Archaeological science, also known as archaeometry, consists of the application of scientific techniques to the analysis of archaeological materials, to assist in dating the materials. It is related to methodologies of archaeology. Martinón-Torres and Killick distinguish ‘scientific archaeology’ (as an epistemology) from ‘archaeological science’ (the application of specific techniques to archaeological materials). Martinón-Torres and Killick claim that ‘archaeological science’ has promoted the development of high-level theory in archaeology. However, Smith rejects both concepts of archaeological science because neither emphasize falsification or a search for causality.
In the United Kingdom, the Natural and Environmental Research Council provides funding for archaeometry separate from the funding provided for archaeology. However, in almost all cases of archeometric research, scientists from the natural sciences assist in the scientific analysis of archeological artifacts. Universities that offer courses in archeometry offer these courses frequently as free choice for archeology students and these courses contain mainly a nonscientific overview over the possibilities that different scientific analyses offer to them.
Types of archaeological science
Archaeological science can be divided into the following areas:
- physical and chemical dating methods which provide archaeologists with absolute and relative chronologies
- artifact studies
- environmental approaches which provide information on past landscapes, climates, flora, and fauna; as well as the diet, nutrition, health, and pathology of people
- mathematical methods for data treatment (including computer-based methods)
- remote-sensing and geophysical-survey techniques for buried features
- conservation sciences, involving the study of decay processes and the development of new methods of conservation
- radiocarbon dating — especially for dating organic materials
- dendrochronology — for dating trees; also very important for calibrating radiocarbon dates
- thermoluminescence dating — for dating inorganic material (including ceramics)
- optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) — for absolutely dating and relatively profiling buried land-surfaces in vertical and horizontal stratigraphic sections, most often by measuring photons discharged from grains of quartz within sedimentary bodies (although this technique can also measure potassium feldspars, complications caused by internally induced dose-rates often favor the use of quartz-based analyzes in archaeological applications)
- electron spin resonance, as used (for example) in dating teeth
- potassium-argon dating — for dating (for example) fossilized hominid remains by association with volcanic sediments (the fossils themselves are not directly dated)
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Another important subdiscipline of archaeometry is the study of artifacts. Archaeometrists have used a variety of methods to analyze artifacts, either to determine more about their composition, or to determine their provenance. These techniques include:
- X-ray fluorescence (XRF)
- inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)
- neutron activation analysis (NAA)
- scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
- laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)
Provenance analysis has the potential to determine the original source of the materials used, for example, to make a particular artifact. This can show how far the artifact has traveled and can indicate the existence of systems of exchange.
Influence of archaeometry
Archaeometry has greatly influenced modern archaeology. Archaeologists can obtain significant additional data and information using these techniques, and archaeometry has the potential to revise the understanding of the past. For example, the "second radiocarbon revolution" significantly re-dated European prehistory in the 1960s, compared to the "first radiocarbon revolution" from 1949.
Locating Archaeological Sites
Archaeometry is an important tool in finding potential dig sites. The use of remote sensing has enabled archaeologists to identify many more archaeological sites than they could have otherwise. The use of aerial photography (including satellite imagery and Lidar) remains the most widespread remote-sensing technique. Ground-based geophysical surveys often help to identify and map archaeological features within identified sites.
- Marcos Martinón-Torres and David Killick. Archaeological Theories and Archaeological Sciences in "The Oxford Handbook of Archaeological Theory". Oxford University Press.
- Smith, Michael E. (4 April 2017). "Social science and archaeological enquiry". Antiquity. 91 (356): 520–528. doi:10.15184/aqy.2017.19.
- Killick, D; Young, SMM (1997). Archaeology and Archaeometry: From Casual Dating to a Meaningful Relationship?. Antiquity.
- Tite, M.S. (1991) Archaeological Science - past achievements and future prospects. Archaeometry 31 139-151.
- Lambert, JB (1997). Traces of the Past: Unraveling the Secrets of Archaeology Through Chemistry. Addison-Wesley.
- Aitken, MJ (1961). Physics and Archaeology. Interscience Publishers.