Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Turin

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Archdiocese of Turin

Archidioecesis Taurinensis

Arcidiocesi di Torino
Duomo Torino.jpg
Location
CountryItaly
Statistics
Area3,350 km2 (1,290 sq mi)
Population
- Total
- Catholics
(as of 2014)
2,153,000
2,057,000 (95.5%)
Parishes355
Information
RiteRoman Rite
Established4th Century
CathedralMetropolitan Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist
(Cattedrale Metropolitana di S. Giovanni Battista)
Secular priests520 diocesan
535 Religious Orders
133 Permanent Deacons
Current leadership
PopeFrancis
Metropolitan ArchbishopCesare Nosiglia
Auxiliary BishopsGuido Fiandino
Emeritus BishopsSeverino Poletto
Map
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Turin in Italy.svg
Website
www.diocesi.torino.it

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Turin (Latin: Archidioecesis Taurinensis) is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Italy.[1][2]

The diocese of Turin was founded in the 4th century, and elevated to the dignity of an archdiocese on 21 May 1515, Pope Leo X. As a metropolitan church, it has as suffragans: Acqui, Alba, Aosta, Asti, Cuneo, Fossano, Ivrea, Mondovì, Pinerolo, Saluzzo and Susa.[3] Its mother church is the Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist.

Since 2010 the Archbishop of Turin has been Cesare Nosiglia.

History[edit]

The earliest bishop of Turin whose name has survived was St Maximus. Fedele Savio, in fact, argues that Maximus was the first bishop of Turin.[4] Maximus, many of whose homilies are extant, died between 408 and 423.[5]

Bishop Ursicinus (569-609) underwent captivity and loss of his property at the hands of the Franks. Pope Gregory I complained to Bishop Syagrius of Autun that someone else was made bishop in place of Ursicinus, in violation of Canon Law, and Ursicinus' diocese was taken away from him.[6] It has been inferred that the Diocese of Moriana (Maurienne) was detached from that of Turin on this occasion.[7]

Duke Garibold of Turin, who had assassinated the Lombard King Godebert in 662, was murdered in an act of revenge, in the Baptistry of S. Giovanni il Battisto in the Cathedral of Turin.[8]

Other bishops were: Claudius of Turin (817-27), a copious and controversial writer, famous for his opposition to the veneration of images;[9] Regimirus (of uncertain date, in the 9th century), who established a rule of common life among his canons; Amulo (880-98), who incurred the ill-will of the Turinese and was driven out by them; Gezo (1000), who founded the monastery of San Solutore in Turin; Landulf (1037), who founded the Abbey of Cavour and repaired the damage inflicted on his Church by the Saracen incursions; Cunibert of Turin (1046–1080), to whom St Peter Damian wrote a letter (Epistolae IV.iii) exhorting him to repress the laxity of his clergy in matters of clerical celibacy; Boso (1122–c.1127), who resigned as a cardinal to become bishop.

In 1074 Bishop Cunibert of Turin (1046–1080) was summoned by Pope Gregory VII to attend a synod which was announced for 30 November in that year. One of the matters to be treated was the controversy between Cunibert and Abbot Benedict of S. Michele di Chiusa.[10] The Bishop claimed that the monastery was situation on allodial property of the diocese, and therefore the bishop had the right to install the abbot and to collect the decima tax. On 12 December 1074, the Pope wrote again, in considerable anger, because Cunibert had refused to attend the synod (venire contempsit); the Pope further advised Cunibert that another synod was going to be held toward the end of February 1075, which he was warned he must attend, and in the meantime he was to stop disturbing the monastery. When the synod took place, Cunibert was suspended from office, and in a letter of 9 April 1075 Pope Gregory again chastised him for breaking his promise and continuing to harass the monks of S. Michele. Cunibert was given until 11 November, the next synod meeting day, to reach a peaceable settlement with Abbot Benedict, or else to put in an appearance at the synod, where his case would be given final judgement. The case dragged on, however, and on 24 November 1078, after Bishop Cunibert finally appeared at the Papal Court, the Pope gave final judgement, requiring Cunibert to return whatever he had taken from the monks, and the monks likewise, under the supervision of the Bishops of Asti and Aqui and the Abbot of Fruttuaria. If the Bishop still wished to assert that the monastery had been built on land belonging to the diocese and was under his jurisdiction, he should come to the next synod and present his proofs; otherwise, he should hold his peace.[11]

