Arcaicam Esperantom

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Arkaika Esperanto
Arcaicam Esperantom
Created by Manuel Halvelik
Date circa MCMLXIX
Users not applicable (but same as Esperanto readers) (date missing)
Purpose
Latin
Signuno
Language codes
ISO 639-1 eo
ISO 639-2 epo
ISO 639-3 epo
Glottolog None

Arcaicam Esperantom (English: Archaic Esperanto; Esperanto: Arĥaika Esperanto), is an auxiliary sociolect for translating literature into Esperanto created to act as a fictional 'Old Esperanto', in the vein of languages such as Middle English or the use of Latin citations in modern texts.

It was created by Manuel Halvelik as part of a range of stylistic variants including Gavaro (slang) and Popido (patois), forming "Serio <La Sociolekta Triopo>".

Halvelik also compiled a scientific vocabulary closer to Greco-Latin roots and proposed its application to fields such as taxonomy and linguistics. He gave this register to Esperanto the name Uniespo (Uniëspo, Universala Esperanto, "Universal Esperanto").[1]

The idea of an "old Esperanto" was proposed by the Hungarian poet Kalman Kalocsay[2] who in 1931 included a translation of the Funeral Sermon and Prayer, the first Hungarian text (12th century), with hypothetic forms as if Esperanto were a Romance language deriving from Vulgar Latin.

La Sociolekta Triopo[edit]

La Sociolekta Triopo (The sociolect triple) does not create new Esperantidoj (like eg Esperanto II), but its sole purpose - including "Arcaicam Esperantom" - is to reflect styles in literature translated into Esperanto, like the Berlin Middle-German dialect spoken by characters in Carl Zuckmayers "Captain of Köpenick" (Popido), or ancient styles in Walter Scott's Ivanhoe (Arkaika Esperanto).[3]

"La Sociolekta Triofo" thus constitutes not three new "constructed languages", but "constructed auxillary sociolects for Esperanto", understandable by every reader of Esperanto; still giving the stylistial differences from dialects (Popido), Slang (Gavaro) and ancient forms contrasting "Fundamento", standard Esperanto, eg. in works of Mark Twain (slang and southern dialect) or Lord of the Rings (Arkaika Esperanto for the elves, Popido for the Hobbits).

Differences from Esperanto[edit]

Manuel Halvelik in 1975.

Spelling[edit]

  • c becomes tz
  • ĉ becomes ch
  • f becomes ph
  • ĝ becomes gh
  • ĥ becomes qh
  • j becomes y
  • ĵ becomes j
  • k becomes qu (before e, i) or c (before other letters)
  • ŝ becomes sh
  • ŭ becomes ù (but see below regarding -aŭ adverbs)
  • v becomes w
diphthongs:
becomes (but see below regarding -aŭ adverbs)
becomes
consonant clusters:
dz becomes zz
ks becomes x
kv becomes

Pronouns[edit]

  • mi becomes mihi
  • ci becomes tu
  • li becomes lùi
  • ŝi becomes eshi
  • ĝi becomes eghi
  • si becomes sihi
  • ni becomes nos
  • vi becomes wos
  • ili becomes ilùi
  • There is a new pronoun egui which is a personal, sex-neutral pronoun (utrum). Its intended use is for referring to deities, angels, animals etc.
    • The "modernised" form, gi, can be used as utrum pronoun in Giismo; in contrast to Riismo, Giismo does not abolish feminine and neutral ŝi and ĝi. In contrast to Hiismo, Giismo introduces "gi" as genus-indifferent pronoun and retains "li" as masculine pronoun.

Verbs[edit]

  • The infinitive ends in -ir, rather than in the -i of modern Esperanto. Ex.: fari becomes pharir.
  • The verb endings change according to the subject. So it is not necessary to write the subject pronoun, where there is no ambiguity.

Ex: The modern Esperanto verb esti (to be), present tense:

  • mi/ci/li/ŝi/ĝi/si/ni/vi/ili estas

The Arcaicam Esperantom verb estir (to be), present tense:

  • (mihi) estams
  • (tu) estas
  • (lùi/eshi/eghi/egui/sihi) estat
  • (nos) estaims
  • (wos) estais
  • (ilùi) estait

The other verb tenses behave the same way, as does the conditional mood:

  • The future-tense conjugation estos becomes estoms, etc.
  • The past-tense conjugation estis becomes estims, etc.
  • The conditional-mood conjugation estus becomes estums, etc.

The imperative mood behaves differently from that pattern:

  • The imperative form estu stays estu for singular subjects, but becomes estuy for plural subjects.

