Araucanian languages

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Araucanian
Geographic
distribution
Andes of Chile, Argentina
Linguistic classificationOne of the world's primary language families
Subdivisions
Glottologarau1255[1]

The Araucanian languages, a small language family of indigenous languages of the Americas, is located in central Chile and neighboring areas of Argentina. The living representatives of this family are Mapudungun (ISO 639-3: arn) and Huilliche (ISO 639-3: huh). These are sometimes considered divergent dialects of a single language isolate.

Demographics[edit]

It is estimated that there are approximately 200,000 Mapudungu-speakers in Chile and 40,000 speakers in Argentina. Huilliche is the native language of a few thousand Chileans.

Internal classification[edit]

Mason (1950)[edit]

Internal classification of Araucanian languages by Mason (1950):[2]

Araucanian
  • North
    • Picunche
    • Mapuche
    • Pewenche
      • Rankel(che)
    • Moluche
  • South
    • Wiliche (Huilliche)
      • Wiliche
        • Serrano
        • Pichi-Wiliche
      • Manzanero
    • Veliche (Chilote)
    • Chikiyami (Cuncho)
    • Leuvuche
  • East
    • Taluhet (Taluche)
    • Divihet (Diviche)

Jolkesky (2016)[edit]

Internal classification by Jolkesky (2016):[3]

(† = extinct)

Mapudungun

Vocabulary[edit]

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items for Mapuche (Araucanian) language varieties.[4]

gloss Mapuche Picunche Pehuenche Huiliche Chilote Ranquelche
one kiñe kiñe kiñe kiñe kenge kiñe
two epu epue epu epu epo epú
three küla kela kela kila köla kʔla
head longko lonko rlonko lonkó
hand kúü kuü ghechu keñeu
water ko ko ko ko ku go
sun antu antü ante ante ánte ant'ü
moon kuyen küyén küyen kiyen kién kiyet
maize voe wa wa waká wa
bird gunún üñem küñüm giñum trarú
dog thehua thewa thewa trehua cheuá
jaguar nahuel nahuel nawel nahuel naue

Further reading[edit]

  • Augusta, F. J. (1966). Diccionario araucano-español y español-araucano: tomo primero: araucano - español. Padre Las Casas: Impr. y Editorial "San Francisco".
  • Cañas Pinochet, A. (1911). Estudios de la lengua veliche. In: C. E. Porter (ed.), Trabajos de la III Sección “Ciencias Naturales, Antropo-lógicas y Etnológicas” (Tomo I), 143-330. Santiago de Chile: Imprenta Barcelona.
  • Erize, E. (1960). Diccionario comentado Mapuche-Español, Araucano, Pehuenche, Pampa, Picunche, Rancülche, Huilliches. Bahía Blanca: Cuadernos del Sur.
  • Flury, L. (1944). Guiliches: tradiciones, leyendas, apuntes gramaticales y vocabulario de la zona pampa-araucana. (Publicaciones del Instituto de Arqueología, Lingüistica y Folklore Dr. Pablo Cabrera, 8). Córdoba: Universidad de Córdoba
  • Hernández Sallés, A.; Luna, C. C. (1997). Diccionario ilustrado Mapudungun- Español-Inglés. Santiago de Chile: Pehuén.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Araucanian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Mason, John Alden (1950). "The languages of South America". In Steward, Julian (ed.). Handbook of South American Indians. 6. Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143. pp. 157–317.
  3. ^ Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho De Valhery. 2016. Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Brasília.
  4. ^ Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  • Campbell, Lyle (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195094271.

External links[edit]