Arawakan languages

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Arawakan
Maipurean
Geographic
distribution
From every country in South America, except Ecuador, Uruguay and Chile, to Central America and the Caribbean (migration path)
Linguistic classificationMacro-Arawakan ?
  • Arawakan
Subdivisions
  • Northern
  • Southern
ISO 639-5awd
Glottologaraw1281[1]
Arawak-Languages.png
Maipurean languages in South America (Caribbean and Central America not included): North-Maipurean (pale blue) and South-Maipurean (deeper blue). Spots represent location of extant languages, and shadowed areas show probable earlier locations.

Arawakan (Arahuacan, Maipuran Arawakan, "mainstream" Arawakan, Arawakan proper), also known as Maipurean (also Maipuran, Maipureano, Maipúre), is a language family that developed among ancient indigenous peoples in South America. Branches migrated to Central America and the Greater Antilles in the Caribbean and the Atlantic, including what is now the Bahamas. Among South American countries, only present-day Ecuador, Uruguay, and Chile have never had peoples who spoke Arawakan languages. Maipurean may be related to other language families in a hypothetical Macro-Arawakan stock.

The name Maipure was given to the family by Filippo S. Gilij in 1782, after the Maipure language of Venezuela, which he used as a basis of his comparisons. It was renamed after the culturally more important Arawak language a century later. The term Arawak took over, until its use was extended by North American scholars to the broader Macro-Arawakan proposal. At that time, the name Maipurean was resurrected for the core family. See Arawakan vs Maipurean for details.

Language contact[edit]

As one of the most geographically widespread language families in all of the Americas, Arakawan linguistic influence can be found in many language families of South America. Jolkesky (2016) notes that there are lexical similarities with the Arawa, Bora-Muinane, Guahibo, Harakmbet-Katukina, Harakmbet, Katukina-Katawixi, Irantxe, Jaqi, Karib, Kawapana, Kayuvava, Kechua, Kwaza, Leko, Macro-Jê, Macro-Mataguayo-Guaykuru, Mapudungun, Mochika, Mura-Matanawi, Nambikwara, Omurano, Pano-Takana, Pano, Takana, Puinave-Nadahup, Taruma, Tupi, Urarina, Witoto-Okaina, Yaruro, Zaparo, Saliba-Hodi, and Tikuna-Yuri language families due to contact.[2]

Languages[edit]

Classification of Maipurean is difficult because of the large number of Arawakan languages that are extinct and poorly documented. However, apart from transparent relationships that might constitute single languages, several groups of Maipurean languages are generally accepted by scholars. Many classifications agree in dividing Maipurean into northern and southern branches, but perhaps not all languages fit into one or the other. The three classifications below are accepted by all:

An early contrast between Ta-Arawak and Nu-Arawak, depending on the prefix for "I", is spurious; nu- is the ancestral form for the entire family, and ta- is an innovation of one branch of the family.

Kaufman (1994)[edit]

The following (tentative) classification is from Kaufman (1994: 57-60). Details of established branches are given in the linked articles. In addition to the family tree detailed below, there are a few languages that are "Non-Maipurean Arawakan languages or too scantily known to classify" (Kaufman 1994: 58), which include these:

Another language is also mentioned as "Arawakan":

  • Salumã (also known as Salumán, Enawené-Nawé)

Including the unclassified languages mentioned above, the Maipurean family has about 64 languages. Out of them, 29 languages are now extinct: Wainumá, Mariaté, Anauyá, Amarizana, Jumana, Pasé, Cawishana, Garú, Marawá, Guinao, Yavitero, Maipure, Manao, Kariaí, Waraikú, Yabaána, Wiriná, Aruán, Taíno, Kalhíphona, Marawán-Karipurá, Saraveca, Custenau, Inapari, Kanamaré, Shebaye, Lapachu, and Morique.

Northern Maipurean
Southern Maipurean
  • Western branch
  • Central branch
  • Southern Outlier branch
  • Campa branch (also known as Pre-Andean)

Kaufman does not report extinct Magiana of the Moxos group.

Aikhenvald (1999)[edit]

Apart from minor decisions on whether a variety is a language or a dialect, changing names, and not addressing several poorly attested languages, Aikhenvald departs from Kaufman in breaking up the Southern Outlier and Western branches of Southern Maipurean. She assigns Salumã and Lapachu ('Apolista') to what is left of Southern Outlier ('South Arawak'); breaks up the Maritime branch of Northern Maipurean, though keeping Aruán and Palikur together; and is agnostic about the sub-grouping of the North Amazonian branch of Northern Maipurean.

The following breakdown uses Aikhenvald's nomenclature followed by Kaufman's:

North Arawak = Northern Maipurean
  • Rio Branco = Kaufman's Wapishanan (2) [with Mapidian under the name "Mawayana" and Mawakwa as a possible dialect]
  • Palikur = Kaufman's Palikur + Aruán (3)
  • Caribbean = Ta-Maipurean (8) [incl. Shebaye]
  • North Amazonian = Upper Amazon (17 attested)
South and South-Western Arawak = Southern Maipurean

Aikhenvald classifies Kaufman's unclassified languages apart from Morique. She does not classify 15 extinct languages which Kaufman had placed in various branches of Maipurean.

Aikhenvald (1999:69) classifies Mawayana with Wapishana together under a Rio Branco branch, giving for Mawayana also the names "Mapidian" and "Mawakwa" (with some reservations for the latter).

Ramirez (2001)[edit]

Internal classification of Arawakan by Henri Ramirez (2001):[3]

2 subgroups, 10 divisions († = extinct)
  • unclassified: Yanesha, Chamicuro
  • Western
    • unclassified: † Yumana, † Passé
    • Japurá-Colombia division
      • Piapoko, Achagua; Baniwa-Koripako, Tariana; Warekena, Mandawaka; Kabiyari; Yukuna, Wainumá-Mariaté
      • † Kauixana
      • Resígaro
    • Upper Rio Negro division
      • † Baré, † Guinau, † Anauyá-Yabahana
    • Upper Orinoco division
      • † Pareni, Yavitero
      • † Maipure
    • Negro-Roraima division
      • † Arua
      • † Manao, † Wirina, † Bahuana, † Cariaí
      • Wapixana, Atorai
      • † Mawayana
    • Juruá-Jutaí division
      • † Marawa
      • † Waraiku
    • Purus-Ucayali division
      • Apurinã; Piro, Kuniba, Kanamari, Manxineri
      • Kampa
    • Bolivia-Mato Grosso division
      • Baure, Mojeño
      • Tereno, † Kinikinao
    • Caribe-Venezuela division
      • Lokono; Iñeri, Garífuna; † Taino; † Caquetio
      • Guajiro, † Paraujano
  • Eastern
    • Amapá division
      • Palikur, † Marawá
    • Xingu-Tapajós division
      • Waurá, Mehinaku; Yawalapiti
      • Pareci, † Sarave

Walker & Ribeiro (2011)[edit]

Walker & Ribeiro (2011), using Bayesian computational phylogenetics, classify the Arawakan languages as follows.

Arawakan

Northeast

South

Western Amazonia

Amuesha, Chamicuro

Circum-Caribbean

Central Brazil

Central Amazonia

Northwest Amazonia

The internal structures of each branch is given below. Note that the strictly binary splits are a result of the Bayesian computational methods used.