Two episcopal 'elections'[edit]

In 1243, Bishop Hugo (Uguccione) de Cagnola (1231–1243) abdicated the bishopric of Turin and became a Cistercian. Before he retired to a monastery (the house of the Cistercians in Genoa) though, he was required to administer his diocese until a successor was elected. On 15 November 1243, Pope Innocent IV ordered Bishop Hugo to see to the election of the Pope's Chamberlain, Nicholas, Provost of Genoa as the next Bishop of Turin.[12] On 10 May 1244, Pope Innocent ordered the Papal Legate Gregorio de Montelongo, Papal Subdeacon and Notary, to see to the election of the Abbot of San Gennaro near Trino in the diocese of Vercelli, Giovanni Arborio, as the next bishop of Turin.[13]

An episcopal election[edit]

The episcopal election of 1319 is unusually well-attested. Bishop Teodisius Revelli (1301–1319) died in the Spring of 1319. The Cathedral Chapter met on 16 May to choose his successor. One of the electors, the Primicerius Thomas de Pellizonus, was ill and was the subject of threats on the part of some disaffected citizens of Turin, and was therefore unable to attend the meeting. He sent a notarized explanation of his absence by means of two procurators, Canon Guilelmus de Cavaglata and Canon Guido de Canalibus. The electoral assembly duly took place later that day, and Canon Guido de Canalibus was elected Bishop of Turin. An electoral statement was drawn up immediately, and carried to the home of the Primicerius Thomas, who approved and ratified the election, still on 16 May. This too was written down and properly notarized. The documents indicate that Bishop Guido was the immediate successor of the late Bishop Teodisius.[14]

Bishop Guido Canale had the unenviable task of annulling the marriage of Frederick of Saluzzo and Jacobina de Blandrata in 1333, on the grounds of affinity in the third degree. The matter needed to be repaired by papal bulls of Pope John XXII.[15]

The bishops of Turin had a palace at Pinerolo, from which numerous surviving documents have been dated.

Creation of the archdiocese[edit]

On 21 May 1515, during the Tenth Session of the Fifth Lateran Council, Pope Leo X removed the diocese of Turin from the metropolitan obedience of Milan, and created Turin an archiepiscopal see with the diocese of Mondovì and Ivrea as its suffragans, other sees being added later.[16] On the same day, the Pope sent a letter to Bishop Giovanni Francesco della Rovere, notifying him of his promotion to the rank of archbishop, and another to the new suffragans, notifying them of the creation of the archdiocese.[17]

In the 16th century the diocese saw the rise the Waldensian sect[18] and of Calvinism. It is known that, in the Spring of 1536, John Calvin himself, the famous Protestant reformer, visited Aosta as he was returning to France from Ferrara. His preaching, however, brought him to the attention of Bishop Pietro Gazino of Aosta, and he was forced to flee.[19] The Council of Trent called upon bishops everywhere to attempt to restore Roman Catholicism. Archbishop Girolamo della Rovere, in 1566, engaged in a public disputation with the Protestants of the Piedmont, and was victorious, which was greeted with great satisfaction by the Duke. In 1567, he conducted a visitation of the valley of the Stura, and preached to and conversed with many Protestants who had come into Piedmont from France, again with some success.[20] During his administration, Duke Emanuele Filiberto brought to Turin from his castle in Chambéry the Holy Shroud, the personal property of his family, and, on 29 December 1590, the body of St Maurice, the martyr.[21]

At the conclusion of the wars between France and Savoy with the Peace of Cateau Cambresis and the French withdrawal, in 1563 the permanent principal residence of the Dukes of Savoy became the city of Turin. The university was moved from Mondovì, where it had retreated during the French occupation. A Jesuit college was opened in Turin in 1567, with an annual subsidy from the Duke, and the Jesuit Collegio dei Nobili in 1572.[22] In 1577, Archbishop della Rovere began the construction of the church Santi Martiri for the Jesuits in Turin.[23]

Cardinal Gerolamo della Rovere (1564-1592) had the rare honor of dying while in Conclave in Rome, to elect a successor to Pope Innocent IX (Facchinetti). He died on 25 January 1592.[24]

From 1713 to 1727, owing to difficulties with the Holy See, the See of Turin remained vacant.

