Jump to content

Aravalli Range

Coordinates: 25°00′N 73°30′E / 25°N 73.5°E / 25; 73.5
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Aravalli Range
The Aravali Range in Rajasthan
Highest point
PeakGuru Shikhar, Mount Abu
Elevation1,722 m (5,650 ft)
Coordinates24°35′33″N 74°42′30″E / 24.59250°N 74.70833°E / 24.59250; 74.70833
Length670 km (420 mi)
PronunciationHindi pronunciation: [əɾaːʋ(ə)li]
Topographic map of India showing the range
StatesRajasthan, Haryana, Delhi and Gujarat
RegionsNorth India and Western India
RiversBanas, Luni, Sakhi and Sabarmati
SettlementsDelhi, Gurgaon and Mount Abu
Range coordinates25°00′N 73°30′E / 25°N 73.5°E / 25; 73.5
OrogenyAravalli-Delhi Orogen
Age of rockPrecambrian
Type of rockFold mountains from plate tectonics

The Aravalli Range (also spelled Aravali) is a mountain range in Northern-Western India, running approximately 670 km (420 mi) in a south-west direction, starting near Delhi, passing through southern Haryana,[1] Rajasthan, and ending in Ahmedabad Gujarat.[2][3] The highest peak is Guru Shikhar on Mount Abu at 1,722 m (5,650 ft). The Aravalli Range is one of the oldest geological features on Earth,[4][5][6][7] having its origin in the Proterozoic era.

The Aravalli Range is rich in natural resources and serves as check to the growth of the western desert.


Aravalli, a composite Sanskrit word from the roots "ara" and "vali", literally means the "line of peaks".[8][9]

Natural history[edit]


Map of prominent mountain ranges in India, showing Aravalli in north-west India

The Aravalli Range, an eroded stub of ancient mountains, is believed to be the oldest range of fold mountains in India.[10] The natural history of the Aravalli Range dates back to times when the Indian Plate was separated from the Eurasian Plate by an ocean. The Proterozoic Aravalli-Delhi orogenic belt in northwest India is similar to the younger Himalayan-type orogenic belts of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic era (of the Phanerozoic) in terms of component parts and appears to have passed through a near-orderly Wilson supercontinental cycle of events. The range rose in a Precambrian event called the Aravalli-Delhi Orogen. The Aravalli Range is a northeast–southwest trending orogenic belt located in the northwestern part of Indian Peninsula. It is part of the Indian Shield that formed from a series of cratonic collisions.[11] In ancient times, Aravalli were extremely high but since have worn down almost completely from millions of years of weathering, whereas the Himalayas, young fold mountains, are still continuously rising. Aravalli have stopped growing higher due to the cessation of upward thrust caused by the tectonic plates in the Earth's crust below them. The Aravalli Range joins two of the ancient Earth's crust segments that make up the greater Indian craton, the Aravalli Craton which is the Marwar segment of Earth's crust to the northwest of the Aravalli Range, and the Bundelkand Craton segment of the Earth's crust to the southeast of the Aravalli Range. Cratons, generally found in the interiors of tectonic plates, are old and stable parts of the continental lithosphere that have remained relatively undeformed during the cycles of merging and rifting of continents.

Volcanic arc and geological process of undersea subduction during tectonic collusion
Global convergent boundary of plate margins