Jolkesky (2016)[edit]

Internal classification by Jolkesky (2016):[2]

(† = extinct)

Nikulin & Carvalho (2019)[edit]

Internal classification by Nikulin & Carvalho (2019: 270):[4]

Phonological innovations characterizing some of the branches:[4]

  • Maritime: loss of medial Proto-Arawakan *-n-.
    • Lokono-Wayuu: first person singular prefix *ta- replacing *nu-. Carvalho also reconstructs the suffix *-ja (possibly a deictic) and *kabɨnɨ ‘three’ as characteristic of this subgroup.
  • Campa: lexical innovations such as *iNʧato ‘tree’, *-taki ‘bark’, *-toNki ‘bone’, etc. There are also typological innovations due to contact with Andean languages such as Quechua.

Ramirez (2019)[edit]

The internal classification of Arawakan by Henri Ramirez (2019) is as follows.[5][6] This classification differs quite substantially from his previous classification (Ramirez 2001[3]), but is very similar to the one proposed by Jolkesky (2016).[2]

12 subgroups consisting of 56 languages (29 living and 27 extinct) († = extinct)

Varieties[edit]

Below is a full list of Arawakan language varieties listed by Loukotka (1968), including names of unattested varieties.[7]

Island languages
  • Taino / Nitaino - once spoken in the Conquest days on the Greater Antilles Islands of Cuba, Haiti, Puerto Rico and Jamaica. Dialects are:
  • Taino of Haiti - extinct language of Hispaniola.
  • Taino of Cuba - once spoken on the island of Cuba; in the nineteenth century only in the villages of Jiguaní, Bayano, and Quivicán; now the last descendants speak only Spanish.
  • Borinquen - once spoken on the island of Puerto Rico.
  • Yamaye - once spoken on the island of Jamaica.
  • Lucaya - once spoken on the Bahamas Islands.
  • Eyed / Allouage - once spoken in the Lesser Antilles.
  • Nepuya - spoken on the eastern part of the island of Trinidad.
  • Naparina - once spoken on the island of Trinidad. (Unattested.)
  • Caliponau - language spoken by the women of the Carib tribes in the Lesser Antilles.
Guiana language
  • Arawak / Aruaqui / Luccumi / Locono - spoken in the Guianas. Dialects are:
Central group
Mapidian group
  • Mapidian / Maotityan - spoken at the sources of the Apiniwau River, Guyana, now perhaps extinct.
  • Mawakwa - once spoken on the Mavaca River, Venezuela.
Goajira group
  • Goajira / Uáira - language spoken on the Goajira Peninsula in Colombia and Venezuela with two dialects, Guimpejegual and Gopujegual.
  • Paraujano / Parancan / Parawogwan / Pará - spoken by a tribe of lake dwellers on Lake Maracaibo, Zulia state, Venezuela.
  • Alile - once spoken on the Guasape River, state of Zulia, Venezuela. (Unattested.)
  • Onota - once spoken between Lake Maracaibo and the Palmar River in the same region, Zulia state, Venezuela. (Unattested.)
  • Guanebucán - extinct language once spoken on the Hacha River, department of Magdalena, Colombia. (Unattested.)
  • Cosina / Coquibacoa - extinct language of a little known tribe of the Serranía Cosina, Goajira Peninsula, Colombia. (Unattested.)
Caquetío group
  • Caquetío - extinct language once spoken on the islands of Curaçao and Aruba near the Venezuelan coast, on the Yaracuy River, Portuguesa River, and Apure River, Venezuela. (only several words)
  • Ajagua - once spoken on the Tocuyo River near Carera, state of Lara, Venezuela. (only two words and patronyms.)
  • Quinó - once spoken in the village of Lagunillas, state of Mérida, Venezuela. {Nothing.)
  • Tororó / Auyama - once spoken in the village of San Cristóbal, state of Táchira. (Febres Cordero 1921, pp. 116-160 passim, only six words.)
  • Aviamo - once spoken on the Uribante River, state of Táchira. (Unattested.)
  • Tecua - once spoken on the Lengupa River and in the village of Teguas, department of Boyacá, Colombia. (Unattested.)
  • Yaguai - once spoken on the Arichuna River, state of Apure, Venezuela. (Unattested.)
  • Cocaima - once spoken between the Setenta River and Matiyure River, state of Apure, Venezuela. (Unattested.)
  • Chacanta - once spoken on the Mucuchachi River, state of Mérida. (Unattested.)
  • Caparo - once spoken on the Caparo River, Santander, Colombia. (Unattested.)
  • Támud - once spoken northeast of the Sagamoso River, Santander, Colombia. (Unattested.)
  • Burgua - once spoken near San Camilo on the Burgua River, Santander, Colombia. (Unattested.)
  • Cuite - once spoken on the Cuite River, Santander, Colombia. (Unattested.)
  • Queniquea - once spoken in the same hill region in Colombia on the Pereno River. (Unattested.)
  • Chucuna - once spoken between the Manacacías River and Vichada River, territories of Meta and Vichada, Colombia. (Unattested.)
  • Guayupe - spoken on the Güejar River and Ariari River, Meta territory.
  • Sae - once spoken by the neighbors of the Guayupe tribe in the same region. (Unattested.)
  • Sutagao - spoken once on the Pasca River and Sumapaz River, Meta territory. (Unattested.)
  • Chocue / Choque - once spoken on the Herorú River and Guayabero River, Meta territory. (Unattested.)
  • Eperigua - once spoken at the sources of the Güejar River and near San Juan de los Llanos, Meta territory. (Unattested.)
  • Aricagua - once spoken in the state of Mérida, Venezuela. (Unattested.)
  • Achagua - spoken on the Apure River and Arauca River in the department of Boyacá and territory of Meta, Colombia.
  • Piapoco / Mitua / Dzáse - spoken on the Guaviare River, territory of Vaupés, Colombia.
  • Cabere / Cabre - once spoken on the Teviare River and Zama River, Vichada territory.
  • Maniba / Camaniba - spoken by a little known tribe that lived on the middle course of the Guaviare River, Vaupés territory, Colombia. (Unattested.)
  • Amarizana - extinct language once spoken on the Vera River and Aguas Blancas River, territory of Meta.
Maypure group
  • Maypure - extinct language once spoken in the village of Maipures, Vichada territory, Colombia. Inhabitants now speak only Spanish.
  • Avani / Abane - once spoken on the Auvana River and Tipapa River, Amazonas territory, Venezuela. (Gilij 1780-1784, vol. 3, p. 383, only six words.)
Guinau group
Guinau group
  • Guinau / Inao / Guniare / Temomeyéme / Quinhau - once spoken at the sources of the Caura River and Merevari River, state of Bolívar, Venezuela, now perhaps extinct.
Baré group
  • Baré / Ihini / Arihini - spoken on the Casiquiare River, territory of Amazonas, Venezuela, and on the upper course of the Negro River, state of Amazonas, Brazil.
  • Uarequena - spoken on the Guainía River, Vaupés territory, Colombia.
  • Adzáneni / Adyána / Izaneni - spoken at the sources of the Caiarí River and on the Apui River, frontier of Colombia and Brazil.
  • Carútana / Corecarú / Yauareté-tapuya - spoken on the frontier between Colombia and Brazil on the Içana River.
  • Katapolítani / Acayaca / Cadaupuritani - spoken on the Içana River in the village of Tunuhy, Brazil.
  • Siusí / Ualíperi-dákeni / Uereperidákeni - spoken on the lower course of the Caiarí River and Içana River and on the middle course of the Aiarí River, state of Amazonas, Brazil.
