|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Oral (hard capsules, tablets)|
|Biological half-life||17–21 hours|
|Excretion||40% excrete as unchanged umifenovir in feces (38,9%) and urine (0,12%)|
|ATC code||L03AX (WHO)|
|Molar mass||531.89 g/mol|
|(what is this?)|
Umifenovir (trade name Russian: Арбидол, Chinese: 阿比朵尔) is an antiviral treatment for influenza infection used in Russia and China. The drug is manufactured by Pharmstandard (Russian: Фармстандарт) and since 2005 it has been the number one best-selling over-the-counter drug in Russia. Although some Russian studies have shown it to be effective, it is not approved for use in Western countries. Chemically, umifenovir features an indole core, functionalized at all but one positions with different substituents. The drug inhibits viral entry into target cells and also stimulates the immune response.
Some of the Russian tests showed the drug to be effective.
Mode of action
Umifenovir inhibits membrane fusion. Umifenovir prevents contact between the virus and target host cells. Fusion between the viral capsid and the cell membrane of the target cell is inhibited. This prevents viral entry to the target cell, and therefore protects it from infection.
As well as specific antiviral action against both influenza A and influenza B viruses, umifenovir exhibits modulatory effects on the immune system. The drug stimulates a humoral immune response, induces interferon-production, and stimulates the phagocytic function of macrophages.
A more recent study (published online as an accepted manuscript by the Journal of Virology) by Pécheur et al. indicates that umifenovir also has in vitro effectiveness at preventing entry of Ebolavirus Zaïre Kikwit, Tacaribe arenavirus and human herpes virus 8 into mammalian cell cultures, while confirming umifenovir's suppressive effect in vitro on Hepatitis B and poliovirus infection of mammalian cells when introduced either in advance of viral infection or during infection.
Side effects in children include sensitization to the drug. No known overdose cases have been reported and allergic reactions are limited to people with hypersensitivity. The LD50 is more than 4 g/kg.
- "Full Prescribing Information: Arbidol® (umifenovir) film-coated tablets 50 and 100 mg: Corrections and Additions". State Register of Medicines (in Russian). Open joint-stock company “Pharmstandard-Tomskchempharm”. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- Recommended INN: List 65., WHO Drug Information, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2011, page 91
- Leneva IA, Russell RJ, Boriskin YS, Hay AJ (February 2009). "Characteristics of arbidol-resistant mutants of influenza virus: implications for the mechanism of anti-influenza action of arbidol". Antiviral Res. 81 (2): 132–40. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2008.10.009. PMID 19028526.
- Продажи арбидола упали на треть (in Russian)
- Leneva IA, Fediakina IT, Gus'kova TA, Glushkov RG (2005). "[Sensitivity of various influenza virus strains to arbidol. Influence of arbidol combination with different antiviral drugs on reproduction of influenza virus A]". Терапевтический Архив (Therapeutic Archive) (Russian translation). Moscow, Russia: ИЗДАТЕЛЬСТВО "МЕДИЦИНА". 77 (8): 84–88. PMID 16206613. Retrieved 2008-02-22.
- Wang MZ, Cai BQ, Li LY, et al. (2004). "[Efficacy and safety of arbidol in treatment of naturally acquired influenza]". Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xaue Bao (in Chinese). 26 (3): 289–93. PMID 15266832.
- Boriskin YS, Leneva IA, Pécheur EI, Polyak SJ (2008). "Arbidol: a broad-spectrum antiviral compound that blocks viral fusion". Curr. Med. Chem. 15 (10): 997–1005. doi:10.2174/092986708784049658. PMID 18393857.
- Boriskin YS, Pécheur EI, Polyak SJ (2006). "Arbidol: a broad-spectrum antiviral that inhibits acute and chronic HCV infection". Virol. J. 3: 56. doi:10.1186/1743-422X-3-56. PMC . PMID 16854226.
- Shi L, Xiong H, He J, et al. (2007). "Antiviral activity of arbidol against influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, coxsackie virus and adenovirus in vitro and in vivo". Arch. Virol. 152 (8): 1447–55. doi:10.1007/s00705-007-0974-5. PMID 17497238.
- Glushkov RG; Gus'kova TA; Krylova LIu; Nikolaeva IS (1999). "[Mechanisms of arbidole's immunomodulating action]". Vestn. Akad. Med. Nauk SSSR (in Russian) (3): 36–40. PMID 10222830.
- Pécheur EI, Lavillette D, Alcaras F et al. (2007). "Biochemical mechanism of hepatitis C virus inhibition by the broad-spectrum antiviral arbidol". Biochemistry. 46 (20): 6050–9. doi:10.1021/bi700181j. PMC . PMID 17455911.
- Pécheur EI, Borisevich V, Hlafmann P et al. (January 2016). "The Synthetic Antiviral Drug Arbidol Inhibits Globally Prevalent Pathogenic Viruses" (PDF). Journal of Virology. 90 (6): 3086–92. doi:10.1128/JVI.02077-15. PMC . PMID 26739045.
- "Мастерлек" Pharmaceuticals, Moscow, Russia. Patent number № 2033157, Registry number № 003610/01.
- (Russian) Arbidol
- English published clinical studies and translations for Arbidol 1973–2016