Jurassic to recent 200–0 Ma
|Araucaria araucana in the Chilean Andes|
(Molina) K. Koch
Araucaria araucana (commonly called the monkey puzzle tree, monkey tail tree, Chilean pine, or pehuén) is an evergreen tree growing to 1-1.5 m (3–5 ft) in diameter and 30–40 m (100–130 ft) in height. It is native to central and southern Chile and western Argentina. Araucaria araucana is the hardiest species in the conifer genus Araucaria. Because of the longevity of this species, it is described as a living fossil. It is also the national tree of Chile. Its conservation status was changed to Endangered by the IUCN in 2013 due to the dwindling population.
The leaves are thick, tough, and scale-like, triangular, 3–4 cm (1.2–1.6 in) long, 1–3 cm (0.39–1.18 in) broad at the base, and with sharp edges and tips. They persist for 10–15 years or more, so cover most of the tree except for the older branches.
It's usually dioecious, with the male and female cones on separate trees, though occasional individuals bear cones of both sexes. The male (pollen) cones are oblong and cucumber-shaped, 4 cm (1.6 in) long at first, expanding to 8–12 cm (3.1–4.7 in) long by 5–6 cm (2.0–2.4 in) broad at pollen release. It is wind pollinated. The female (seed) cones, which mature in autumn about 18 months after pollination, are globose, large, 12–20 cm (4.7–7.9 in) in diameter, and hold about 200 seeds. The cones disintegrate at maturity to release the 3–4 cm (1.2–1.6 in) long nut-like seeds.
Its native habitat is the lower slopes of the Chilean and Argentinian south-central Andes, typically above 1,000 m (3,300 ft). Juvenile trees exhibit a broadly pyramidal or conical habit which naturally develops into the distinctive umbrella form of mature specimens as the tree ages. It prefers well-drained, slightly acidic, volcanic soil, but will tolerate almost any soil type provided it drains well.
Araucaria araucana is a masting species, and rodents are important consumers and dispersers of its seeds. The long-haired grass mouse, Abrothrix longipilis, is the most important animal responsible for dispersing the seeds of A. araucana. This rodent buries seeds whole in locations favorable for seed germination, unlike other animals.
Logging, a major threat, was banned in 1990. Large fires burned thousands of acres of Araucaria forest in 2001–2002, and areas of national parks have also burned, destroying trees over 1300 years old. Overgrazing and invasive trees are also threats. Extensive human harvesting of piñones (Araucaria seeds) can prevent new trees from growing.
Cultivation and uses
Araucaria araucana is a popular garden tree, planted for the unusual effect of its thick, "reptilian" branches with very symmetrical appearance. It prefers temperate climates with abundant rainfall, tolerating temperatures down to about -20 °C (-4 °F). It is far and away the hardiest member of its genus, and can grow well in western Europe (north to the Faroe Islands and Smøla in western Norway), the west coast of North America (north to the islands of Haida Gwaii in Canada), and locally on the east coast, as well as Long Island, and in New Zealand and southeastern Australia. It is tolerant of coastal salt spray, but does not tolerate exposure to pollution.
Its piñones, or seeds, are edible, similar to large pine nuts, and are harvested by indigenous peoples in Argentina and Chile. The tree has some potential to be a food crop in other areas in the future, thriving in climates with cool oceanic summers, e.g., western Scotland, where other nut crops do not grow well. A group of six female trees with one male for pollination could yield several thousand seeds per year. Since the cones drop, harvesting is easy. The tree, however, does not yield seeds until it is around 30 to 40 years old, which discourages investment in planting orchards (although yields at maturity can be immense); once established, it can live possibly as long as 1,000 years.
Once valued because of its long, straight trunk, its current rarity and vulnerable status mean its wood is now rarely used; it is also sacred to some members of the Mapuche Native American tribe. Before the tree became protected by law in 1971, lumber mills in Araucanía Region specialized in Chilean pine. A large example of this tree is in the front of the historic Harper House of Montverde, Florida. This species is listed in the CITES Appendix I as an endangered species.
Discovery and naming
First identified by Europeans in Chile in the 1780s, it was named Pinus araucana by Molina in 1782. In 1789, de Jussieu had erected a new genus called Araucaria based on the species, and in 1797, Pavón published a new description of the species which he called Araucaria imbricata (an invalid name, as it did not use Molina's older species epithet). Finally, in 1873, after several further redescriptions, Koch published the combination Araucaria araucana, validating Molina's name in the genus. The name araucana is derived from the native Araucanians who used the nuts (seeds) of the tree in Chile. A group of Araucanians living in the Andes, the Pehuenches, owe their name to their diet based on harvesting of the A. araucaria seeds. Pehuen means Araucaria and che means people in Mapudungun.
The origin of the popular English language name "monkey puzzle" derives from its early cultivation in Britain in about 1850, when the species was still very rare in gardens and not widely known. Sir William Molesworth, the proud owner of a young specimen at Pencarrow garden near Bodmin in Cornwall, was showing it to a group of friends, one of them – the noted barrister and Benthamist Charles Austin – remarked, "It would puzzle a monkey to climb that". As the species had no existing popular name, first "monkey puzzler", then "monkey puzzle" stuck.