  • Moriwene / Sucuriyú-tapuya - spoken on the Içana River in the village of Seringa Upita, state of Amazonas, Brazil.
  • Mapanai / Ira-tapuya - spoken on the Içana River near Cachoeira Yandú, state of Amazonas.
  • Hohodene / Huhúteni - spoken on the Cubate River, state of Amazonas.
  • Maulieni / Káua-tapuya - spoken on the Aiarí River, state of Amazonas.
Ipéca group
  • Ipéca / Kumada-mínanei / Baniva de rio Içana - spoken on the Içana River near the village of San Pedro, frontier region of Brazil and Colombia.
  • Payualiene / Payoariene / Pacu-tapuya - spoken in the same frontier region on the Arara-paraná River.
  • Curipaco - spoken on the Guainía River, territory of Amazonas, Venezuela.
  • Kárro - spoken in the territory of Amazonas on the Puitana River.
  • Kapité-Mínanei / Coatí-tapuya - spoken at the sources of the Içana River, Vaupés territory, Colombia.
Tariana group
  • Tariana / Yavi - spoken in the villages of Ipanoré and Yauareté on the Caiarí River, Vaupés Territory, Colombia.
  • Iyäine / Kumandene / Yurupary-tapuya - spoken in the same region north of the Tariana tribe. Now only Tucano is spoken. (Unattested.)
  • Cauyari / Acaroa / Cabuyarí - once spoken on the Cananari River and on the middle course of the Apaporis River, territory of Amazonas, Colombia. Now perhaps extinct.
Mandauáca group
Manáo group
Uirina group
  • Uirina - extinct language once spoken at the sources of the Marari River, territory of Rio Branco.
  • Yabaána / Jabâ-ana / Hobacana - language of a tribe in the territory of Rio Branco, on the Marauiá River and Cauaboris River.
  • Anauyá - spoken by a little known tribe on the Castaño River, territory of Amazonas, Venezuela.
Chiriána group
Yukúna group
Resigaro group
  • Resigaro / Rrah~nihin / Rosigaro - spoken by a few families on the Igaraparaná River near Casa Arana.
Araicú group
Araicú group
  • Araicú / Waraikú - extinct language once spoken at the sources of the Jandiatuba River and on the right bank of the Juraí River, Amazonas.
Uainumá group
  • Uainumá / Ajuano / Wainumá / Inabishana / Uainamby-tapuya / Uaypi - extinct language once spoken on the Upi River, a tributary of the Içá River, Amazonas.
  • Mariaté / Muriaté - extinct language once spoken at the mouth of the Içá River.
Jumana group
Cauishana group
  • Cauishana / Kayuishana / Noll-hína - now spoken by a few families on the Tocantins River and on Lake Mapari, Amazonas.
  • Pariana - extinct language once spoken on the middle course of the Marauiá River. (Unattested.)
Pre-Andine group
Ipurina group
Apolista group
  • Apolista / Lapachu / Aguachile - extinct language once spoken in the old mission of Apolobamba, province of La Paz, Bolivia.
Mojo group
  • Mojo / Ignaciano / Morocosi - spoken on the Mamoré River and on the plains of Mojos, Beni province, Bolivia.
  • Baure / Chiquimiti - spoken on the Blanco River and around the city of Baures in the same region.
  • Muchojeone - extinct language once spoken at the old mission El Carmen in Beni province, Bolivia.
  • Suberiono - extinct language once spoken west of the Mamoré River and the Guapay River, Bolivia. (Unattested.)
  • Pauna - extinct language once spoken at the sources of the Baures River, Santa Cruz province, Bolivia.
  • Paicone - extinct language from the sources of the Paragúa River, Santa Cruz province, Bolivia.
Paresi group
Chané group
  • Chané / Izoceño - formerly spoken on the Itiyuro River, Salta province, Argentina, but now the tribe speaks only a language of the Tupi stock and the old language serves only for religious ceremonies. (only a few words.)
  • Guaná / Layano - once spoken on the Yacaré River and Galván River, Paraguay, now on the Miranda River, Mato Grosso, Brazil.
  • Terena - spoken in Mato Grosso on the Miranda River and Jijui River.
  • Echoaladí / Choarana - extinct language once spoken in Mato Grosso. (Unattested.)
  • Quiniquinao / Equiniquinao - once spoken near Albuquerque, now by only a few families on the Posto Cachoeirinha near Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul.
Waurá group
Marawan group
  • Marawan / Maraon - spoken on the Oiapoque River and Curipi River, Amapá territory.
  • Caripurá / Karipuere - spoken in Amapá territory on the Urucauá River.
  • Palicur / Parikurú - once spoken on the middle course of the Calçoene River and on the upper course of the Casipore River, now on the Urucauá River in Amapá territory.
  • Caranariú - once spoken on the Urucauá River, now extinct. (Unattested.)
  • Tocoyene - once spoken in Amapá territory on the Uanarí River. (Unattested.)
  • Macapá - once spoken on the Camopi River and Yaroupi River, French Guiana, later on the upper course of the Pará River, state of Pará, Brazil; now perhaps extinct. (Unattested.)
  • Tucujú - once spoken on the Jarí River, territory of Amapá, now perhaps extinct. (Unattested.)
  • Mapruan - once spoken on the Oiac River, territory of Amapá. (Unattested.)
Aruan group
  • Aruan / Aroã - originally spoken on the north coast of Marajó Island, Pará, later on the Uaçá River, Amapá territory. A few descendants now speak only a French creole dialect.
  • Sacaca - extinct language once spoken in the eastern part of Marajó Island.
Moríque group
  • Moríque / Mayoruna - spoken on the border of Brazil and Peru, on the Javarí River.
Chamicuro group
  • Chamicuro - spoken on the Chamicuro River, department of Loreto, Peru.
  • Chicluna - extinct language once spoken in the same region east of the Aguano tribe. (Unattested.)
  • Aguano / Awáno - extinct language of a tribe that lived on the lower course of the Huallaga River. The descendants, in the villages of San Lorenzo, San Xavier, and Santa Cruz, now speak only Quechua. (Unattested.)
  • Maparina - once spoken in the same region on the lower course of the Ucayali River and at the old mission of Santiago. (Unattested.)
  • Cutinana - once spoken on the Samiria River, Loreto. (Unattested.)
  • Tibilo - once spoken in San Lorenzo village, Loreto region. (Unattested.)
Lorenzo group
  • Amoishe / Amlsha / Amuescha / Amage / Lorenzo - once spoken on the Paucartambo River and Colorado River, department of Cuzco, Peru; now mainly Quechua is spoken.
  • Chunatahua - once spoken at the mouth of the Chinchao River, department of Huánuco, Peru. (Unattested.)
  • Panatahua - spoken in the same region on the right bank of the Huallaga River between Coyumba and Monzón, now perhaps extinct. (Unattested.)
  • Chusco - once spoken in the same region as Panatahua near Huánuco. (Unattested.)
Guahibo group

Arawakan vs. Maipurean[edit]

In 1783, the Italian priest Filippo Salvatore Gilii recognized the unity of the Maipure language of the Orinoco and Moxos of Bolivia; he named their family Maipure. It was renamed Arawak by Von den Steinen (1886) and Brinten (1891) after Arawak in the Guianas, one of the major languages of the family. The modern equivalents are Maipurean or Maipuran and Arawak or Arawakan.