After 1848, Archbishop Luigi Fransoni (1832–62) became notable for his opposition to the Piedmontese Government's reform program, led by Count Camillo Cavour, first as Minister of Agriculture, then as Minister of Finance, and finally in 1852, as Prime Minister of Savoy. At the same time the Risorgimento and the operations of Giuseppe Garibaldi had brought about a revolution in Rome, which drove Pope Pius IX into exile. Piedmontese policy called for a reform of the rights of the Church, especially of the regular clergy. Fransoni's vocal reaction to these events and policies helped to stimulate the already widespread anticlericalism in Italy,[25] and he found himself forced to leave Turin and Italy in 1852 for exile under French protection.[26]

Cathedral and Chapter[edit]

Cathedral of Turin

The circumstances of the founding of the original cathedral of Turin are obscure. It is conjectured that the building was the work of the first Bishop, Maximus, which would place the date around the beginning of the 5th century.[27] It was constituted of three interconnected churches, San Salvatore, San Giovanni Battista and Santa Maria. Bishop Guido Canale (1319–1348) found it necessary to completely reconstruct the Chapel of San Michele in the Cathedral; which he endowed.[28]

With the old cathedral in a state of collapse, Bishop Domenico della Rovere (1482–1501) had the cathedral rebuilt in the 1490s, to designs by Meo (Amadeo) del Caprina da Settignano of Florence. Demolition began in May 1491. Cardinal della Rovere visited Turin in 1496 to inspect the progress of the works. The new cathedral was consecrated on 21 September 1505 by Bishop Giovanni Ludovico della Rovere.[29]

The existence of a college of Canons in Turin is very old. A diploma of Emperor Henry III of 1047 attributes them to Bishop Regimir in the mid-ninth century.[30] The Cathedral Chapter consisted of five dignities and twenty Canons and twenty prebends. The dignities were: the Provost, the Archdeacon, the Treasurer, the Archpriest, and the Primicerius (Cantor). In addition there were five officials called Trinitatis.[31] The earliest known Provost was Walpert in 890.[32] The earliest known Archdeacon was Ansprand, who signed a document in 863.[33] The earliest known Archpriest was Erchempert, Sanctae Taurinensis Ecclesiae Archipresbyter Cardinalis.[34] The earliest known Primicerius (Cantor) was Adalwert, who signed a document in 890 Sancte Taurinensis Ecclesie Diaconus Cardinalis Cantor.[35] The Provost and Primicerius subscribe a document of Bishop Milo in 1185.[36] The office of Treasurer was established by a bull of Pope Sixtus IV of 15 January 1472.[37] In 1690, there were twenty-nine Canons.[38] In 1744, there were six dignities and twenty Canons.[39]

In addition to the Cathedral Chapter, there were seven Collegiate Churches in the diocese, which had Chapters of Canons. At Carmagnola there was a Chapter of an Archpriest and nine Canons. At Chieri, at S. Maria della Scala there were an Archpriest, a Cantor, and ten canons. In Courgnè there was a Provost and six Canons. In Giaveno, at San Lorenzo, there was a Provost and eight Canons. In Moncalieri, at Santa Maria della Scala, there was a Chapter composed of a Provost and six Canons. At Santa Maria di Rivoli, there was a Chapter composed of a Provost, an Archpriest, a Cantor, and five Canons. At Savigliano, at S. Andrea, founded in 1028, which was in charge of four parishes, there was a college of Canons Regular; Pope Clement XII secularized the Canons, who were thereafter sixteen in number (of whom one was the Penitentiary), presided over by an Abbot, an Archpriest and a Primicerius.[40]

Seminary[edit]

The seminary of the diocese of Turin was established by Cardinal Girolamo della Rovere on 4 June 1567, in accordance with the decrees of the Council of Trent. Since 1988, the seminary has been located in a building that once belonged to the Suore Fedele Compagne di Gesu. The old building became the Minor Seminary in 1992.[41]

Synods[edit]