It consists of two main sequences formed in the Proterozoic eon, metasedimentary rock (sedimentary rocks metamorphosed under pressure and heat without melting) and metavolcanic rock (metamorphosed volcanic rocks) sequences of the Aravalli Supergroup and Delhi Supergroup. These two supergroups rest over the Archean Bhilwara Gneissic Complex basement, which is a gneissic (high-grade metamorphism of sedimentary or igneous rocks) basement formed during the archean eon 4 Ga ago. It started as an inverted basin, that rifted and pulled apart into granitoid basement, initially during Aravalli passive rifting around 2.5 to 2.0 Ga years ago and then during Delhi active rifting around 1.9 to 1.6 Ga years ago. It started with rifting of a rigid Archaean continent banded gneissic complex around 2.2 Ga with the coexisting formation of the Bhilwara aulacogen in its eastern part and eventual rupturing and separation of the continent along a line parallel to the Rakhabdev (Rishabhdev) lineament to the west, simultaneous development of a passive continental margin with the undersea shelf rise sediments of the Aravalli-Jharol belts depositing on the attenuated crust on the eastern flank of the separated continent, subsequent destruction of the continental margin by accretion of the Delhi island arc (a type of archipelago composed of an arc-shaped chain of volcanoes closely situated parallel to a convergent boundary between two converging tectonic plates) from the west around 1.5 Ga. This tectonic plates collision event involved early thrusting with partial obduction (overthrusting of oceanic lithosphere onto continental lithosphere at a convergent plate boundary) of the oceanic crust along the Rakhabdev lineament, flattening and eventual wrenching (also called strike-slip plate fault, sideways horizontal movement of colliding plates with no vertical motion) parallel to the collision zone. Associated mafic igneous rocks show both continental and oceanic tholeiitic geochemistry (magnesium and iron-rich igneous rocks) from phanerozoic eon (541–0 million) with rift-related magmatic rock formations.[12]

The Aravalli-Delhi Orogen is an orogen event that led to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle, such as Aravalli and Himalayas fold mountains) due to the interaction between tectonic plates when a continental plate is crumpled and is pushed upwards to form mountain ranges, and involve a great range of geological processes collectively called orogenesis.[13][14]


The archean basement had served as a rigid indentor which controlled the overall wedge shaped geometry of the orogen. Lithology of area shows that the base rocks of Aravalli are of Mewar Gneiss formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally sedimentary rock with earliest life form that were formed during the archean eon, these contain fossils of unicellular organism such as green algae and cyanobacteria in stromatolitic carbonate ocean reefs formed during the paleoproterozoic era. Sedimentary exhalative deposits of base metal sulfide ores formed extensively along several, long, linear zones in the Bhilwara aulacogen or produced local concentration in the rifted Aravalli continental margin, where rich stromatolitic phosphorites also formed. Tectonic evolution of the Aravalli Mountains shows Mewar Gneiss rocks are overlain by Delhi Supergroup type of rocks that also have post-Aravalli intrusions. Metal sulfide ores were formed in two different epochs, lead and zinc sulfide ores were formed in the sedimentary rocks around 1.8 Ga years ago during Paleoproterozoic phase. The tectonic setting of zinc-lead-copper sulfides mineralisation in the Delhi supergroup rocks in Haryana-Delhi were formed by mantle plume volcanic action around one billion years ago covering Haryana and Rajasthan during the mesoproterozoic. In the southern part of the Aravalli supergroup arc base metal sulfides were generated near the subduction zone on the western fringe and in zones of back-arc extension to the south-east. Continued subduction produced tungsten-tin mineralisation in S-type (sedimentary unmetamorphosed rock), felsic (volcanic rock), and plutons (crystallised solidified magma). This includes commercially viable quantities of minerals, such as rock phosphate, lead-zinc-silver mineral deposits at Zawar, Rikahbdev serpentinite, talc, pyrophyllite, asbestos, apatite, kyanite and beryl.[15][16]


Mining of copper and other metals in the Aravalli range dates back to at least the 5th century BCE, based on carbon dating.[17][18] Recent research indicates that copper was already mined here during the Sothi-Siswal period going back to c. 4000 BCE. Ancient Kalibangan and Kunal, Haryana settlements obtained copper here.[19]

Geographical features[edit]

The Aravalli Range, seen from the range's highest point at Guru Shikhar, in Rajasthan.