The term Arawakan is now used in two senses. South American scholars use Aruák for the family demonstrated by Gilij and subsequent linguists. In North America, however, scholars have used the term to include a hypothesis adding the Guajiboan and Arawan families. In North America, scholars use the name Maipurean to distinguish the core family, which is sometimes called core Arawak(an) or Arawak(an) proper instead.[8]

Kaufman (1990: 40) relates the following:

[The Arawakan] name is the one normally applied to what is here called Maipurean. Maipurean used to be thought to be a major subgroup of Arawakan, but all the living Arawakan languages, at least, seem to need to be subgrouped with languages already found within Maipurean as commonly defined. The sorting out of the labels Maipurean and Arawakan will have to await a more sophisticated classification of the languages in question than is possible at the present state of comparative studies.

Characteristics[edit]

The languages called Arawakan or Maipurean were originally recognized as a separate group in the late nineteenth century. Almost all the languages now called Arawakan share a first-person singular prefix nu-, but Arawak proper has ta-. Other commonalities include a second-person singular pi-, relative ka-, and negative ma-.

The Arawak language family, as constituted by L. Adam, at first by the name of Maypure, has been called by Von den Steinen "Nu-Arawak" from the prenominal prefix "nu-" for the first person. This is common to all the Arawak tribes scattered along the coasts from Dutch Guiana to British Guiana.

Upper Paraguay has Arawakan-language tribes: the Quinquinaos, the Layanas, etc. (This is the Moho-Mbaure group of L. Quevedo). In the islands of Marajos, in the middle of the estuary of the Amazon, the Aruan people spoke an Arawak dialect. The peninsula of Goajira (north of Venezuela) is occupied by the Goajires tribe, also Arawakan speakers. In 1890–95, De Brette estimated a population of 3,000 persons in the Goajires.[9]

C. H. de Goeje's published vocabulary of 1928 outlines the Lokono/Arawak (Dutch and Guiana) 1400 items, mostly morphemes (stems, affixes) and morpheme partials (single sounds) – rarely compounded, derived, or otherwise complex sequences; and from Nancy P. Hickerson's British Guiana manuscript vocabulary of 500 items. However, most entries which reflect acculturation are direct borrowings from one or another of three model languages (Spanish, Dutch, English). Of the 1400 entries in de Goeje, 106 reflect European contact; 98 of these are loans. Nouns which occur with the verbalizing suffix described above number 9 out of the 98 loans.[10]

Phonology[edit]

Though a great deal of variation can be found from language to language, the following is a general composite statement of the consonants and vowels typically found in Arawak languages, according to Aikhenvald (1999):

Labial Dental Alveolar Lamino-(alveo)-
palatal
Velar Glottal
Stop voiced (b) d ɡ
voiceless p t k (ʔ)
voiceless aspirated (pʰ) (tʰ) (kʰ)
Affricate ts
Fricative (ɸ) s ʃ h
Lateral l
Vibrant r
Nasal m n ɲ
Glide w j
Front Central Back
High i ɨ ɨː u
Mid e
Low a

For more detailed notes on specific languages see Aikhenvald (1999) pp. 76–77.

Shared morphological traits[edit]

General morphological type[edit]

Arawakan languages are polysynthetic and mostly head-marking. They have fairly complex verb morphology. Noun morphology is much less complex and tends to be similar across the family. Arawakan languages are mostly suffixing, with just a few prefixes.[11]

Alienable and inalienable possession[edit]

Arawakan languages tend to distinguish alienable and inalienable possession. A feature found throughout the Arawakan family is a suffix (whose reconstructed Proto-Arawakan form is /*-tsi/) that allows the inalienable (and obligatorily possessed) body-part nouns to remain unpossessed.[12] This suffix essentially converts inalienable body-part nouns into alienable nouns. It can only be added to body-part nouns and not to kinship nouns (which are also treated as inalienable). An example from the Pareci language is given below:[13]

no-tiho
1SG-face
my face
tiho-ti
face-ALIEN
(someone’s) face

Classifiers[edit]

Many Arawakan languages have a system of classifier morphemes that mark the semantic category of the head noun of a noun phrase on most other elements of the noun phrase.[14] The example below is from the Tariana language, in which classifier suffixes mark the semantic category of the head noun on all elements of a noun phrase other than the head noun (including adjectives, numerals, demonstratives, possessives) and on the verb of the clause:[15]

ha-dapana pa-dapana pani-si nu-ya-dapana hanu-dapana
DEM-CL:HOUSE one-CL:HOUSE house-NON.POSSV 1SG-POSSV-CL:HOUSE big-CL:HOUSE
heku na-ni-ni-dapana-mahka
wood 3PL-make-TOPIC.ADVANCING.VOICE-CL.HOUSE-REC.PAST.NON.VISUAL
'This one big house of mine is made of wood.'

Subject and object cross-referencing on the verb[edit]

Most Arawakan languages have split-intransitive alignment systems of subject and object cross-referencing on the verb.[16] The agentive arguments of both transitive and intransitive verbs are marked with prefixes, whereas the patientive arguments of both transitive and intransitive verbs are marked with suffixes. The following example from Baniwa of Içana shows a typical Arawakan split-intransitive alignment:[17]

ri-kapa-ni
3SG.NFEM.AGENT-see-3SG.NFEM.PATIENT
'He sees him/it.'
ri-emhani
3SG.NFEM.AGENT-walk
'He walks.'
hape-ka-ni
be.cold-DECL-3SG.NFEM.PATIENT
'He/it is cold.'

The prefixes and suffixes used for subject and object cross-referencing on the verb are stable throughout the Arawakan languages, and can therefore be reconstructed for Proto-Arawakan. The table below shows the likely forms of Proto-Arawakan:[18]

Prefixes
(mark agent)
Suffixes
(mark patient)
person SG PL            SG PL           
1 *nu- or *ta- *wa- *-na, *-te *-wa
2 *(p)i- *(h)i- *-pi *-hi
3NFEM *ri-, *i- *na- *-ri, *-i *-na
3FEM *thu-, *u- *na- *-thu, *-u *-na
impersonal *pa-
non-focused agent *i-, *a-
dummy patient *-ni

Some examples[edit]

The Arawak word for corn is marisi, and various forms of this word are found among the related tribal languages:

Lokono, marisi, Guyana.
Taíno, mahisi, Greater Antilles.
Cauixana, mazy, Rio Jupura.
Wayuu, maikki, Goajira Peninsula.
Passes, mary, Lower Jupura.
Puri, maky, Rio Paraiba.
Wauja, mainki, Upper Xingu River.

Geographic distribution[edit]

Arawak is the largest family in the Americas with the respect to number of languages. The Arawakan languages are spoken by peoples occupying a large swath of territory, from the eastern slopes of the central Andes Mountains in Peru and Bolivia, across the Amazon basin of Brazil, northward into Suriname, Guyana, French Guyana, Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago and Colombia on the northern coast of South America, and as far north as Nicaragua, Honduras, Belize and Guatemala.[19] The languages used to be found in Argentina and Paraguay as well.

