Arc-eye hawkfish

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Arc-eye hawkfish
Cirrhitidae - Paracirrhites arcatus.jpg
Paracirrhites arcatus in Polynesia
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Cirrhitidae
Genus: Paracirrhites
Species:
P. arcatus
Binomial name
Paracirrhites arcatus
(G. Cuvier, 1829)
Synonyms[2]
  • Cirrhites arcatus G. Cuvier, 1829
  • Amblycirrhitus arcatus (G. Cuvier, 1829)
  • Gymnocirrhites arcatus (G. Cuvier, 1829)
  • Cirrhites amblycephalus Bleeker, 1857
  • Paracirrhites amblycephalus (Bleeker, 1857)

The arc-eye hawkfish (Paracirrhites arcatus), the ringeye hawkfish, horseshoe hawkfish or whiteline hawkfish, is a species of marine ray-finned fish, a hawkfish belonging to the family Cirrhitidae. It is found in shallow waters in the tropical Indo-Pacific on reefs, resting on coral heads much of the time.

Taxonomy[edit]

The arc-eye hawkfish was first formally described in 1829 as Cirrhites arcatus by the French zoologist Georges Cuvier with the type locality given as Mauritius.[3] The specific name arcatus means “arched”, an allusion which Cuvier did not explain but it may refer to the horseshoe shaped mark behind the eye.[4] Some authorities treat Paracirrhites amblycephalus as a valid species[3] but Fishbase treats this taxon as a synonym of P. arcatus.[2]

Description[edit]

Arc-eye hawkfish at Kona, Hawaii

The arc-eye hawkfish has a relatively deep body, the standard length being around 2.7 times its length. It has a smooth upper preopercular margin and a slightly rounded to truncate caudal fin.[5] The dorsal fin contains 10 spines and 11 soft rays while the anal fin has 3 spines and 6 soft rays, each dorsal fin spine being tipped with a branched cirrus.[6] This species reaches a maximum published total length of 20 cm (7.9 in).[2] This species has a variable background colour on the body, the typical colour being pale pinkish brown.[7] There is a horseshoe-shaped mark to the rear of the eye that consists of three thin lines. The gill cover has three orange bands set in a light blue area. A white to pink stripe is frequently present from around halfway along the flank and running to the rear.[8]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The arc-eye hawkfish is widespread in the tropical Indo-Pacific. Its range extends from is from East Africa from southern Somalia to South Africa eastwards across the Indian Ocean into the Pacific Ocean east to the Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Islands, north to Japan and south to Australia.[1] In Australia it has been recorded from off Shark Bay to the Muiron Islands and offshore reefs of Western Australia, at Ashmore Reef in the Timor Sea, and from the northern Great Barrier Reef and reefs in the Coral Sea south to the Solitary Islands in New South Wales. It has also been recorded at the Australian Indian Ocean territories of Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands; and the Tasman Sea locations of Middleton Reef, Elizabeth Reef and Norfolk Island. It is a benthic species associated with coral reefs. It usually can be found in lagoon and seaward reefs, at a depth of 1–30 m (3 ft 3 in–98 ft 5 in), with a maximum of 91 m (299 ft).[2]

P. arcatus at Great Barrier Reef
P. arcatus at Atol Chuuk

Biology[edit]

The arc-eye hawkfish is typically seen sitting motionless on the reef amongst corals.[7] It prefers the heads of Pocillopora, Stylophora and Acropora corals and is solitary.[2] It preys mostly on shrimps, small fishes, crabs, and other crustaceans.[1] There are main colour morphs and these occur together with the darker fish on basalt dominated areas and the pale fish on corals, the different fish frequently being only a few metres from each other.[6] They form pairs to spawn, the pair ascending into the water column to release their gametes.[2]

Utilisation[edit]

The arc-eye hawkfish is collected for, and is a relatively common species in, the aquarium trade.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Greenfield, D. & Williams, I. (2017) [errata version of 2016 assessment]. "Paracirrhites arcatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T67997869A115453776. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T67997869A68001716.en. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2021). "Paracirrhites arcatus" in FishBase. June 2021 version.
  3. ^ a b Eschmeyer, William N.; Fricke, Ron & van der Laan, Richard (eds.). "Species in the genus Paracirrhites". Catalog of Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  4. ^ Christopher Scharpf & Kenneth J. Lazara, eds. (25 February 2021). "Order CENTRARCHIFORMES: Families CENTRARCHIDAE, ELASSOMATIDAE, ENOPLOSIDAE, SINIPERCIDAE, APLODACTYLIDAE, CHEILODACTYLIDAE, CHIRONEMIDAE, CIRRHITIDAE, LATRIDAE, PERCICHTHYIDAE, DICHISTIIDAE, GIRELLIDAE, KUHLIIDAE, KYPHOSIDAE, OPLEGNATHIDAE, TERAPONTIDAE, MICROCANTHIDAE and SCORPIDIDAE". The ETYFish Project Fish Name Etymology Database. Christopher Scharpf and Kenneth J. Lazara. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  5. ^ Randall, J. E. (1963). "Review of the hawkfishes (family Cirrhitidae)". Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 114 (3472): 389–451.
  6. ^ a b Bray, D.J. (2019). "Paracirrhites arcatus". Fishes of Australia. Museums Victoria. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  7. ^ a b "Paracirrhites arcatus". Reef Life Survey. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  8. ^ Mark McGrouther (20 April 2021). "Ringeye Hawkfish, Paracirrhites arcatus (Cuvier, 1829)". Australian Museum. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  9. ^ "Paracirrhites arcatus". Saltcorner. Bob Goemans. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  • The Fishes of the Indo-australian Archipelago. Brill Archive. pp. 8–. GGKEY:05ZET4L61B1.
  • Anonym, 2000. Data base of J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa.
  • Anonym, 2001. Data base of National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution - Division of Fishes.
  • Anonym, 2002. Data base of American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West, NY 10024–5192, United States.
  • Gibbons, S., 1999. Collect fish on stamps. Stanley Gibbons Ltd., London i Ringwood. 418 p.
  • Munz, F.W. i W.N. McFarland, 1973. The significance of spectral position in the rhodopsins of tropical marine fishes. Vision Res.13:1829-1874.
  • Randall, J.E., 1986. Cirrhitidae. P. 664–666. A: M.M. Smith i P.C. Heemstra (eds.). Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlín.
  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea i W.B. Scott, 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p.
  • Wheeler, A., 1977. Das grosse Buch der Fische. Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co. Stuttgart. 356 p.
  • Wu, H.L., K.-T. Shao i C.F. Lai (eds.), 1999. Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan.

External links[edit]