|Mature trees in Aparados da Serra National Park, Brazil|
|Section:||A. sect. Araucaria|
|Araucaria angustifolia distribution|
Araucaria angustifolia, the Paraná pine, Brazilian pine or candelabra tree (pinheiro-do-paraná, araucária or pinheiro brasileiro), is a critically endangered species in the conifer genus Araucaria. Although the common names in various languages refer to the species as a "pine", it does not belong in the genus Pinus.
Origin and taxonomy
It is native to southern Brazil (also found in high-altitude areas of southern Minas Gerais, in central Rio de Janeiro and in the east and south of São Paulo, but more typically in the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul). According to a study made by Brazilian researcher Reinhard Maack, the original area of occurrence represented 36.67% of the Paraná state (73,088 km2 or 28,219 sq mi), 60.13% of the Santa Catarina state (57,332 km2 or 22,136 sq mi), 21.6% of the São Paulo state (53,613 km2 or 20,700 sq mi) and 17.38% of the Rio Grande do Sul state (48,968 km2 or 18,907 sq mi). It is also found in the northeast of Argentina (Misiones and Corrientes), locally in Paraguay (Alto Paraná), growing in low mountains at altitudes of 500–1,800 metres (1,600–5,900 ft) and in northern regions of Uruguay where it was thought to be extinct until recent discoveries.
The prehistoric distribution of A. angustifolia in earlier geologic periods was very different to the present day, fossils were found in northeastern Brazil. The present-day range is recent, the species moving into this area during the later Pleistocene and early Holocene. This chorological shift may possibly be due to climatic change and the migration of mountain flora by way of river courses.
It is an evergreen tree growing to 40 m (130 ft) tall and 1 m (3 ft 3 in) diameter at breast height. However, the largest individual, near Nova Petrópolis, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil is 147.7 feet (45 m) in height with a D.B.H. (diameter at breast height) of 12.5 feet (3.8 m) girth. The tree is fast growing; as much as 3 feet 8 inches (113 cm) a year (16 metres (52 ft) in 14 years) at Puerto Piray, Misiones Province, Argentina.: 13_8 The leaves are thick, tough and scale like, triangular, 3–6 centimetres (1+1⁄8–2+3⁄8 in) long, 5–10 millimetres (25⁄128–25⁄64 in) broad at the base, and with razor-sharp edges and tip. They persist 10 to 15 years, so cover most of the tree except for the trunk and older branches. The bark is uncommonly thick; up to six inches (15 centimeters) deep. It is closely related to Araucaria araucana from further southwest in South America, differing most conspicuously in the narrower leaves.
It is usually dioecious, with the male and female cones on separate trees. The male (pollen) cones are oblong, 6 cm (2+1⁄2 in) long at first, expanding to 10–18 cm (4–7 in) long by 15–25 mm (19⁄32–63⁄64 in) broad at pollen release. Like all conifers it is wind pollinated. The female cones (seed), which mature in autumn about 18 months after pollination, are globose, large, 18–25 cm (7–10 in) in diameter, and hold about 100–150 seeds. The cones disintegrate at maturity to release the approximately 5 cm (2 in) long nut-like seeds, which are then dispersed by animals, notably the azure jay, Cyanocorax caeruleus.
The inner bark and resin from the trunk of the tree is reddish, which can be a good defining character because it differs from A. araucana, which has brown bark inner and white resin.
Habitat and ecology
It prefers well drained, slightly acidic soil but will tolerate almost any soil type provided drainage is good. It requires a subtropical/temperate climate with abundant rainfall, tolerating occasional frosts down to about −5 to −20 °C (23 to −4 °F).
The seeds are very important for the native animals. Several mammals and birds eat the pinhão, and it has an important ecological role in Araucaria moist forests (a sub-type of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest).
In a long term study observing the feeding behaviour throughout the year of the squirrel Guerlinguetus brasiliensis ssp. ingrami in a secondary A. angustifolia forest in the Parque Recreativo Primavera in the vicinity of the city of Curitiba, Paraná, of the ten plant species of which the squirrel ate the seeds or nuts, seeds of A. angustifolia were the most important food item in the fall, with a significant percentage of their diet in the winter consisting of the seeds as well.
The squirrels cache seeds, but it is unclear how this affects recruitment.
It is a popular garden tree in subtropical areas, planted for its unusual effect of the thick, 'reptilian' branches with a very symmetrical appearance.
The seeds, similar to large pine nuts, are edible, and are extensively harvested in southern Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul states), an occupation particularly important for the region's small population of natives (the Kaingáng and other Southern Jê). The seeds, called pinhão [piˈɲɐ̃w] are popular as a winter snack. The city of Lages, in Santa Catarina, holds a popular pinhão fair, in which mulled wine and boiled Araucaria seeds are consumed. 3,400 tonnes (7,500,000 lb) of seeds are collected annually in Brazil.