The nearest relative found is Araucaria angustifolia, a South American Araucaria which differs in the width of the leaves. The recently found 'Wollemi pine', Wollemia, though discovered in south-east Australia, is possibly its relative or possibly a relative of the Norfolk Island pine. Their common ancestry dates to a time when Australia, Antarctica, and South America were linked by land — all three continents were once part of the supercontinent known as Gondwana.
Araucaria araucana in the Argentinian Andes
Bark of a tree in Conguillío National Park, Chile
A. araucana, Botanical Garden, Wrocław, Poland
Monkey puzzle trees are popularly grown as ornamental trees.
- The ghost in the 20th Century Fox film, The Ghost and Mrs. Muir (1947), former sea captain Daniel Gregg (Rex Harrison), has a monkey puzzle tree growing in the front yard of his seaside house. Lucy Muir, (Gene Tierney), after moving into the house as a tenant, has it cut down for firewood, thinking it spoils the view of the sea, and rose bushes would be better. This infuriates the ghost, who says that he had planted the tree with his own hands because he had always wanted to have a monkey puzzle tree. The TV series in the mid sixties also has an episode pertaining to the damage the tree is causing, the Captain's disapproval of Mrs. Muir wanting it removed, it being removed and replaced with a new one.
- In the novel Charlotte Sometimes by Penelope Farmer, the sisters Charlotte/Clare and Emily are given lodgings in a house that has a monkey-puzzle tree in the garden. Rambunctious Emily immediately plans and later manages to climb the tree, and the sisters later learn that Arthur, the younger son of their lodging parents who recently died in World War I, as a boy also climbed the tree but grew scared and could not climb down again.
- In both of her novels, To Kill a Mockingbird and Go Set a Watchman, Harper Lee mentions monkey puzzle trees growing in Maycomb's town square.
- The pseudonym "Araucaria" was used by a British crossword compiler for The Guardian newspaper, the Reverend John Galbraith Graham MBE (1921–2013), who also provided cryptic crosswords under the pseudonym Cinephile—an anagram of "Chile Pine" the tree's alternative name—in the Financial Times and puzzles for other publications
- The musical group Mother Mother has a song entitled "Monkey Tree" on their 2014 album Very Good Bad Thing.
- Native areas, Kew Royal Botanic Gardens. Retrieved: 2012-09-20.
- Premoli, A., Quiroga, P. & Gardner, M. 2013. Araucaria araucana. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/31355/0. Accessed on 10 July 2013.
- Michael A. Arnold (2004). "Araucaria Araucana" (PDF). Landscape Plants For Texas And Environs 3rd. Aggie Horticulture. ISBN 1588747468.
- Shepherd, J.D. & R.S. Ditgen, 2013. Rodent handling of Araucaria araucana seeds. Austral Ecology, 38: 23–32.
- "Monkey Puzzle". Global Trees.
- Gallo, L., F. Izquierdo, L.J. Sanguinetti, A. Pinna, G. Siffredi, J. Ayesa, C. Lopez, A. Pelliza, N. Strizler, M. Gonzales Peñalba, L. Maresca and L. Chauchard. 2004. Araucaria araucana forest genetic resources in Argentina. Pages 105-132 in Barbara Vinceti, Weber Amaral and Brien Meilleur (eds). Challenges in managing forest genetic resources for livelihoods: examples from Argentina and Brazil. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. 271 pp.
- (Gymnosperm Database).
- Anna Lewington & Edward Parker (1999). Ancient Trees. Collins & Brown. ISBN 1-85585-974-2.
- "Appendices I, II and III". CITES. UNEP. Archived from the original on 17 March 2010. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
- Wilson, Matthew (July 5, 2013). "Riddle of how the monkey puzzle tree came to be a UK favourite". Financial Times. Retrieved May 14, 2016.
- Alan Mitchell (1996). Alan Mitchell's Trees of Britain. Collins. ISBN 0-00-219972-6.
- William Keegan "Review: Collins A-Z of Crosswords", The Observer (London), 12 November 2006; John Plunkett, "Rev John Graham, aka crossword setter Araucaria, dies aged 92", The Guardian; "The Monkey Puzzler", The Guardian (London), 16 February 2001.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Araucaria araucana.|
|Wikispecies has information related to: Araucaria araucana|
- Conifer Specialist Group (2000). "Araucaria araucana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2006. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved May 12, 2006. Listed as Vulnerable (VU B1+2c v2.3)
- "Gymnosperm Database: Araucaria araucana". Conifers.org.
- "Araucaria araucana". Encyclopedia of the Chilean Flora.
- "Araucaria araucana". Chilebosque.
- "Threatened Trees: Monkey Puzzle". Global trees campaign.
- "The growth stages". Araucaria araucana.
- "Araucaria araucana – Monkey Puzzle Tree". Conifers Around the World.