Arawak-speaking peoples migrated to islands in the Caribbean, settling the Greater Antilles and the Bahamas. It is possible that some poorly attested extinct languages in North America, such as the languages of the Cusabo and Congaree in South Carolina, were members of this family.[20]

Taíno, commonly called Island Arawak, was spoken on the islands of Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and the Bahamas. A few Taino words are still used by English or Spanish-speaking descendants in these islands. The Taíno language was scantily attested but its classification within the Arawakan family is uncontroversial. Its closest relative among the better attested Arawakan languages seems to be the Goajiro language, spoken in Colombia. Scholars have suggested that the Goajiro are descended from Taíno refugees, but the theory seems impossible to prove or disprove.[citation needed]

Garífuna (or Black Carib) is another Arawakan language originating on the islands. It developed as the result of forced migration among people of mixed Arawak, Carib, and African descent.[21] It is estimated to have about 195,800 speakers in Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala and Belize combined.[22]

Today the Arawakan languages with the most speakers are among the more recent Ta-Arawakan (Ta-Maipurean) groups: Wayuu [Goajiro], with about 300,000 speakers; and Garifuna, with about 100,000 speakers. The Campa group is next; Asháninca or Campa proper has 15–18,000 speakers; and Ashéninca 18–25,000. After that probably comes Terêna, with 10,000 speakers; and Yanesha' [Amuesha] with 6–8,000.[citation needed]

Vocabulary[edit]

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items for the Arawakan languages.[7]

Language Branch one two three head eye hand foot
Amoishe Lorenzo pachía epá mapá yo-ói net n-not
Guahibo Guahibo kaí nahuaxu akuoíebi pe-matána pe-wánto pi-tahúto
Churuya Guahibo kai kabale omopesiva
Guayabero Guahibo kayen magneten buán fuʔuten
Marawan Marawan paxa tsálie mpána pi-tiui pi-taibi pu-aku
Caripurá Marawan pabereː yaná pána i-tiuti pi-taibi pu-áko
Palicur Marawan phát pitána mpána teuti i-teibi i-wak-ti
Aruan Aruan auseire dekuráma nkeduke p-küue pe-xinháku pe-aynáu
Moríque Moríque akápastoi shikará shika-bená p-dóko p-dái pi-ó
Chamicuro Chamicuro padláka maʔa póxta kídlko o-káski ax-chái u-chíxpa
Waurá Waurá pauá mepiáua kamaukula nu-teurzata nu-titái nu-kapi
Mehináku Waurá pauítsa mepiáma kamayukule nu-tau nu-titái nu-kapu
Kustenau Waurá paúdza mepiáma kamaukula nu-téu nu-titái ni-uríko
Yaulapíti Waurá pauá purziñama kamayunkula nu-kurzyu nu-ritä nu-irika
Sarave Paresí atia iñama anahama no-eve no-he aui-kachi
Paresí Paresí hatita inamá anamá no-seurí nu-dúse nu-kau
Waimare Paresí hakida hiːnamaː hanámaː no-tseːri nu-zoːtse nu-kahe
Chané Chané
Guaná Chané posha piá mopoá do-otí u-ké u-oú
Terena Chané paisuan piá mopuá do-otí u-né u-oú
Quiniquinao Apolista poikuá piá mopuá do-otí u-nhé w-oú
Lapachu Apolista eto api mopo ya-tuni hua-nia
Mojo Mojo ikapia apisá impúse nu-xuti yu-ki nu-bupe
Baure Mojo ni-póã i-kise nu-ake
Pauna Mojo i-huike
Paicone Mojo ponotsiko baniki i-pe ni-kis i-vuaki
Ipurina Ipurina hatiká ipíka mapáka i-kiwi o-kí oa-kutí
Campa Preandine I apáro apíti máhua a-ito a-oki a-kó
Machiganga Preandine I pániro api mahuani no-yito no-ki nä-ko
Chanchamayo Preandine I kipachi nu-china o-eki a-eu
Quirineri Preandine I aparu piti mana pi-hita po-ke
Maneteneri Preandine I
Piro Preandine I sape epi mapa we-iwé xali hue-mio
Chontaquiro Preandine I suriti apíri nokiri hue-xixua we-ari hua-mianuta
Inapari Preandine II
Kushichineri Preandine II sátepia hépi u-shiwe no-yate nó-min
Cuniba Preandine II yi-hwö wi-bere wö-miu
Kanamaré Preandine II satibika hepü mapa nu-xüi nu-xü nu-muyú
Huachipairi Preandine II ruña gundupa ya-kuk
Mashco Preandine II ruña gundupa
Uainumá Uainumá apágeri macháma matsüke ba-ita no-tóhi no-gápi
Mariaté Uainumá apakeri mechema atapo no-bida no-doi no-ghapi
Jumana Jumana aphla liágua mabäʔagua n-úla un-ló no-gabí
Passé Jumana apeala pakéana mapeana ni-óla chi-ló nu-ghapóle
Cauishana Cauishana bälämo mätalá bämä bikaka na-oá nó-ló na-gúbi
Yukúna Yukúna paxlúasa hiamá uesikiéle nu-ilá nux-lú no-yola
Guarú Yukúna pagluachima xeyama uzíkele yatela-chima
Resigaro Resigaro apaːhapené eytzaːmo eitzaːmoapo whe-bühe wa-tnih waː-kí
Marawa Marawa ukvashumu piá ghebeñ ni-siuy na-kosi no-kabesui
Araicú Araicú etetu puyabana mayba ghi no-ki ni-kabu
Manáo Manáo panimu piarukuma pialukipaulo nu-küuna nu-kurika nu-kaité
Cariay Manáo nyoi püthairama tükahui nu-küuy nu-kuniki nu-ghai
Uirina Uirina shishi-kaba na-kuke li-kaue
Yabaána Uirina fuiu-dagu ná-ui nu-khapi
Anauya Uirina ahiari mahoren marahunaka nun-huída nau-hini nun-kapi
Chiriána Chiriána nu-kiwída nu-ái nu-nái
Ipéca Ipéca apáda yamada madarida nú-wida nu-tí nu-kápi
Payualiene Ipéca apádacha yamáda madalída nu-wida nu-thí nu-kápí
Curipaco Ipéca ápe yamáde madálda lyi-wida nó-ti h'no-kápi
Kárro Ipéca pádda yamádda madaridda húida nó-ti no-kápi
Kapitémínaneí Ipéca aphépai yamhépa madelipa ni-wirechipa nú-ti nu-kápi
Tariana Tariana páda yamáite mandalite pax-huída pa-tída kopi-vana
Cauyari Tariana no-üte no-tu nu-kapi
Baré Baré I bakunákali pekúname klikúname hua-dósie hua-oíti hua-kabi
Uarequena Baré I apáhesa dauntása nabaitalísa nó-iua nó-bui no-kapi
Adzáneni Baré I apékutsa dzámana mandalípa nu-wída nu-thi nu-kapi
Carútana Baré I aʔapetsa ntsáme mádali nú-ita nu-thi no-kopü
Katapolítani Baré I apadátsa dzamáta mádali ní-wida au-thí nu-kápi
Siusí Baré II apaíta dzamá mandalíapa ni-uíta nú-ti nu-kapi
Moriwene Baré II apáda zamáda madálida n-iwida nu-thí nu-kapi
