saudi Gazette. 18 May 2008. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- Morton, Michael Q. (2013). "Once Upon a Red Line: The Iraq Petroleum Company Story". GeoExpro (Ipad App 6). Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- Clive., Leatherdale (1983). Britain and Saudi Arabia, 1925-1939 : the Imperial Oasis. London, England: F. Cass. ISBN 9780714632209. OCLC 10877465.
- "From Arab Nationalism to OPEC: Eisenhower, King Saʻūd, and the making of U.S-Saudi relations", Nathan J. Citino, Indian University Press, 2002, 2002, ISBN 9780253340955, archived from the original on 25 October 2015, retrieved 28 February 2012
- "Saudi Aramco by the Numbers". Saudi Aramco World. 9 (3). May–June 2008. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- Al-Naimi, Ali (2016). Out of the Desert. Great Britain: Portfolio Penguin. pp. 14, 26–28, 50–51, 76, 93, 109–110, 119, 122–123, 129, 143, 222. ISBN 9780241279250.
- "Timeline". Saudi Embassy. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "Saudi Aramco Announces Oil and Gas Find, Third Since July". Associated Press. 7 January 1990. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- "Financial Times Non-public Top 150". Financial Times. 14 December 2006. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- DiPaola, Anthony (26 July 2011). "Saudi Aramco Starts Production From Karan Gas Field in July". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
- "Saudi Arabia is considering an IPO of Aramco, probably the world's most valuable company". The Economist. 7 January 2016. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- Jones, Rory; Said, Summer (6 September 2018). "Aramco Weighs $1 Billion Venture Capital Fund For Tech". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 7 September 2018. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
- "Saudi Aramco battles oil ministry over use of company funds". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 20 June 2019. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
- "Saudi Arabia names head of PIF as Aramco chairman". CompuServe. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- "Saudi Aramco extends payment plan as it closes $69bn Sabic deal". Financial Times. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
- "Saudi Aramco cuts hundreds of jobs amid oil market downturn, sources say". Reuters. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
- "Saudi Aramco profit drops 50% for first half of the year as pandemic batters oil price". CNBC. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
- Perlroth, Nicole (24 October 2012). "Cyberattack On Saudi Firm Disquiets U.S.". The New York Times. p. A1.
- "Saudi Aramco says virus shuts down its computer network". 15 August 2012. Archived from the original on 4 January 2013.
- "Aramco Says Virus Attacks Network, Oil Output Unaffected". 16 August 2012. Archived from the original on 19 August 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- Arthur, Charles (16 August 2012). "Saudi Aramco hit by computer virus". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 27 March 2016. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- "Shamoon virus attacks Saudi oil company". Digital Journal. 18 August 2012. Archived from the original on 21 August 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "Shamoon virus targets energy sector infrastructure". BBC News. 16 August 2012. Archived from the original on 17 October 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- "Virus knocks out computers at Qatari gas firm RasGas". CNET. 30 August 2012. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
- "Some Signs Point to Shamoon as Malware in Aramco Attack". Threat Post. 16 August 2012. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- in Zero Days, 1:43
- "Black Hat 2015: Rebuilding IT security after a cyber disaster". SearchSecurity. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
- Mahoney, Matt. "Diving Deeper into Cyber Survival". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
- "Shamoon – Darknet Diaries". darknetdiaries.com. Archived from the original on 18 September 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
- "Major Saudi Arabia oil facilities hit by Houthi drone strikes". The Guardian. Associated Press. 14 September 2019. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 14 September 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- "Saudi Aramco drone attack: See damage caused to oil field; what are the implications". Moneycontrol. Archived from the original on 21 September 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- "Yemeni Rebels Claim Drone Strikes on Saudi Arabia's Aramco, World's Biggest Oil Processing Facility". News18. Archived from the original on 21 September 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- Eberhart, Dan. "Drone Attacks Test Saudi Aramco, Deliver Wake Up Call To Global Markets". Forbes. Archived from the original on 17 September 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- Johnson, Keith. "How an Aerial Barrage Cut Saudi Oil Production in Half". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 16 September 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- "How the Saudi Aramco attack affects global oil supply". The Economic Times. 16 September 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 September 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Turak, Natasha (10 September 2019). "Saudi Aramco CEO confirms IPO will list locally 'very soon'". CNBC. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- Turak, Natasha (16 September 2019). "New security fears jeopardize Saudi Aramco's public stock offering following attack". CNBC. Archived from the original on 16 September 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- "Saudi Aramco kick-starts what could be world's biggest IPO, offers scant details". Reuters. 3 November 2019. Archived from the original on 3 November 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