The Indian Craton includes five major cratons. Cratons are part of continental crust made up of upper layer called platforms and older bottom layer called basement rocks. shields are part of a craton where basement rock crops out at the surface and it is the relatively oldest and most stable part that are undeformed by the plate tectonics. The Aravalli Craton (Marwar-Mewar Craton or Western Indian Craton) covers Rajasthan as well as western and southern Haryana. It includes the Mewar Craton in the east and Marwar Craton in the west. It is limited by the Great Boundary Fault in the east, the Thar Desert in the west, Indo-gangetic alluvium in the north, and the Son River-Narmada River-Tapti River basins in the south. It mainly has quartzite, marble, pelite, greywacke and extinct volcanos exposed in the Aravalli-Delhi Orogen. Malani Igneous Suite is the largest in India and third largest igneous suit in the world.[20][21] The uniqueness of the geological feature of Malani Igneous Suite at Jodhpur prompted the Geological Survey of India to declare the site as a National Geological Monument.[22]

Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution[edit]

Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of the Aravalli Range:[20]

Stratigraphic classification[edit]

The stratigraphic classification of the Aravalli Range can be divided into the following parts (north to south direction):

  • The Archean basement is a banded gneissic complex with schists (medium grade metamorphic rock), gneisses (high grade regional metamorphic rock), composite gneiss and quartzites. It forms the basement rock for both the Delhi Supergroup and the Aravalli Supergroup.
  • Aravalli Supergroup: The Aravalli supergroup passes through Rajasthan state, dividing it into two halves, with three-fifths of Rajasthan on the western side towards the Thar Desert and two-thirds on the eastern side consisting of the catchment area of Banas and Chambal rivers bordering the state of Madhya Pradesh.[clarification needed] Guru Shikhar, the highest peak in the Aravalli Range at 5,650 feet (1,720 m) in Mount Abu of Rajasthan, lies near the south-western extremity of the Central Aravalli range, close to the border with Gujarat state. The southern Aravalli Supergroup enters the northeast of Gujarat near Modasa where it lends its name to the Aravalli district, and ends at the centre of the state at Palanpur near Ahmedabad.
    • Champaner Group is a rectangular outcrop composed of subgreywacke, siliceous phyllite, pelitic schist, quartzite and pertomict conglomerate.
    • Lunavada Group is a polygon area in the south of the Aravali Orogen composed of greywacke-phyllite
    • Jharol Group is spread over 200 km2 area with average width of 40 km carbonate-free phyllite and arenite with turbidite facies and argillaceous rocks.
    • Udaipur Group is a thick accumulation of greywacke-phyllite basement overlain by dolomite.
    • Debari Group consists of Carbonates, Quartzite, and Pelitic rocks which are overlain by the Delwara group.
    • Delwara Group is spread over a 500 km2 area with average thickness of 500 m and includes basement orthoquartzite overlain by volcanic conglomerate.
    • Unconformities
      • Mangalwar/Sandmata Complex and Mewar Gneiss with enclaves of the Jagat group
  • Delhi Supergroup

Human history[edit]

The Aravalli Range has been site of three broad stages of human history, early Stone Age saw the use of flint stones; mid-Stone Age starting from 20,000 BP saw the domestication of cattle for agriculture; and post Stone Age starting from 10,000 BP saw the development of the Kalibangan civilisation, 4,000 BP the Aahar civilisation and 2,800 BP the Gneshwar civilisation.