Mapanai Baré II páda dzamáda madalída ni-wída nu-tí nu-kápi
Hohodene Baré II apáda dzamhépa mandalhípa hi-wída nu-thi nu-kápi
Máulieni Baré II apahede dzamáde madalíde nhe-wída nu-thi nu-kápi
Achagua Caquetio abai chamay matavi nú-rita nu-tói nu-kuhe
Piapoco Caquetio abéri putsíba maísiba nú-wita nu-tui nu-kapi
Amarizana Caquetio nu-ita no-tuy nu-kagi
Maypure Maypure papeta apanum apekiva nu-kibukú nu-puriki nu-kapi
Baníva Baníva peyaːlo enaːba yabébuli no-bóhu na-bólihi naː-bipo
Yavitero Baníva hasiáua tsináha nu-síhu na-hólitsi no-kabuhi
Guinau Guinau abamédzya abiamáka in-chéue na-uízyi n-kábi
Wapishána Central bayadap yaitam dikinerda aita-ma ung-wawin kai
Atorai Central petaghpa pauitegh ihikeitaub uruei na-win un-kei
Mapidian Mapidian chioñi asagu dikiñerda un-ku un-oso un-chigya
Mawakwa Mapidian apaura woaraka tamarsa un-kaua ng-oso ng-nkowa
Goajira Goajira vane piamu apuni ta-kí tá-i ta-xápki
Paraujano Goajira mánei pími apáni tó-ki tá-i táp
Taino Island atu bem zimu aku u-gúti
T. Cusa Island
Eyeri Island ata de-sie da-kosi da-kan da-kuti
Caliponau Island aban biama ishöké áku nu-kabo nu-guti
Arawak West Guiana aba biama da-shi da-kusi ue-babuhu da-kosai
Arawak East Guiana da-shi da-kushi da-kapo da-kuti
Language Branch water fire sun maize house tapir bird
Amoishe Lorenzo óñ tsó yumpór trop bakü atók
Guahibo Guahibo méra isóto ikatia hetsóto métsaha
Churuya Guahibo minta ixito mshaxaint xesá
Guayabero Guahibo minta giptan hes baːh mesa
Marawan Marawan uni tiketi kamui paiti oldogri
Caripurá Marawan oneː tiketí kamuí maikí paití arudeika
Palicur Marawan úne tikéti kamoí mahikí paitipin aludpikli
Aruan Aruan unü díha hámo údi müle
Moríque Moríque ón ashkómi ñóki náshi anár háwuits
Chamicuro Chamicuro uníxsa káxchi mosóxko náchi axkóchi maxtódli
Waurá Waurá une itséi kame máiki pae täme
Mehináku Waurá óne tsé kame máiki pai täme
Kustenau Waurá one tséi xámi maikí pae täme
Yaulapíti Waurá u zyro káme máiki pa tsama
Sarave Paresí une rikiai káʔane kozeheo kuti
Paresí Paresí óni irikati kámai kózoto hati kótui
Waimare Paresí uné irigate kamái kozeːtoː haːtí koːtuí
Chané Chané úne yuku sopóro
Guaná Chané une yukú kaché tsoporo petí kamó
Terena Chané une yukú kaché soporó ovongu gamó
Quiniquinao Apolista uné yukú kadzyé osopóro péti
Lapachu Apolista chani yuó íti tái pina yáma
Mojo Mojo uni yuku sáche suru nupena samo
Baure Mojo ine yaki pari sóhmo choro
Pauna Mojo ené yukĩ sache sese
Paicone Mojo ina shaki isésé tiolo
Ipurina Ipurina wünü chaminá atokantí kemi aikó kíamá
Campa Preandine I naña chichi tawánti sínki pangótsi kemáli
Machiganga Preandine I nía chichi buriente sinki imbako kemari
Chanchamayo Preandine I niya paneni pahuasi siinki panguchik
Quirineri Preandine I nixa pishironta shantoshi shinki pangocha
Maneteneri Preandine I húni ashi kashi is xama
Piro Preandine I une chichi kachi sixi panchi siema
Chontaquiro Preandine I uné chichi kachi sizyi panchi siemo
Inapari Preandine II uni titi takuati chema
Kushichineri Preandine II une titi takachi shihi panti sema
Cuniba Preandine II uné titi tʔkati chihi panti hyema
Kanamaré Preandine II wenü ghasirü shishie panichi nuyeshuata
Huachipairi Preandine II tak sinka
Mashco Preandine II ne abati kichäpo siema
Uainumá Uainumá auni icheba ghamui pexkia panísi äma
Mariaté Uainumá uni ichepa gamui pékye panisi zema
Jumana Jumana uhú oyé sömanlú irari pana zema
Passé Jumana oy heghüe aguma niari pána séma
Cauishana Cauishana auví ikiö mawoaká mási banö sema
Yukúna Yukúna úni tsiá kamú kaéru pási emam
Guarú Yukúna kaʔamu
Resigaro Resigaro hoːní ketse hahi weheːx adnoːhoki
Marawa Marawa uni irisi kumétu uati kakoaka gama
Araicú Araicú uni ighé ghuma mechi peyʔ
Manáo Manáo unua ghügati gamuy auati nuanu ghema
Cariay Manáo toni apai ghamui yuanati nuána ghema
Uirina Uirina une yishe kamoé auati bakué kamá
Yabaána Uirina úni ikági
Anauya Uirina uni ríkari ahiri
Chiriána Chiriána úni pái áyer makanáu páinti kéma
Ipéca Ipéca úni tiyé körzyi kána pánthi hema
Payualiene Ipéca úni tüye hözi kána pánti héma
Curipaco Ipéca óni notapíkata héri héma
Kárro Ipéca óni tie hérsi
Kapitémínaneí Ipéca úuni tíye höri kána pánti héma
Tariana Tariana úni chiána kéri kána pánishi héma
Cauyari Tariana uni hirari eri panetí emá
Baré Baré I óni gaméni ghamú makanashi páni tema
Uarequena Baré I óni ixsíde kamói makanáshi panízi éma
Adzáneni Baré I úni dzídze gámui kána pánte héma
Carútana Baré I úni tídzye kámui makanáchi pánishi héma
Katapolítani Baré I úni tídze gamui kána pánti héma
Siusí Baré II úni tídze gámui kána pánti héma
Moriwene Baré II uni tidzé kamui kána pánti héma
Mapanai Baré II úni tiidzé kamói kána panti hema
Hohodene Baré II úni tidze kámui kána panti héma
Máulieni Baré II úni tídze kámoi kána panítsi héma
Achagua Caquetio uni chichái erri kana banísi ema
Piapoco Caquetio úni kichéi éri kanái kapí éma
Amarizana Caquetio sietai eriepi keybin kaxü
Maypure Maypure ueni kati kamosi dzyomuki panití
Baníva Baníva wéni aːshi amoːshi makanátsi paníshi eːma
Yavitero Baníva wéni káthi kámothi kána fanisi ema
Guinau Guinau úne chéke gamũhũ yúnu báni zéma
Wapishána Central wéne tiker kamo marik kaburn kudui
Atorai Central win tikir kamu
Mapidian Mapidian win hikesia mariki kudui
Mawakwa Mapidian wune chikasi kamu
Goajira Goajira wuín sikó kakaí máchi míche kama
Paraujano Goajira wín chigigá kakai mái xála
Taino Island ama kuyo boinial maiz bohio bogiael
T. Cusa Island kochi maysi bohio ipis
Eyeri Island oronuie hiket hadale maurise tuhonoko narguti
Caliponau Island one iléme káshi tuhonoko narguti
Arawak West Guiana vuniabu iki hadali marisi bahü kudibiu
Arawak East Guiana wúini hikiki hadali baʔache

