Archaeopterodactyloidea

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Archaeopterodactyloidea
Temporal range:
Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous, 152–105 Ma
Pterodactylus antiquus - IMG 0681.jpg
Cast of the sub-adult type specimen of Pterodactylus antiquus, an archaeopterodactyloid.
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Order: Pterosauria
Suborder: Pterodactyloidea
Infraorder: Archaeopterodactyloidea
Kellner, 1996
Subgroups

Archaeopterodactyloidea (meaning "ancient Pterodactyloidea") is an extinct clade of pterodactyloid pterosaurs from the middle Late Jurassic to the latest Early Cretaceous (Kimmeridgian to Albian stages) of Africa, Asia and Europe.[1] It was named by Alexander Wilhelm Armin Kellner in 1996 as the group that contains Germanodactylus, Pterodactylus, the Ctenochasmatidae and the Gallodactylidae. In 2003, Kellner defined the clade as a node-based taxon consisting of the last common ancestor of Pterodactylus, Ctenochasma and Gallodactylus and all its descendants. Although phylogenetic analyses that based on David Unwin's 2003 analysis do not recover monophyletic Archaeopterodactyloidea, phylogenetic analyses that based on Kellner's analyses, or the analyses of Brian Andres (2008, 2010, 2018) recover monophyletic Archaeopterodactyloidea at the base of the Pterodactyloidea.[2]

Classification[edit]

Below is a cladogram showing the results of a phylogenetic analysis presented by Longrich, Martill, and Andres, 2018.[3]

 Pterodactyloidea 

Kryptodrakon


Lophocratia

Eupterodactyloidea


Archaeopterodactyloidea


Germanodactylus cristatus



Germanodactylus rhamphastinusAltmuehlopterus DB.jpg



Euctenochasmatia

Pterodactylus antiquusPterodactylus BMMS7 life.png



Gallodactylidae

Cycnorhamphus suevicus



Normannognathus wellnhoferi




CtenochasmatoideaPterodaustro BW.jpg







In 2017, Steven Vidovic and David Martill recovered a significantly different set of relationships for early pterodactyloids in their own analysis, as shown below.[4]

 Pterodactyloidea 

Eosipterus yangi


Archaeopterodactyloidea

Pterodactylus antiquusPterodactylus BMMS7 life.png


Lophocratia

Eupterodactyloidea


Euctenochasmatia

Diopecephalus kochi


Ctenochasmatoidea

AurorazhdarchiaAerodactylus MCZ 1505.png



CtenochasmatidaePterodaustro BW.jpg







References[edit]

  1. ^ Richard J. Butler; Stephen L. Brusatte; Brian B. Andres; Roger B. J. Benson (2012). "How do geological sampling biases affect studies of morphological evolution in deep time? A case study of the Pterosauria (Reptilia: Archosauria)". Evolution. 66 (1): 147–162. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01415.x. 
  2. ^ Andres, Brian Blake (2010). Systematics of the Pterosauria. Yale University. p. 366.  A preview that shows the cladogram without clade names
  3. ^ Longrich, N.R., Martill, D.M., and Andres, B. (2018). Late Maastrichtian pterosaurs from North Africa and mass extinction of Pterosauria at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. PLoS Biology, 16(3): e2001663. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.2001663
  4. ^ Vidovic, S.U.; Martill, D.M. (2017). "The taxonomy and phylogeny of Diopecephalus kochi (Wagner, 1837) and "Germanodactylus rhamphastinus" (Wagner, 1851)". Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 455. doi:10.1144/SP455.12.