Araneomorphae

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Araneomorph spiders
Temporal range: Triassic–present
Nephila inaurata1.JPG
Nephila inaurata (Nephilidae)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Suborder: Opisthothelae
Infraorder: Araneomorphae
Subdivisions
Diversity
95 families

The Araneomorphae (also called the Labidognatha) are an infraorder of spiders. They are distinguishable by chelicerae (fangs) that point diagonally forward and cross in a pinching action, in contrast to the Mygalomorphae (tarantulas and their close kin), where they point straight down. Araneomorphs comprise the vast majority of living spiders.

Hippasa agelenoides – common funnel web spider

Distinguishing characteristics[edit]

Most spider species are Araneomorphae, which have fangs that face towards each other, increasing the orientations they can employ during prey capture. They have fewer book lungs (when present), and the females typically live one year.

The Mygalomorphae have fangs that face towards the ground, and which are parallel to the long axis of the spider's body, thus they have only one orientation they can employ during prey capture. They have four pairs of book lungs, and the females often live many years.[1]

Spiders included[edit]

Almost all of the familiar spiders are included in the Araneomorphae group, the major exception are the Tarantulas. There are a few other Mygalomorphae species that live around homes or gardens, but they typically are relatively small and not easily noticed.

The Araneomorphae, to the contrary, include the weavers of spiral webs; the cobweb spiders that live in the corners of rooms, and between windows and screens; the crab spiders that lurk on the surfaces of flowers in gardens; the jumping spiders that are visible hunting on surfaces; the wolf spiders that carpet hunting sites in sunny spots; and the large huntsman spiders.

Systematics[edit]

In older schemes, the Araneomorphae were divided into two lineages, the Hypochilae (containing only the family Hypochilidae), and the Neocribellatae. The Neocribellatae were in turn divided into the Austrochiloidea, and the two series Haplogynae and Entelogynae, each containing several superfamilies. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the Haplogyne in particular are not a monophyletic group. A 2020 study suggested the relationships among the major groups were as shown in the following cladogram.[2]

Araneomorphae

Filistatidae + Hypochilidae

Synspermiata

Leptonetidae

Austrochiloidea

Palpimanoidea

Entelegynae

This relationship was supported in a 2021 study, except for the division of Leptonetidae into two families:[3] The added yellow shading shows the former Haplogynae in the sense of Coddington (2005).[4]

Araneomorphae

Filistatidae + Hypochilidae

Synspermiata

Archoleptonetidae

Leptonetidae

Austrochiloidea

Palpimanoidea

Entelegynae

Table of families[edit]