Tosham Hills - Indus Civilisation mines[edit]

The Tosham hills have several Indus Valley Civilisation sites in and around the hill range as the area falls under copper-bearing zone of Southwest Haryana and Northeast Rajasthan of Aravalli hill range.[24][25]

Investigation of IVC network of mineral ore needs for metallurgical work and trade, shows that the most common type of grinding stone at Harappa is of Delhi quartzite type found only in the westernmost outliers of the Aravalli range in southern Haryana near Kaliana and Makanwas villages of Bhiwani district. The quartzite is red-pink to pinkish grey in colour and is crisscrossed with thin haematite and quartz filled fractures with sugary size grain texture.[26][27]

Ravindra Nath Singh and his team of Banaras Hindu University carried out ASI-financed excavations of Indus Valley Civilisation site on the grounds of the Government School in Khanak, during 2014 and 2016. They found early to mature Harappan phase IVC materials, pottery, semiprecious beads of lapis lazuli, carnelian and others. They also found evidence of metallurgical activities, such as crucibles (used for pouring molten metal), furnace lining, burnt floor, ash and ore slugs. Ceramic petrography, metallography, scanning electron microscope (SEM, non-destructive, surface images of nanoscale resolution), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXA and EDXMA non-destructive, qualitative and quantitative elemental composition) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, destructive method) scientific studies of the material found prove that the Khanak site was inhabited by the IVC metal-workers who used the locally mined polymetallic tin, and they were also familiar with metallurgical work with copper and bronze. The lowest level of site dates back as far the pre-Harappan era to Sothi-Siswal culture (6600 BP) tentatively.[28]

Ganeshwar Sunari Cultural Complex[edit]

The Ganeshwar Sunari Cultural Complex (GSCC) is a collection of third millennium BCE settlements in the area of the Aravalli Hill Range. Among them, there are similarities in material culture, and in the production of copper tools. They are located near the copper mines.

"The GSCC is east of the Harappan culture, to the north-east of Ahar–Banas Complex, north/north west to the Kayatha Culture and at a later date, west of the OCP-Copper Hoard sites (Ochre Coloured Pottery cultureCopper Hoard culture). Located within the regions of the Aravalli Hill Range, primarily along the Kantli, Sabi, Sota, Dohan and Bondi rivers, the GJCC is the largest copper producing community in third millennium BCE South Asia, with 385 sites documented. Archaeological indicators of the GSCC were documented primarily in Jaipur, Jhunjhunu, and Sikar districts of Rajasthan, India ..."[29]

Pottery found in the area include incised ware, and reserved slipware.

There are two main type sites, Ganeshwar, and Sunari, in Tehsil Kot Putli, Jaipur district (Geo coordinates: N 27° 35' 51", 76° 06' 85" E).


A lake nested within Aravali Hills.
Aravali Hills near Pushkar.


The Northern Aravalli range in Delhi and Haryana has humid subtropical climate and hot semi-arid continental climate with very hot summers and relatively cool winters.[30] The main characteristics of climate in Hisar are dryness, extremes of temperature, and scanty rainfall.[31] The maximum daytime temperature during the summer varies between 40 and 46 °C (104 and 115 °F). During winter, its ranges between 1.5 and 4 °C.[32]

The Central Aravalli range in Rajasthan has an arid and dry climate.

The Southern Aravalli range in Gujarat has a tropical wet and dry climate


Three major rivers and their tributaries flow from the Aravalli, namely Banas and Sahibi rivers which are tributaries of Yamuna, as well as Luni River which flows into the Rann of Kutch.


Wildlife corridors[edit]

The Great Green Wall of India[edit]

"The Great Green Wall of Aravalli" is a proposed 1,600 km long and 5 km wide green ecological corridor along Aravalli range from Gujarat to Delhi, it will be connected to Shivalik hill range and 1.35 billion (135 crore) new native trees will be planted over 10 years to rehabilitate the forest cover in this area. To be implemented on a concept similar to the Great Green Wall of Sahara in Africa, it will act as a buffer against pollution, 51% of which is caused by the industrial pollution, 27% by vehicles, 8% by crop burning and 5% by diwali fireworks.[38] It was proposed several times form the 1990s, but as of 2024 the project is still in the planning stage.[39]

Northern Aravalli leopard and wildlife corridor[edit]

Charging Indian leopard.