- Graham, Holly Ellyatt,Emma (3 November 2019). "Saudi Arabia formally announces Aramco IPO with a domestic listing set for December". CNBC. Archived from the original on 3 November 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
- "Saudi Aramco will provide lower than 1% of its shares to particular person traders. It nonetheless could be the most important IPO ever". Business News. Archived from the original on 11 November 2019. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
- Business, Julia Horowitz and John Defterios, CNN. "Saudi Aramco raises $25.6 billion in the world's biggest IPO". CNN. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
- Jolly, Jasper (11 December 2019). "Saudi Aramco shares soar as it becomes world's largest listed company". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- Rashad, Marwa; Hasan, Saeed; Kalin, Stephen (11 December 2019). "'Vindication' - Saudi Arabia hails 10% debut jump in Aramco shares". Reuters. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- "Saudi Arabia". Revenue Watch Institution. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
- Cray FAQ Part 3: FAQ kind of items Archived 21 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine, spikynorman.dsl.pipex.com. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- "Saudi EXPEC Computer Center Deploys Supercomputer", 24 February 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- "Saudi Aramco Annual Review 2015" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 November 2016. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
- "Aramco to buy Shell's stake in Saudi refining JV for $631 million". Reuters. 21 April 2019. Archived from the original on 21 April 2019. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
- Jazan mega-project powers forward
- "SAUDI ARAMCO TOTAL Refining and Petrochemical Co. (SATORP) completes US$8.5 Billion project financing for Jubail Refinery". Archived from the original on 24 January 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- Saudi Aramco Annual Review 2010 Archived 6 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine, saudiaramco.com. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- Seba, Erwin (18 March 2016). "After Motiva split, Saudi Aramco aims to buy more U.S. refineries - sources". Reuters. Archived from the original on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
- "Saudi Aramco ready for record $2tn IPO after first-half results". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 August 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
- "History". Vela International Marine Limited. Archived from the original on 2 March 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- "Bahri, Partners Step Closer to Set Up Maritime Yard in Saudi Arabia". World Maritime News. 1 June 2016. Archived from the original on 7 June 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
- "Global presence". www.saudiaramco.com. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "Saudi Aramco to take 13% stake in Hyundai Oilbank". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "Saudi Aramco to acquire stake in South Korean Hyundai Oilbank". www.saudiaramco.com. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "Aramco Trading expands collaborations in key European markets by signing Supply Agreement with "PKN Orlen", Poland's leading oil refiner". www.saudiaramco.com. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "Saudi Aramco Sells First LNG as Oil Behemoth Expands Into Gas". 24 April 2019. Archived from the original on 25 April 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
- "Saudi Aramco, on hunt for joint ventures, sells its first LNG cargo". BusinessLIVE. Archived from the original on 25 April 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
- "Revealed: the 20 firms behind a third of all carbon emissions". The Guardian. 9 October 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
- "Banks warned over Saudi Aramco by environmental groups". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 October 2019. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
- "Saudi Aramco joins initiative to reduce flaring to zero by 2030". Africazine. Archived from the original on 7 November 2019. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
- Vitalis, Robert (2006). America's Kingdom: Mythmaking on the Saudi Oil Frontier. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-5446-0.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saudi Aramco.|
- Web site of Aramco Services Co. - Saudi Aramco's US Subsidiary
- A CNN report about the security of oil in Saudi Arabia. Much of it is about Saudi Aramco security.
- Saudi Arabia's crude oil production chart (1980-2004) - Data sourced from the US Department of Energy
- CBS 60 Minutes (2008-12-07) "The Oil Kingdom: Part One".
- CBS 60 Minutes (2008-12-07) "The Oil Kingdom: Part Two".