Key
Genera 1 ≥2 ≥10 ≥100
Species 1–9 ≥10 ≥100 ≥1000
Araneomorphae families[note 1]
Family Genera Species Common name Example
Agelenidae 78 1282 araneomorph funnel-web spiders Hobo spider
Amaurobiidae 49 274 tangled nest spiders Callobius claustrarius
Ammoxenidae 4 18
Anapidae 58 223
Anyphaenidae 56 563 anyphaenid sac spiders Yellow ghost spider
Araneidae 174 3128 orb-weaver spiders Zygiella x-notata
Archaeidae 5 90 pelican spiders Madagascarchaea gracilicollis
Arkyidae 2 37
Austrochilidae 3 10 Tasmanian cave spider
Caponiidae 18 119 Diploglena capensis
Cheiracanthiidae
(syn. Eutichuridae)
12 351 Cheiracanthium mildei
Cithaeronidae 2 8
Clubionidae 15 618 sac spiders Clubiona trivialis
Corinnidae 67 779 dark sac spiders Castianeira sp.
Ctenidae 47 525 tropical wolf spiders Brazilian wandering spiders
Cyatholipidae 23 58
Cybaeidae 19 259
Cycloctenidae 8 80
Deinopidae 2 65 net-casting spiders Rufous net-casting spider
Desidae 60 297 intertidal spiders Phryganoporus candidus
Dictynidae 52 464 Nigma walckenaeri
Diguetidae 2 15 coneweb spiders
Drymusidae 2 17 false violin spiders
Dysderidae 24 564 woodlouse hunter spiders Woodlouse spider
Eresidae 9 98 velvet spiders Eresus sandaliatus
Filistatidae 19 164 crevice weavers Southern house spider
Gallieniellidae 10 56
Gnaphosidae[note 2] 158 2532 flat-bellied ground spiders Drassodes cupreus
Gradungulidae 7 16 large-clawed spiders Carrai cave spider
Hahniidae 23 346 dwarf sheet spiders
Hersiliidae 16 181 tree trunk spiders Hersilia savignyi
Homalonychidae 1 3
Huttoniidae 1 1 Huttonia palpimanoides
Hypochilidae 2 12 lampshade spiders Hypochilus thorelli
Lamponidae 23 192 White-tailed spider
Leptonetidae 21 346 Tooth cave spider
Linyphiidae 607 4566 dwarf / money spiders Linyphia triangularis
Liocranidae 31 272 liocranid sac spiders
Lycosidae 124 2419 wolf spiders Lycosa tarantula
Malkaridae 11 46 shield spiders
Mecysmaucheniidae 7 25
Megadictynidae 2 2
Mimetidae 12 152 pirate spiders Oarces reticulatus
Miturgidae 29 130 long-legged sac spiders
Mysmenidae 13 137 spurred orb-weavers
Nesticidae 16 278 cave cobweb spiders Nesticella marapu
Nicodamidae 7 27
Ochyroceratidae 20 216 midget ground weavers Theotima minutissima
Oecobiidae 6 113 disc web spiders Oecobius navus
Oonopidae 114 1801 dwarf hunting spiders Oonops domesticus
Orsolobidae 30 188
Oxyopidae 9 457 lynx spiders Green lynx spider
Pacullidae 4 38
Palpimanidae 18 150 palp-footed spiders
Penestomidae 1 9
Periegopidae 1 3
Philodromidae 30 539 philodromid crab spiders Philodromus dispar
Pholcidae 77 1666 daddy long-legs spiders Pholcus phalangioides
Phrurolithidae 13 205
Physoglenidae 13 72
Phyxelididae 14 64
Pimoidae 4 41 Pimoa cthulhu
Pisauridae 51 356 nursery web spiders Pisaura mirabilis
Plectreuridae 2 31
Psechridae 2 61
Salticidae 635 6080 jumping spiders Zebra spider
Scytodidae 5 248 spitting spiders Scytodes thoracica
Segestriidae 4 130 tubeweb spiders Segestria florentina
Selenopidae 10 257 wall spiders Selenops radiatus
Senoculidae 1 31
Sicariidae 3 1623 recluse spiders Brown recluse
Sparassidae 88 1224 huntsman spiders Avondale spider
Stenochilidae 2 13
Stiphidiidae 20 125 Tartarus mullamullangensis
Symphytognathidae 8 73 dwarf orb-weavers Patu digua
Synaphridae 3 13
Synotaxidae 1 11
Telemidae 10 79 long-legged cave spiders
Tetrablemmidae 27 129 armored spiders
Tetragnathidae 48 996 long jawed orb-weavers Orchard spider
Theridiidae 124 2503 cobweb spiders Redback spider
Theridiosomatidae 19 124 ray spiders Theridiosoma gemmosum
Thomisidae 170 2171 crab spiders Goldenrod spider
Titanoecidae 5 53 Goeldia obscura
Toxopidae 14 82
Trachelidae 18 232
Trechaleidae 16 120
Trochanteriidae 19 153
Trogloraptoridae 1 1 Trogloraptor marchingtoni
Udubidae 4 15
Uloboridae 19 283 hackled orb-weavers Uloborus walckenaerius
Viridasiidae 2 9
Xenoctenidae 4 33
Zodariidae 85 1141 ant spiders Zodarion germanicum
Zoropsidae 26 180 Zoropsis spinimana

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "ABOUT SPIDERS". www.publish.csiro.au. Retrieved 2022-01-07.
  2. ^ Magalhaes, Ivan L. F.; Azevedo, Guilherme H. F.; Michalik, Peter; Ramírez, Martín J. (February 2020). "The fossil record of spiders revisited: implications for calibrating trees and evidence for a major faunal turnover since the Mesozoic". Biological Reviews. 95 (1): 184–217. doi:10.1111/brv.12559. ISSN 1464-7931. PMID 31713947. S2CID 207937170.
  3. ^ Ledford, Joel; Derkarabetian, Shahan; Ribera, Carles; Starrett, James; Bond, Jason E.; Griswold, Charles & Hedin, Marshal (2021). "Phylogenomics and biogeography of leptonetid spiders (Araneae : Leptonetidae)". Invertebrate Systematics. 35: 332–349. doi:10.1071/IS20065. S2CID 233709389.
  4. ^ Coddington, Jonathan A. (2005). "Phylogeny and classification of spiders" (PDF). In Ubick, D.; Paquin, P.; Cushing, P.E. & Roth, V. (eds.). Spiders of North America: an identification manual. American Arachnological Society. pp. 18–24. Retrieved 2015-09-24.
  5. ^ "Currently valid spider genera and species". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. 2018. Currently valid spider genera and species

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ Unless otherwise shown, currently accepted families and counts based on the World Spider Catalog version 19.0 as of 11 July 2018.[5] In the World Spider Catalog, "species" counts include subspecies. Assignment to sub- and infraorders based on Coddington (2005, p. 20) (when given there).
  2. ^ June 2019 data

External links[edit]