The Sariska–Delhi leopard wildlife corridor or the Northern Aravalli leopard wildlife corridor is a 200 km long important biodiversity and wildlife corridor which runs from the Sariska Tiger Reserve in Rajasthan to Delhi Ridge.[40]

This corridor is an important habitat for the Indian leopards and jackals of Aravalli. In January 2019, the Wildlife Institute of India announced that they will undertake the survey of leopard and wildlife, using pugmarks and trap cameras, subsequently, leopards and jackals will be tracked via the radio collars. Urban development, especially the highways and railways bisecting the Aravalli range and wildlife corridor in several places pose a great risk. Large parts of Aravalli are legally and physically unprotected, with no wildlife passages and little or no wildlife conservation work resulting in deaths of over 10 leopards in 4 years between January 2015 to January 2019.[41][42][43]

The Haryana side of the Gurugram-Faridabad Aravalli hill forests lack availability of water due to which wild animals are seldom seen there. The Government of Haryana used drones for aerial surveys and dug 22 ephemeral pits in 2018 to store the rainwater which became dry during the summer months. In January 2019, the government announced the plan to make the pit perennial by connecting those with pipelines from the nearby villages.[44]

Human activity, such as unplanned urbanization and polluting industrial plants, also pose a great threat. There is often reluctance and denial on part of the government officials of the presence of wildlife such as leopard so that the forest land can be exploited and opened up for the intrusive human development.[45][46][44]

This habitat is under serious threat from the wrong actions of the Government of Haryana which in 2019 passed the amendment to the Punjab Land Alienation Act, 1900 (PLPA). Governor has given his assent for the act, but it has not yet been notified by the Haryana government, hence it is in limbo and has not officially become a law. This amendment will reduce the Haryana's Natural Conservation Zones (NCZs) by 47% or 60,000 acres from 122,113.30 hectares to only 64,384.66 hectares. This is in violation of multiple guidelines of the Supreme Court of India as well as "NCR Planning Board" (NCRPB) notification which states the original 122,113.30 hectares ecologically sensitive forest of South Haryana is a forest, "The major natural features, identified as environmentally sensitive areas, are the extension of Aravalli ridge in Rajasthan, Haryana and NCT-Delhi; forest areas; rivers and tributaries... major lakes and water bodies such as Badkhal lake, Suraj Kund and Damdama in Haryana sub-region".[47] This area as part of Northern Aravalli leopard and wildlife corridor is an important habitat for the leopards in Haryana.

Southern Aravalli leopard wildlife corridor[edit]

This corridor runs from Sariska and Ranthmbor to Rann of Kutch National Park and Gir National Park in Gujarat.

Nature reserves[edit]

Ashoka pillar at Delhi Ridge, brought to Delhi from Topra Kalan by Firoz Shah Tughlaq in 1356

The following national parks, wildlife reserves, and forests lie in the Aravalli Range.


The Aravalli Range has several forests with a diversity of environment.[48]


Ranthambore National Park, in Rajasthan

The Aravalli Range is rich in wildlife. The first-ever 2017 wildlife survey of a 200 square kilometre area crossing five districts (Gurgaon, Faridabad, Mewat, Rewari and Mahendergarh) of Haryana by the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) found 14 species, including leopards, striped hyena (7 sightings), golden jackal (9 sightings, with 92% occupancy across the survey area), nilgai (55 sightings), palm civet[which?] (7 sightings), wild pig (14 sightings), rhesus macaque (55 sightings), peafowl (57 sightings) and Indian crested porcupine (12 sightings). Encouraged by the first survey, the wildlife department has prepared a plan for a comprehensive study and census of wildlife across the whole Aravalli Range, including radio collar tracking of the wild animals.[48] Well known leopard and hyena habitat is along the Ferozpure Jhirka-Nuh Aravali range as well as Delhi South Ridge (Faridabad-Gurugram) to Farrukhnagar area on the Delhi–Haryana border, with reports of sightings in Saidpur, Lokri and Jhund Sarai Viran villages near the KMP expressway; Bhukarka 7 km from Pataudi; Pathkori, Bhond, Mandawar in Ferozepur Jirka region.[49]