Proto-language[edit]

Proto-Arawakan
Reconstruction ofArawakan languages

Proto-Arawak reconstructions by Aikhenvald (2002):[23]

gloss Proto-Arawak
manioc, sweet potato *kali
‘moon’ *kahɨ(tɨ)
‘water (n)’ *hu(ː)ni
‘sun, heat’ *kamui
‘sun’ *ketʃi
hammock *maka
‘long thing objects classifier’ *-pi
‘snake’ *api
‘road; limited space; hollow objects classifier’ *-(a)pu
‘path’ *(a)pu
‘leaflike objects classifier’ *-pana
‘leaf’ *pana
‘thin, powder-like classifier’ *-phe
‘dust’ *phe
‘arm’ *dana
‘hand, shoulder, arm’ *wahku
‘blood’ *itha-hna
‘bone’ *apɨ
‘breast, milk’ *tenɨ
‘snout, nose’ *t(h)aku
‘snout, nose’ *kɨri
‘fingernail, claw’ *huba
‘excrement’ *(i)tika
‘ear’ *da-keni
‘eye’ *ukɨ/e
‘flesh, meat’ *eki
‘flesh, meat’ *ina
‘flesh, meat’ *ipe
‘foot’ *kipa
‘hair’ *isi
‘hand’ *k(h)apɨ
‘head’ *kiwɨ
‘horn’ *tsiwi
‘leg’ *kawa
‘tongue’ *nene
‘lip, tongue’ *tʃɨra
‘mouth’ *numa
‘skin’ *mata
‘tail’ *(i)di(-pi)
‘ash’ *pali-ši
‘earth’ *kɨpa
‘lake’ *kaɨlesa
‘night’ *tʃapu
‘salt’ *(i)dɨwɨ
‘smoke’ *kɨtʃa(li)
‘stone’ *k(h)iba
agouti *p(h)ɨkɨ-li
‘animal’ *pɨra
‘ant’ *manaci
‘armadillo’ *yeti
‘bee, honey’ *maba
‘bird’ *kudɨ-pɨra
‘crocodile’ *kasi/u
coati *k(h)ape-di
chigoe flea *iditu
‘fish’ *kopaki
‘fish’ *hima
‘flea, cockroach’ *k(h)aya(pa?)
‘hummingbird’ *pimi
‘dog, jaguar’ *tsinu/i
‘dog’ *auli
‘lizard’ *dupu
‘louse’ *(i)ni
‘monkey’ *pude
‘mosquito’ *hainiyu
peccary *a(h)bɨya
‘mouse, rat’ *kɨhi(ri)
‘tapir’ *kema
‘termite’ *kamatha/ra
‘toad’ *ki(h)pa(ru)
‘tortoise’ *si(n)pu
‘tortoise’ *hiku(li)
‘turkey, guan *mara-di
‘wasp’ *hani/e
‘achiote’ *(a)binki-thi
‘manioc, cassava *kani
‘medicine, medicinal grass’ *pini/a
‘firewood’ *dika
‘firewood’ *tsɨma
‘flower’ *dewi
‘grass’ *katʃau
‘leaf’ *pana
‘pepper’ *atʃɨ (di/ɨ)
‘root’ *pale
‘seed’ *(a)ki
‘tobacco’ *yɨma
‘tree’ *a(n)da
‘people, body’ *mina
‘man, person’ *(a)šeni/a
‘man, person’ *(a)dia(-li)
‘brother’ *p(h)e
‘people, man’ *kaki(n)
‘wife, female relative’ *ɨnu
‘woman’ *tʃɨ na(-ru)
‘uncle, father-in-law’ *kuhko
‘fan’ *hewi
‘house’ *pe, *pana/i
‘dream’ *tapu
‘path’ *(ah)tɨnɨ
‘above, sky’ *(y)enu(hʔ)
‘bad’ *ma(h)tʃi
‘bitter’ *kep(h)idi
‘black, dirty’ *k(h)u(e)re
‘cold’ *kipa/e
‘green, blue, unripe’ *šɨpule
‘new’ *wada(li)
‘painful’ *katʃi(wi)
‘red’ *kɨra
‘sweet’ *putsi
‘to arrive’ *kau
‘to sweep’ *pɨ(da)
‘to give’ *po
‘to give’ *da
‘to cry’ *(i)ya
‘to be sick, die’ *kama
‘to drink’ *itha
‘to fly’ *ara
‘to hear, understand’ *kema
‘to wash’ *kiba
‘to eat’ *nika
‘to stand’ *dɨma
‘to dig’ *kika
‘1st person; someone, another’ *pa-
‘2nd person’ *(a)pi
‘2nd person’ *yama

For lists of Proto-Arawakan reconstructions by Jolkesky (2016)[2] and Ramirez (2019),[5] see the corresponding Portuguese article.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Arawakan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ a b c d Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery. 2016. Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Brasília.
  3. ^ a b Ramirez, Henri (2001). Línguas arawak da Amazônia Setentrional. Manaus: Universidade Federal do Amazonas. (PDF)
  4. ^ a b Nikulin, Andrey; Fernando O. de Carvalho. 2019. Estudos diacrônicos de línguas indígenas brasileiras: um panorama. Macabéa – Revista Eletrônica do Netlli, v. 8, n. 2 (2019), p. 255-305. (PDF)
  5. ^ a b Ramirez, Henri (2019). Enciclopédia das línguas arawak: acrescida de seis novas línguas e dois bancos de dados. (in press)
  6. ^ Ramirez, Henri; França, Maria Cristina Victorino de. (2019). Línguas Arawak da Bolívia. LIAMES: Línguas Indígenas Americanas, 19, e019012. doi:10.20396/liames.v19i0.8655045
  7. ^ a b Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  8. ^ Walker & Ribeiro (2011).
  9. ^ Aikhenvald (1999), p. 73.
  10. ^ Deniker (1900), pp. 556–557.
  11. ^ Aikhenvald (1999), p. 80.
  12. ^ Aikhenvald (1999), p. 82.
  13. ^ Aikhenvald (1999), p. 82.
  14. ^ Aikhenvald (1999), p. 83.
  15. ^ Aikhenvald (1999), p. 83.
  16. ^ Aikhenvald (1999), p. 87.
  17. ^ Aikhenvald (1999), p. 89.
  18. ^ Aikhenvald (1999), p. 88.
  19. ^ Aikhenvald (1999), p. 65.
  20. ^ Rudes (2004).
  21. ^ Aikhenvald (1999), p. 72
  22. ^ "Garifuna" (2015).
  23. ^ Aikhenvald, A. (2002). Language contact in Amazonia. Oxford University Press. Accessed from DiACL, 9 February 2020.

References[edit]

  • Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. (1999). The Arawak language family. In R. M. W. Dixon & A. Y. Aikhenvald (Eds.), The Amazonian languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-57021-2; ISBN 0-521-57893-0.
  • de Goeje, C. H., (1928). The Arawak language of Guiana, Verhandelingen der Koninkljke Akademie van Wetenshappen te Amserdam, Ajdeiling Letterkunde, Nieuwe Reeks.
  • Deniker, Joseph. (1900). The races of man: an outline of anthropology and ethnography.
  • Garifuna. (2015). In M. P. Lewis, G. F. Simmons, & C. D. Fennig (Eds.), Ethnologue: Languages of the world (18th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages (pp. 13–67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70414-3.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R.E. Asher (Eds.), Atlas of the world's languages (pp. 46–76). London: Routledge.
  • Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Arawakan". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
  • Rudes, Blair A. "Pre-Columbian Links to the Caribbean: Evidence Connecting Cusabo to Taino", paper presented at Language Variety in the South III conference, Tuscaloosa, AL, 16 April 2004.
  • Walker, R. S., & Ribeiro, L. A. (2011). Bayesian phylogeography of the Arawak expansion in lowland South America. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 278(1718), 2562–2567. doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.2579

Further reading[edit]