The Diocese di Torino maintains a list of diocesan synods on its website.[42] The earliest known is that of Bishop Boso, who also attended a provincial synod in Milan in December 1125; no records survive.[43] Another synod was held by Bishop Giovanni Arborio on 26 October 1246. Bishop Goffredo di Montanaro presided at a diocesan synod which was held in S. Salvatore de Domno on Wednesday, 14 May 1270.[44] Bishop Goffredo presided over a second synod on 16 May 1276 in S. Salvatore de Domno; its acts survive.[45] Synods also took place in 1332, 1335, 1339, 1351, 1368, 1403, 1428, 1448, 1465, 1467, 1469, and 1500. In 1502 a collection of twelve Constitutions of synods was published.[46]

There were synods in 1514, 1575,[47] 1597, 1606, 1608, 1610, 1614, 1624, and 1633.

A diocesan synod was held by Archbishop Giulio Cesare Bergera (1643-1660) in 1647.[48] On 28 May 1670 Archbishop Michele Beggiamo (1662-1689) held a diocesan synod.[49]

A synod was held by Archbishop Gian Francesco Arborio di Gattinara (1727-1743) on 1–3 May 1729. Archbishop Giambattista Roero di Pralormo (1744-1766) held his first diocesan synod on 21 and 22 April 1755.[50] Archbishop Vittorio Maria Costa d'Arignano (1778-1796) held a diocesan synod on 20–22 August 1788.[51]

Archbishop Lorenzo Gastaldi held several synods, in 1873, 1874, 1875, 1878, and 1880. There was then a lapse of more than a century, until Cardinal Giovanni Saldarini held one in 1994, and another in 1997. Since 2012, however, the Diocese prefers to hold annual meetings, which are called an "Assemblea diocesana".[52]

Bishops of Turin[edit]

to 900[edit]

[Lancius] (mentioned in 887)[64]

900 to 1200[edit]

1200 to 1515[edit]

  • Jacobus de Carisio (1207–1226)[79]
  • Jacobus (1227-1231)
  • Hugo de Cagnola (1231–1243)[80]
  • Joannes Arborio (1244–1257)[81]
  • Gandolfus (1259–1260 ?)
  • H( ), O.Min.
  • Gaufridus de Montanaro (1264–1300)
  • Teodisius Revelli (1301–1319)[82]
  • Guido Canale (1319–1348)[83]
  • Thomas de Sabaudia (1348–c. 1362)[84]
  • Bartholomeus de Roma (1362–1364)
  • Giovanni Orsini de Rivalta (1365–1411)
  • Aimo de Romagnano (1415–1438)[85]
  • Ludovicus de Romagnano (1438–1469)[86]
  • Giovanni Compresio (Compuys) (1469–1482)[87]
  • Cardinal Domenico della Rovere (1482–1501)[88]
  • Giovanni Ludovico della Rovere (1501–1510)[89]
  • Giovanni Francesco della Rovere (1510–1515–1516)[90]

Archbishops of Turin, since 1515[edit]

  • Giovanni Francesco della Rovere (1515–1516)[91]
Cardinal Innocenzo Cybo (1516–1517) Administrator[92]
Innocenzo Cybo (1520-1548) Administrator[94]
Cardinal Innico d'Avalos d'Aragona, O.S. (1563-1564) Administrator[96]
Sede vacante (1627-1632)[101]
Sede vacante (1713-1727)[106]
  • Gian Francesco Arborio di Gattinara, B. (1727-1743)[107]
  • Giambattista Roero (Rotario) di Pralormo (1744-1766)[108]
  • Francesco Luserna Rorengo di Rorà (1768-1778)[109]
  • Vittorio Maria Costa d'Arignano (1778-1796)[110]
  • Carlo Luigi Buronzo del Signore (1797-1805)[111]
  • Giacinto della Torre, O.E.S.A. (1805-1814)[112]
Sede vacante (1814-1818)[113]
  • Columbano Chiaverotti, O.S.B.Cam. (1818-1831)[114]
  • Luigi Fransoni (1832–1862)
Sede vacante (1862-1867)