In May 1992, some parts of the Aravalli hills in Rajasthan and Haryana were protected from mining through the Ecologically Sensitive Areas clauses of Indian laws. In 2003, the central government of India prohibited mining operations in these areas. In 2004, India's Supreme Court banned mining in the notified areas of Aravalli Range. In May 2009, the Supreme Court extended the ban on mining in an area of 448 km2 across the Faridabad, Gurgaon and Mewat districts in Haryana, covering the Aravalli Range.[50][51]

A 2013 report used high-resolution Cartosat-1 and LISS-IV satellite imaging to determine the existence and condition of mines in the Aravalli Range. In the Guru Gram district, the Aravalli hills occupy an area of 11,256 hectares, of which 491 (4.36%) hectares had mines, of which 16 hectares (0.14%) were abandoned flooded mines. In the Faridabad and Mewat districts, about 3610 hectares were part of mining industry, out of a total of 49,300 hectares. These mines were primarily granite and marble quarries for India's residential and real estate construction applications.[52] In the Central Rajasthan region, Sharma states that the presence of some mining has had both positive and negative effects on neighboring agriculture and the ecosystem. The rain-induced erosion brings nutrients as well as potential contaminants.[53]


The Aravali Range is the source area of many rivers, resulting in development of human settlements with sustainable economy since pre-historic times. The Delhi–Mumbai Industrial Corridor Project, Western Dedicated Freight Corridor, Mumbai–Ahmedabad high-speed rail corridor, North Western Railway network, Jaipur–Kishangarh Expressway and Delhi–Jaipur Expressway, all run parallel to the length of the Aravalli Range providing an economic boost.[54]


The Aravalli Range is the home of forests, wildlife, protected areas, UNESCO heritage listed forts, rivers, and historical monuments which sustain a large tourism industry.