  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Derbyshire, Desmond C. (1992). Arawakan languages. In W. Bright (Ed.), International encyclopedia of linguistics (Vol. 1, pp. 102–105). New Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Migliazza, Ernest C.; & Campbell, Lyle. (1988). Panorama general de las lenguas indígenas en América (pp. 223). Historia general de América (Vol. 10). Caracas: Instituto Panamericano de Geografía e Historia.
  • Payne, David. (1991). A classification of Maipuran (Arawakan) languages based on shared lexical retentions. In D. C. Derbyshire & G. K. Pullum (Eds.), Handbook of Amazonian languages (Vol. 3, pp. 355–499). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Solís Fonseca, Gustavo. (2003). Lenguas en la amazonía peruana. Lima: edición por demanda.
  • Zamponi, Raoul. (2003). Maipure, Munich: Lincom Europa. ISBN 3-89586-232-0.
Lexicons
  • Cadete, C. (1991). Dicionário Wapichana-Português/Português-Wapishana. São Paulo: Edições Loyola.
  • Captain, D. M.; Captain, L. B. (2005). Diccionario Basico: Ilustrado; Wayuunaiki-Espanol ; Espanol-Wayuunaiki. Bogota: Edit. Fundación para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Marginados.
  • Corbera Mori, A. (2005). As línguas Waurá e Mehinakú do Brasil Central. In: A. S. A. C. Cabral & S. C. S. de Oliveira (eds.), Anais do IV Congresso Internacional da ABRALIN, 795-804. Brasília: Associação Brasileira de Lingüística, Universidade de Brasília.
  • Couto, F. P. (2012). Contribuições para a fonética e fonologia da língua Manxineru (Aruák). Brasília: Universidade de Brasília. (Masters dissertation).
  • Couto, F. P. (n.d.). Dados do manxineri. (Manuscript).
  • Crevels, M.; Van Der Voort, H. (2008). The Guaporé-Mamoré region as a linguistic area. In: P. Muysken (ed.), From linguistic areas to areal linguistics (Studies in Language Companion Series, 90), 151-179. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • de Créqui-Montfort, G.; Rivet, P. (1913b). Linguistique Bolivienne: La langue Lapaču ou Apolista. Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 45:512-531.
  • de Créqui-Montfort, G.; Rivet, P. (1913c). Linguistique bolivienne. La langue Saraveka. Journal de la Sociétè des Americanistes de Paris, 10:497-540.
  • Dixon, R. M. W.; Aikhenvald, A. (eds.) (1999). The Amazonian Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Duff-Tripp, M. (1998). Diccionario: Yanesha' (Amuesha) - Castellano. (Serie Lingüística Peruana, 47.) Lima: Inst. Lingüístico de Verano.
  • Ekdahl, E. M.; Butler, N. E. (1969). Terêna dictionary. Brasília: SIL. ELIAS ORTIZ, S. (1945). Los Indios Yurumanguíes. Acta Americana, 4:10-25.
  • Facundes, S. Da S. (2000). The Language of the Apurinã People of Brazil (Maipure/Arawak). University of New York at Buffalo. (Doctoral dissertation).
  • Farabee, W. C. (1918). The Central Arawaks (University Museum Anthropological Publication, 9). Philadelphia: University Museum.
  • Fargetti, C. M. (2001). Estudo Fonológico e Morfossintático da Língua Juruna. Campinas: UNICAMP. (Doctoral dissertation).
  • Gill, W. (1993 [1970]). Diccionario Trinitario-Castellano y Castellano-Trinitario. San Lorenzo de Mojos: Misión Evangélica Nuevas Tribus.
  • Green, D.; Green, H. G. (1998). Yuwit kawihka dicionário Palikúr - Português. Belém: SIL.
  • Jolkesky, M. P. V. (2016). Uma reconstrução do proto-mamoré-guaporé (família arawak). LIAMES, 16.1:7-37.
  • Kindberg, L. D. (1980). Diccionario asháninca (Documento de Trabajo, 19). Yarinacocha: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  • Mehináku, M. (n.d.). Vocabulário mehinaku. (Manuscript).
  • Mosonyi, J. C. (1987). El idioma yavitero: ensayo de gramática y diccionario. Caracas: Universidad Central de Venezuela. (Doctoral dissertation).
  • Nies, J., et alii (1986). Diccionario Piro. Tokanchi Gikshijikowaka-Steno (Serie Lingüística Peruana, 22). Yarinacocha: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  • Ott, W.; Burke de Ott, R. (1983). Diccionario Ignaciano y Castellano: con apuntes gramaticales. Cochabamba: Inst. Lingüístico de Verano.
  • Parker, S. (1995). Datos de la lengua Iñapari. (Documento de Trabajo, 27). Yarinacocha: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  • Parker, S. (2010). Chamicuro data: exhaustive list. (SIL Language and Culture Documentation and Description, 12). SIL International.
  • Payne, D. L. (1991). A classification of Maipuran (Arawakian) languages based on shared lexical retentions. In: D. C. Derbyshire & G. K. Pullun (orgs.), Handbook of Amazonian languages, 355-499. The Hague: Mouton.
  • Ramirez, H. (2001a). Dicionário Baniwa-Portugues. Manaus: Universidade do Amazonas.
  • Ramirez, H. (2001b). Línguas Arawak da Amazônia Setentrional. Manaus: EDUA.
  • Shaver, H. (1996). Diccionario nomatsiguenga-castellano, castellano-nomatsiguenga (Serie Linguística Peruana, 41). Pucallpa: Ministerio de Educación & Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  • Snell, B. (1973). Pequeño diccionario machiguenga-castellano. Yarinacocha: SIL.
  • Solís, G.; Snell, B. E. (2005). Tata onkantakera niagantsipage anianeegiku (Diccionario escolar Machiguenga). Lima, Perú: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  • Souza, I. (2008). Koenukunoe emo'u: A língua dos índios Kinikinau. Universidade Estadual de Campinas. (Doctoral dissertation).
  • Suazo, S. (2011). Lila Garifuna: Diccionario Garífuna: Garifuna - Español. Tegucigalpa, Honduras: Litografía López.
  • Trevor R. A. (1979). Vocabulario Resígaro (Documento de Trabajo, 16). Yarinacocha: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  • Tripp, M. D. (1998). Diccionario Yanesha' (Amuesha)-Castellano. (Serie Lingüística Peruana, 47). Lima: Ministerio de Educación / Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  • Wapishana Language Project. (2000). Scholars's dictionary and grammar of the Wapishana language. Porto Velho: SIL International.
  • Durbin, M.; Seijas, H. (1973). A Note on Panche, Pijao, Pantagora (Palenque), Colima and Muzo. International Journal of American Linguistics, 39:47-51.
Data sets
  • Johann-Mattis List, Tiago Tresoldi, Christoph Rzymski, & Thiago Costa Chacon. (2018, November 27). CLDF dataset derived from Chacon et al.'s "Diversity of Arawakan Languages" from 2019 (Version v1.0.1). Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1564336
  • Johann-Mattis List, Tiago Tresoldi, Thiago Costa Chacon, & Christoph Rzymski. (2018). CLDF dataset derived from Chacon's "Arawakan and Tukanoan contacts in Northwest Amazonia prehistory" from 2017 (Version v1.1) [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1322713
  • Johann-Mattis List, Tiago Tresoldi, & Thiago Costa Chacon. (2018). CLDF dataset derived from Chacon's "Annotated Swadesh Lists for Arawakan Languages" from 2017 (Version v1.0.1) [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1318200
Reconstructions
  • Matteson, E. (1972). Proto Arawakan. In: E. Matteson et al. (eds.), Comparative Studies in Amerindian Languages, 160-242. The Hague and Paris: Mouton.
  • Noble, G. K. (1965). Proto-Arawakan and its descendants. Publications of the Indiana University Research Center in Anthropology, Folklore, and Linguistics, 38. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • Valenti, D. M. (1986). A Reconstruction of the Proto-Arawakan Consonantal System. New York University. (Doctoral thesis).

External links[edit]