Grammatical cases[edit]

Nouns[edit]

Language Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive
  singular plural singular plural singular plural singular plural
Arcaicam Esperantom ~om ~oy ~on ~oyn ~od ~oyd ~es ~eys
Esperanto ~o ~oj ~on ~ojn al x~o al x~oj de ~o de ~oj
  • -o becomes om (sg. noun, nominative)
  • -oj becomes oy (pl. noun, nominative)
  • -on stays -on (sg. noun, accusative)
  • -ojn becomes -oyn (pl. noun, accusative)
  • al x-o, kun x-o becomes x-od (sg. noun, dative – ex.: al domo becomes domod)
  • al x-oj, kun x-oj becomes x-oyd (pl. noun, dative – ex.: al domoj becomes domoyd)
  • de x-o becomes x-es (sg. noun, genitive – ex.: de domo becomes domes)
  • de x-oj becomes x-eys (pl. noun, genitive – ex.: de domoj becomes domeys)
  • -e becomes (adverb) (This is a new phoneme, not present in modern Esperanto. It is pronounced like the German ö.)
  • -aŭ becomes -ez (-aŭ-adverb such as baldaŭ, etc.)
  • -a becomes -am (sg. adjective, nominative)
  • -aj becomes -ay (pl. adjective, nominative)

Nouns[edit]

  • A noun is always written with a capital letter. Ex: Glawom = (la) glavo.
  • The verb infinitive can function as a noun, having the meaning that is carried in modern Esperanto by the root with the suffix -ado. The infinitive functioning as a noun takes, as does any other noun, both a capital letter and a case ending. Ex: Legirom = (la) legado.

Correlatives[edit]

  • ki- becomes cuy-
  • ti- becomes ity-
  • i- becomes hey-
  • neni- becomes nemy-
  • ĉi- becomes chey-
  • ali- becomes altri-

(Note: Ali-, which in modern Esperanto is not a correlative despite its use in that fashion by some, becomes in Arcaicam Esperantom as altri- a full-fledged correlative.)

  • -o becomes -om
  • -a becomes -am
  • -am becomes -ahem
  • -e becomes
  • -om becomes -ohem
  • (-u stays -u)
  • (-el stays -el)
  • the particle ĉi becomes is- (ĉi tiu = isityu)

Articles[edit]

  • The definite article la does not exist in Arcaicam Esperantom. If necessary, a specific person or object can be indicated by means of ityu (in modern Esperanto tiu).
  • The indefinite article, which modern Esperanto does not have, does exist in Arcaicam Esperantom. The indefinite article is unn (which is the same word for the number 1).

Examples[edit]

The Lord's Prayer[edit]


Patrom nosam, cuyu estas in Chielom,
Estu sanctiguitam Tuam Nomom.
Wenu Tuam Regnom,
Plenumizzu Tuam Wolom,
Cuyel in Chielom, ityel anquez sobrez Terom.
Nosid donu hodiez Panon nosan cheyutagan,
Ed nosid pardonu nosayn Pecoyn,
Cuyel anquez nos ityuyd cuyuy contrez nos pecait pardonaims.
Ed nosin ned conducu in Tentod,
Sed nosin liberigu ex Malbonom.
Amen.

Version with cognates in standard Esperanto:
Patro nia, kiu estas en Ĉielo,
Estu sanktigita Cia Nomo.
Venu Cia regno,
Plenumiĝu Cia volo
Kiel en Ĉielo, tiel ankaǔ sur Tero.
Al ni donu hodiaŭ panon nian ĉiutagan,
Kaj al ni pardonu niajn pekojn
Kiel ankaŭ ni tiujn, kiuj kontraŭ ni pekas, pardonas.
Kaj nin ne konduku en tenton
Sed nin liberigu el malbono.
Amen.

Romeus ed Yulieta[edit]

Sed haltu: cuyam Lumom ityun Phenestron
Traradiat? Yemen orientom,
Ed Yulieta memes Sunom estat!
Lewizzu, belam Sunom, ed mortigu
Enwian Lunon, cuyu tristœ palat,
Char tu, Serwantom eshiam, yamen
Plid belam ol eshi memes estas. Ned estu plud
Eshiam Serwantom, se eshi tuin enwiat:
Eshiam westalam Robom werdam
Ed malsanetzam estat, ed solœ Pholuloy
Wolontœ eghin portait. Eghin phorjetu.
Yemen Damom miham; ho, yemen Amom miham!
Se solœ ityon eshi stziut!

Phrases[edit]

  • Salutoyn cheyuyd! Cuyel phartais wos? – Hello everyone, how are you?
  • Lùi ex Biawistocom wenat. – He comes from Białystok.
  • Cuyel nomizzas? – What is your name?
  • Nomizzams Petrus – My name is Peter.
  • Ityon comprenams bonœ. – I understand that well.
  • Unn Manom altrian Manon lawat. – One hand washes the other (hand).
  • Tempom phughat. – Ovid
  • Amom cheyon wencat. – Virgil
  • Ityel pasat mondes Glorom. – Thomas à Kempis
  • Ritmom estat in Tempom cuyom estat Simetrom in Spatzom. – Cicero
  • Wenims, widims, wenquims. – Julius Caesar
  • Homom Homoyd Lupom estat. – Plautus

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.universala-esperanto.net/
  2. ^ Elektronika Bulteno de EASL includes the short story La Mezepoka Esperanto from Lingvo Stilo Formo, 2nd cheap edition, Kalman Kalocsay, Budapest, Literatura Mondo, 1931.
  3. ^ "Arkaika Esperanto", p.12 et seq.