Damage to the environment and ecology from the unorganized urbanization, overexploitation of the natural resources including water and minerals, mining, untreated human waste and disposal, pollution, loss of forest cover and wildlife habitat, unprotected status of most of the Aravalli and the lack of an integrated Aravalli management agency are the major causes of concern.[55][56]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Aravalli Biodiversity Park, Gurgaon". Archived from the original on 28 May 2012.
  2. ^ Kohli, M.S. (2004), Mountains of India: Tourism, Adventure, Pilgrimage, Indus Publishing, pp. 29–, ISBN 978-81-7387-135-1
  3. ^ Dale Hoiberg; Indu Ramchandani (2000). "Aravali Range". Students' Britannica India. Popular Prakashan. pp. 92–93. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5.
  4. ^ Verma, P. K.; Greiling, R. O. (1 December 1995). "Tectonic evolution of the Aravalli orogen (NW India): an inverted Proterozoic rift basin?". Geologische Rundschau. 84 (4): 683–696. Bibcode:1995GeoRu..84..683V. doi:10.1007/BF00240560. ISSN 1432-1149. S2CID 129382615.
  5. ^ Roy, A.B. (1 January 1990). "Evolution of the Precambrian Crust of the Aravalli Mountain Range". Developments in Precambrian Geology. 8: 327–347. doi:10.1016/S0166-2635(08)70173-7. ISBN 9780444883100. ISSN 0166-2635.
  6. ^ "International Mountain Day: India has the oldest and the youngest mountains in the world". India Today. 11 December 2015. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  7. ^ "Aravalli Hills Are the Oldest Fold Mountains of the World". www.campwilddhauj.in. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  8. ^ George Smith (1882). The Geography of British India, Political & Physical. J. Murray. p. 23.
  9. ^ "Aravali Range". Britannica.com.
  10. ^ Roy, A. B. (1990). Evolution of the Precambrian crust of the Aravalli Range. Developments in Precambrian Geology, 8, 327–347.
  11. ^ Mishra, D.C.; Kumar, M. Ravi. Proterozoic orogenic belts and rifting of Indian cratons: Geophysical constraints. Geoscience Frontiers. 2013 March. 5: 25–41.
  12. ^ Verma, P.K.; Greiling, R.O. (1995), "Tectonic evolution of the Aravalli orogen (NW India): An inverted Proterozoic rift basin?", Geologische Rundschau, 84 (4): 683, Bibcode:1995GeoRu..84..683V, doi:10.1007/BF00240560, S2CID 129382615
  13. ^ Tony Waltham (2009). Foundations of Engineering Geology (3rd ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-415-46959-3.
  14. ^ Philip Kearey; Keith A. Klepeis; Frederick J. Vine (2009). "Chapter 10: Orogenic belts". Global Tectonics (3rd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. p. 287. ISBN 978-1-4051-0777-8.
  15. ^ M. Deb and Wayne David Goodfellow, 2004, "Sediment Hosted Lead-Zinc Sulphide Deposits", Narosa Publishing, pp 260.
  16. ^ Naveed Qamar, "Indian shield rocks" Archived 20 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ SM Gandhi (2000) Chapter 2 – Ancient Mining and Metallurgy in Rajasthan, Crustal Evolution and Metallogeny in the Northwestern Indian Shield: A Festschrift for Asoke Mookherjee, ISBN 978-1842650011
  18. ^ Shrivastva, R. (1999). Mining of copper in ancient India. Indian Journal of History of Science, 34, 173–180
  19. ^ Jane McIntosh, The Ancient Indus Valley: New Perspectives. Understanding ancient civilizations. ABC-CLIO, 2008 ISBN 1576079074 p77
  20. ^ a b Cratons of India.
  21. ^ Cratons of India, lyellcollection.org.
  22. ^ "Jodhpur Group-Malani Igneous Suite Contact". National Geological Monuments. 27 Jawaharlal Nehru Road, Kolkata,700016: Geological Survey of India. 2001. pp. 65–67. Retrieved 23 March 2009.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  23. ^ Bhuiyan, C.; Singh, R. P.; Kogan, F. N. (2006). "Monitoring drought dynamics in the Aravalli region (India) using different indices based on ground and remote sensing data". International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. 8 (4): 289–302. Bibcode:2006IJAEO...8..289B. doi:10.1016/j.jag.2006.03.002.
  24. ^ Kochhar, N.; Kochhar, R.; Chakrabarti, D. K. (1999). "A New Source of Primary Tin Ore in the Indus Civilisation". South Asian Studies. 15 (1): 115–118. doi:10.1080/02666030.1999.9628571.
  25. ^ Chakrabarti, D. K. (2014). "Distribution and Features of the Harappan Settlements". History of India II : Protohistoric Foundation. New Delhi: Vivekananda International Foundation. pp. 97–143. ISBN 978-81-7305-481-5.