A. angustifolia is grown as an ornamental plant in parks of towns and cities of Chile, from Santiago to Valdivia. It grows better in low altitudes than the local Araucaria araucana, hence its use as a substitute in the Central Valley and coastal regions of Chile. In some places like the town of Melipeuco A. angustifolia can be seen growing side by side with A. araucana.
The hybrid Araucaria angustifolia × araucana is thought to have first arisen "in a plantation forestry environment in Argentina sometime in the late 19th or early 20th century". It is thus not a natural hybrid as there are more than 1000 km between the natural stands of the two species.
Role in forest expansion
Studies show the crucial contribution of Araucaria trees in promoting forest expansion. Araucaria angustifolia trees play a pivotal role in shaping the landscape and fostering ecological diversity in southern Brazilian highlands. These conifers act as a facilitator species, also known as nurse trees, significantly increasing species richness and abundance of other trees beneath their crowns. The crowns of these iconic trees foster a unique microenvironment that positively influences the structure and diversity of plant communities 
According to one calculation it has lost an estimated 97% of its habitat to logging, agriculture, and silviculture in the last century. People also eat the seeds, which may reduce recruitment. It was therefore listed by the IUCN as 'vulnerable in 1998 and 'critically endangered' in 2008.
- Thomas, P. (2013). "Araucaria angustifolia". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T32975A2829141. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T32975A2829141.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
- Carrière Traité Gén. Conif. 415 1855
- "ALEXANDRE BERNARDI KOEHLER" (PDF). Floresta.ufpr.br (in Brazilian Portuguese). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 November 2012. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
- Helton Damin da Silva; Antonio F. Jurado Bellote; Carlos Alberto Ferreira; Itamar Antonio Bognola (2001). "Recomendação de solos para Araucaria angustifolia com base nas suas propriedades físicas e químicas" (PDF). Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal. 43: 61–74. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-09.
- Arballo, Eduardo. "Caracterización de los bosques nativos uruguayos según sus aves" (PDF). www.guayubira.org.uy. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-06-26. Retrieved 2019-01-16.
- "Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais IPEF".
- Müller-Starck, Gerhard & Schubert, Roland. Genetic response of forest systems to changing environmental conditions. Springer, 2001. p. 94
- Registros históricos da Araucária - Entrevista com Hermann Behling Archived 2013-10-29 at the Wayback Machine. Unisinos. Disponível em Amaivos, acesso 24 fev 2011
- "Monumental Trees". December 2012. Retrieved September 24, 2012.
- Wadsworth, Frank H.; (Chairman) (1960). "Records of forest plantation growth in Mexico, the West Indies, and Central and South America. Second annual report of the section on planting". Caribbean Forester. Regional Committee on forest research, Latin American Forestry Commission, Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations. 21 (Supplement): 272 + 16 pages refs. S2CID 127152584. CABD 19600603436.
- Enright, Neal J; Hill, Robert S. (1995). Ecology of the Southern Conifers. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 124.
- Farjon, Aljos (2010). A handbook of the world's conifers. Netherlands: Brill Publishers. p. 188. ISBN 9789004177185.
- Bordignon, Marcelo; Monteiro‐Filho, E. L. A. (1999). "Seasonal Food Resources of the Squirrel Sciurus ingrami in a Secondary Araucaria Forest in Southern Brazil". Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment. 34 (3): 137–140. doi:10.1076/snfe.184.108.40.20610. Retrieved 15 October 2018.
- Buckley, Michael (2005). "A basic guide to softwoods and hardwoods" (PDF). worldhardwoods.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
- A. M. Freitas; M. T. R. Almeida; C. R. Andrighetti-Fröhner; F. T. G. S. Cardozo; C. R. M. Barardi; M. R. Farias & C. M. O. Simões (2009). "Antiviral activity-guided fractionation from Araucaria angustifolia leaves extract". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 126 (3): 512–517. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.09.005. PMID 19761825.
- Christian, Tom (2018). "Araucaria angustifolia × araucana". Trees and Shrubs Online. International Dendrology Society. Archived from the original on 2020-08-14. Retrieved 2021-04-22.
- Barbizan Sühs, R.; Hettwer Giehl, E. L. & Peroni, N. (2018). "Interaction of land management and araucaria trees in the maintenance of landscape diversity in the highlands of southern Brazil". PLOS ONE. 13 (11): e0206805. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0206805. PMID 30399131.
- Duarte, L. D. S.; Hartz, M. M.; Pillar, S. M. (2006). "Role of nurse plants in Araucaria Forest expansion over grassland in south Brazil". Austral Ecology. 31 (4): 520–528. doi:10.1111/j.1442-9993.2006.01609.x.
- Korndörfer, C. L.; Dillenburg, L. R.; Duarte, L. D. S. (2015). "Assessing the potential of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) as a nurse plant in highland grasslands of south Brazil". New Zealand Journal of Botany. 53 (1): 5–14. doi:10.1080/0028825X.2014.978134.. By supporting a rich array of sapling species and shaping the overall composition, Araucaria trees emerge as key species in highland ecosystems, maintaining the ecological balance and cultural landscapes of the region.