Araneoidea

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Araneoidea
Araneus diadematus (aka).jpg
Araneus diadematus, Araneidae
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Infraorder: Araneomorphae
Clade: Entelegynae
Superfamily: Araneoidea

Araneoidea is a taxon of araneomorph spiders, termed "araneoids", treated as a superfamily. As with many such groups, its circumscription has varied; in particular some families at one time moved to the Palpimanoidea have more recently been restored to Araneoidea. A 2014 treatment includes 18 families, with the araneoids making up about 26% of the total number of known spider species;[1] a 2016 treatment includes essentially the same taxa, but now divided into 17 families.[2]

Taxonomy[edit]

The table below shows some alternative circumscriptions between 1986 and 2016.

Changing circumscriptions of Araneoidea
Family Shear (1986)[3] Coddington & Levi (1991)[4] Griswold et al. (2005)[5] Hormiga & Griswold (2014)[1] Dimitrov et al. (2016)[2]
Archaeidae yes
Nicodamidae yes
Anapidae yes
Araneidae yes
Arkyidae yes (included in Araneidae) yes
Cyatholipidae yes
Holarchaeidae yes yes (included in Anapidae)
Linyphiidae yes
Malkaridae yes
Micropholcommatidae yesa possible yes (included in Anapidae)
Mimetidae yes yes
Mysmenidae yes
Nephilidae
(now included in Araneidae)
yes (included in Araneidae) yes (included in Tetragnathidae) yes yes (included in Araneidae)
Nesticidae yes
Pararchaeidae yes yes (included in Malkaridae)
Physoglenidae yes (included in Synotaxidae) yes
Pimoidae yes
Symphytognathidae yes
Synaphridae yes
Synotaxidae yes
Tetragnathidae yes (included in Araneidae) yes
Theridiidae yes
Theridiosomatidae yes
Notes
a including Textricellidae, treated as a separate family by Shear (1986)

Many of the differences in circumscription concern the relationship between Araneoidea and Palpimanoidea. In 1984, Raymond R. Forster and Norman I. Platnick proposed that some groups previously considered araneoid actually belonged in the distantly related Palpimanoidea, including the families Holarchaeidae, Micropholcommatidae, Mimetidae and Pararchaeidae. Subsequent phylogenetic studies have rejected this proposal, firmly placing these four families in Araneoidea (some included in other families).[1][2]

Two families in the table above are placed elsewhere, the Archaeidae in the Palpimanoidea,[6] the Nicodamidae as the sister to the araneoids (see the cladograms below).

Phylogeny[edit]

Although, as the table above shows, there is an increasing consensus on the circumscription of Araneoidea, the relationship between many of its families remains uncertain. In 2014, Hormiga and Griswold produced the summary cladogram shown below, based on what they considered to be the nine most comprehensive phylogenetic studies of Araneoidea prior to their article. Polytomies in the cladogram represent either conflicting results from the different studies or the absence of sufficiently comprehensive studies.[7] A subsequent study by Dimitrov et al. in 2016 produced more resolved cladograms; their maximum likelihood cladogram based on the analysis of their entire dataset is shown below. Some of their other analyses produced different results; for example, a Bayesian analysis produced a monophyletic Anapidae rather than splitting it into two clades. They concluded that "the amount of information available to resolve these families is limited, particularly at the interfamilial and deeper levels. Only some of the interfamilial groupings ... were recovered with high support." One clade which is well supported is (Mimetidae + (Arkyidae + Tetragnathidae)).[2] Both Hormiga and Griswold and Dimitrov et al. conclude that the sister taxon of Araneoidea is Nicodamidae s.l. (which Dimitrov et al. split into two families and call Nicodamoidea).

Hormiga & Griswold (2014)[1] Dimitrov et al. (2016)[2]


Nicodamidae



Araneoidea

Holarchaeidae



Pararchaeidae



Malkaridae




Araneidae



Nephilidae





Tetragnathidae



Mimetidae





Linyphiidae



Pimoidae






Theridiidae



Nesticidae





Synotaxidae




Cyatholipidae



Synaphridae



Theridiosomatidae



Mysmenidae




Anapidae (including Micropholcommatidae)



Symphytognathidae










Nicodamoidea

Megadictynidae



Nicodamidae



Araneoidea


Anapidae I (incl. Micropholcommatidae, Holarchaeidae)



Theridiidae







Theridiosomatidae



Synotaxidae




Araneidae (including Nephilidae)







Nesticidae





Synaphridae



Symphytognathidae





Anapidae II



Cyatholipidae







 Physoglenidae



 Pimoidae + Linyphiidae






Mysmenidae




Malkaridae (incl. Pararchaeidae)




Mimetidae




Arkyidae



Tetragnathidae










It is likely that relationships will change further when more studies are carried out, since "currently available molecular and morphological data are insufficient to robustly resolve relationships".[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Hormiga, Gustavo & Griswold, Charles E. (2014), "Systematics, Phylogeny, and Evolution of Orb-Weaving Spiders", Annual Review of Entomology, 59 (1): 487–512, doi:10.1146/annurev-ento-011613-162046, PMID 24160416 
  2. ^ a b c d e Dimitrov, Dimitar; Benavides, Ligia R.; Arnedo, Miquel A.; Giribet, Gonzalo; Griswold, Charles E.; Scharff, Nikolaj & Hormiga, Gustavo (2016), "Rounding up the usual suspects: a standard target-gene approach for resolving the interfamilial phylogenetic relationships of ecribellate orb-weaving spiders with a new family-rank classification (Araneae, Araneoidea)" (PDF), Cladistics, doi:10.1111/cla.12165, retrieved 2016-10-18 
  3. ^ Shear, J.A. (1986), "Taxonomic Glossary", in Shear, W.A., Spiders: Webs, Behavior, and Evolution, Stanford University Press, pp. 405ff, ISBN 978-0-8047-1203-3, retrieved 2015-10-13 
  4. ^ Coddington, Jonathan A. & Levi, Herbert W. (1991), "Systematics and evolution of spiders (Araneae)", Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics: 565–592, doi:10.1146/annurev.es.22.110191.003025, JSTOR 2097274 
  5. ^ Griswold, C.E.; Ramirez, M.J.; Coddington, J.A. & Platnick, N.I. (2005), "Atlas of phylogenetic data for entelegyne spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae: Entelegynae) with comments on their phylogeny" (PDF), Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 56 (Suppl. 2): 1–324, retrieved 2015-10-11 
  6. ^ Hormiga & Griswold (2014), p. 492
  7. ^ Hormiga & Griswold (2014), p. 493
  8. ^ Hormiga & Griswold (2014), p. 505

Data related to Araneoidea at Wikispecies