  26. ^ Law, Randall (2006). "Moving Mountains: The Trade and Transport of Rocks and Minerals within the Greater Indus Valley Region". In Robertson, E. C.; et al. (eds.). Space and Spatial Analysis in Archaeology. Alberta, Canada: University of Calgary Press. ISBN 0-8263-4022-9.
  27. ^ Law, Randall (2008). Inter-regional Interaction and Urbanism in the Ancient Indus Valley: A Geologic Provenance Study of Harappa's Rock and Mineral Assemblage (PhD thesis). University of Wisconsin–Madison. pp. 209–210. OCLC 302421826.
  28. ^ Vasiliev, A. L.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B. (2016), "Electron microscopy methods in studies of cultural heritage sites", Crystallography Reports, 61 (6): 873–885, Bibcode:2016CryRp..61..873V, doi:10.1134/S1063774516060183, S2CID 99544227
  29. ^ Uzma Z. Rizvi (2010) Indices of Interaction: Comparisons between the Ahar–Banas and Ganeshwar Jodhpura Cultural Complex Archived 9 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine, in EASAA 2007: Special Session on Gilund Excavations, edited by T. Raczek and V. Shinde, pp. 51–61. British Archaeological Reports: ArchaeoPress
  30. ^ "Climate of Hisar". PPU. Archived from the original on 5 May 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  31. ^ "Climate of Hisar". District Administration, Hisar. Archived from the original on 27 March 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  32. ^ "More snowfall in Himachal". The Hindu. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  33. ^ Gupta, S.P., ed. (1995), The 'Lost' Sarasvati and the Indus Civilisation, Jodhpur: Kusumanjali Prakashan
  34. ^ Cultural Contours of India: Dr. Satya Prakash Felicitation Volume, Vijai Shankar Śrivastava, 1981. ISBN 0391023586
  35. ^ Sahibi river
  36. ^ Google Books: Page 41, 42, 43, 44, 47 (b) Sahibi Nadi (River), River Pollution, By A.k.jain
  37. ^ Minerals and Metals in Ancient India: Archaeological evidence, Arun Kumar Biswas, Sulekha Biswas, University of Michigan. 1996. ISBN 812460049X.
  38. ^ Want govt to build 1600 km green wall along Aravalli, Indian Express, 24 December 2019.
  39. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g59CelQPX74
  40. ^ Haryana Government moots buffer zone to save Asola sanctuary, Times of India, 30 January 2019.
  41. ^ Death, proof of leopard life in Asola sanctuary, Hindustan Times, 31 January 2019.
  42. ^ 10-month-old leopard found dead on Gurugram-Faridabad Expressway, India Today, 31 January 2019.
  43. ^ Leopard killed in accident on Gurugram-Faridabad road, Times of India, 30 January 2019.
  44. ^ a b Leopards keep away from Haryana side of Asola due to scarcity, Times of India, 1 February 2019.
  45. ^ Only 30 villagers turn up for impact study, Times of India, 2018.
  46. ^ NGT asks CPCB to test groundwater sample near Bandhwari plant, India Today, 1 August 2017.
  47. ^ Law changes bring Aravalli conservation to the fore, Hindustan Times, 22 December 2019.
  48. ^ a b Aravalis in Gurugram, Faridabad core area for leopards, finds survey, The Times of India, 17 June 2017
  49. ^ Traps set up in four villages of Farrukhnagar after leopard's presence confirmed by pug marks, Hindustan Times, 18 January 2019.
  50. ^ SC bans all mining activity in Aravali hills area of Haryana, 9 May 2009.
  51. ^ Mission Green: SC bans mining in Aravali hills Archived 8 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine Hindustan Times, 9 May 2009.
  52. ^ Rai and Kumar, Mapping of Mining Areas in Aravalli Hills in Gurgaon, Faridabad & Mewat Districts of Haryana Using Geo-Informatics Technology, International Journal of Remote Sensing & Geoscience, Volume 2, Issue 1, Jan. 2013
  53. ^ Sharma, K. C. (2003). Perplexities and Ecoremediation of Central Aravallis of Rajasthan. Environmental Scenario for 21st Century, ISBN 978-8176484183, Chapter 20
  54. ^ Jha, Bagis, TNN. 195-km super expressway to link Delhi, Jaipur, The Economic Times, 21 March 2017, Accessed on 20 June 2017.
  55. ^ Hridayesh Joshi (22 September 2020). "Why Illegal Mining in the Aravalli Hills Should Scare Delhi and Its Neighbours". The Wire.
  56. ^ "The disappearance of India's Aravali Hills". DW News. 25 July 2019.

Further reading[edit]

  • Watershed Management in Aravali Foothills, by Gurmel Singh, S. S. Grewal, R. C. Kaushal. Published by Central Soil & Water Conservation Research & Training Institute, 1990.

External links[edit]