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "Archdiocese of Torino {Turin}" Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved January 4, 2017.[self-published source]
  2. ^ "Metropolitan Archdiocese of Torino" GCatholic.org. Gabriel Chow. Retrieved February 29, 2016.[self-published source]
  3. ^ Diocesi di Torino, Diocesi: Storia; retrieved: 9 July 2018. (in Italian)
  4. ^ Savio, pp. 285-286: Ma niuna memoria essendo rimasta di vescovi anteriori a S. Massimo e l'episcopato di questo Santo non potendosi protrarre molto in su nel secolo IV, noi incliniamo a credere che l'episcopato di Torino fosse instituto insieme con quello di Novara nel 398, oppure verso questo tempo.
  5. ^ Savio, pp. 283-294, at p. 293. Semeria, pp. 24-26.
  6. ^ Savio, pp. 225-226. Kehr, p. 81, no. 1. J. P. Migne, Patrologia Latina Vol 77, p. 1045 no 115.
  7. ^ Herbermann 1913.
  8. ^ Rondolino, p. 10, citing Paul the Deacon at p. 23 note 10. Semeria, p. 50.
  9. ^ Cross & Livingstone 1997, p. 359
  10. ^ H. E. J. Cowdrey (20 August 1998). Pope Gregory VII, 1073-1085. Clarendon Press. pp. 66, 282–283. ISBN 978-0-19-158459-6. The controversy had already involved Pope Alexander II, according to William of Chiusa, the biographer of Abbot Benedict: Monumenta Germaniae Historica: Scriptores Tomus XII (Hannover: Hahn 1856), p. 204.
  11. ^ Semeria, pp. 80-83. Kehr, pp. 82-84, nos. 7-13.
  12. ^ Savio, p. 372. Élie Berger, Les registres d'Innocent IV, Tome premier (Paris: Ernest Thorin 1884), p. 41 no. 228.
  13. ^ Savio, pp. 372-373. Berger, p. 115, no. 675.
  14. ^ Chiuso, pp. 443-445. Semeria, p. 492. These documents make it clear that there was no intermediate bishop, the alleged Thomas de Sabaudia, as indicated by Eubel, I, p. 475, repeating information from Gams, p. 824. The alleged date of Bishop Teodesius' death, October 1318, is merely the date of his latest known document.
  15. ^ Chiuso, pp. 448-453.
  16. ^ Semeria, p. 265.
  17. ^ Ughelli, IV, pp. 1058-1060.
  18. ^ Semeria, pp. 161-164.
  19. ^ Jean Mary Stone (1904). Reformation and Renaissance (circa 1377-1610). London: Duckworth and Company. p. 313.
  20. ^ Semeria, p. 287.
  21. ^ Semeria, pp. 338-341.
  22. ^ Aldo Scaglione (1986). The Liberal Arts and the Jesuit College System. Amsterdam-Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 137–138. ISBN 90-272-2035-2.
  23. ^ Semeria, p. 288-289.
  24. ^ G. Cappelletti, Le chiese d'Italia XIV (Venezia: Stabilimento nazionale 1858), pp. 68-69.
  25. ^ Manuel Borutta, "Anti-Catholicism and the Culture War in Risorgimento Italy," in: S. Patriarca; L. Riall (2011). "Chapter 10". The Risorgimento Revisited: Nationalism and Culture in Nineteenth-Century Italy. New York: Saint Martins (Palgrave Macmillan). p. 323. ISBN 978-0-230-36275-8.
  26. ^ Maria Franca Mellano (1964). Il caso Fransoni e la politica ecclesiastica piemontese (1848-1850) (in Italian). Rome: Gregorian Biblical BookShop. ISBN 978-88-7652-447-9. Emanuele Colomiatti (1902). Mons. Luigi dei marchesi Fransoni, arcivescovo di Torino 1832-1862 (in Italian). Torino: G. Derossi. pp. 490–494.
  27. ^ Rondolino, pp. 9-10.
  28. ^ Semeria, p. 195.
  29. ^ Giovanni Romano (1990). Domenico Della Rovere e il Duomo Nuovo di Torino: rinascimento a Roma e in Piemonte (in Italian). Turin: Cassa di Risparmio di Torino. Giuseppe Tuninetti; Gianluca D'Antino (2000). Il cardinal Domenico Della Rovere, costruttore della cattedrale, e gli arcivescovi di Torino dal 1515 al 2000 (in Italian). Cantalupa (Torino): Effata Editrice IT. ISBN 978-88-86617-54-3.
  30. ^ Savio, p. 320. Semeria, pp. 406-407. Colleges of Canons were being created at cathedrals in accordance with the French Council of Aquisgranda (816) and the Roman council of Pope Eugene II (826).
  31. ^ Ughelli, p. 1021.
  32. ^ Bosio, p. 1775, who labels Walpert a 'diacono cardinale'.
  33. ^ Bosio, p. 1784.
  34. ^ Bosio, p. 1800.
  35. ^ Bosio, p. 1805.
  36. ^ Chiuso, p. 435.
  37. ^ Bosio, p. 1794.
  38. ^ Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 370 note 1.
  39. ^ Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 395 note 1.
  40. ^ Cappelletti, pp. 72-73
  41. ^ Diocesi di Torino, Seminari; retrieved: 07-14-2018. (in Italian)
  42. ^ Diocesi di Torino, Sinodi; retrieved: 13 July 2018. (in Italian) The list is derived ultimately from Antonio Bosio's notes to Josephus Franciscus Myranesius' De Episcopis et Archiepiscopis Taurinensibus in: Historiae patriae monumenta (in Latin and Italian). Tomus XI: Scriptores Tomus IV. Turin: e regio typographeo. 1863. pp. 1727–1739. Savio, pp. 281-282, warns of Myranesio's habit of falsifying documents, charters, and inscriptions.
  43. ^ Savio, p. 356. Schwartz, p. 134.
  44. ^ The text is published by Bosio, pp. 1728-1735. The contents are standard synodal regulations, especially for the conduct of the clergy and the proper administration of the sacraments.
  45. ^ Bosio, pp. 1735-1736. It established a fixed time for a synod to meet, on the Tuesday before Rogation Days (Quatuor Temporum), and forbade persons from ordering their tombs in any other place than where their ancestors were buried. The synod also adapted several canons from a synod at Lyon concerning usury. It was required of all clergy to read the constitutions of the synod in their churches on three successive Sundays after the synod.
  46. ^ Bosio, pp. 1736-1737.
  47. ^ Semeria, p. 288, provides details.
  48. ^ Synodus prima dioecesana Taurinensis, à Julio Coesare Bergera, archiepiscopo Taurinensi habita ann. 1647 (in Latin). Turin: J. Sinibaldus. 1647.
  49. ^ Synodus Dioecesana Taurinensis habita in Ecclesia Metropolitana ab. lII.mo ac Rev.mo Domino Michaele Beyamo Archiep. Taurinensi die XXVIII Maij MDCLXX, 2 ed., reimpressa Taurini, ex Typ. Joannis Jacobi Ghiringhelli, 1719.
  50. ^ Prima diœcesana Synodus Taurinensis celebrata 12. et 11. Kal. Majas 1755. Ab excellentissimo, & reverendissimo domino D. Joanne Baptista Rotario Archiepiscopo Taurinensi . (in Latin). Turin: typis Zappatæ, & Avondi. 1755.
  51. ^ Synodus discesana Taurinensis quam excellentissimus et reverendissimus D.D. Victorius Cajetanus Costa archiepiscopus Taurinensis habuit 13. 12. 11. Calendas septembris anni 1788 (in Latin). Turin: heredes Avondo. 1788.
  52. ^ Diocesi di Torino, Assemblea diocesana; retrieved: 2018-07-14 (in Italian). It is not clear whether they have the same significance as a diocesan synod.
  53. ^ Maximus: Savio, pp. 283-294. Savio deduces that Maximus I presided over the synod of Turin in 398, and that he died in 420. Lanzoni, pp. 1046-1047.
  54. ^ Bishop Maximus was present at the provincial council of Milan in 451 under Archbishop Eusebius. He was also present at the Roman council of Pope Hilarius in November 465. J. D. Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus sextus (6) (Florence 1761), p. 528; Tomus Septimus (7) (Florence: A. Zatta 1762), p. 959. Ughelli, IV, p. 1022.
  55. ^ In May 494, Bishos Victor of Turin and Epiphanius of Pavia were sent on an embassy to the King of Burgundy by King Theoderic. Savio, pp. 295-296. Lanzoni, pp. 1047-1048.
  56. ^ Tigridius was present at the Roman synods of Pope Symmachus in 501, 502, and 503. Ughelli, p. 1022. J. D. Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus octavus (8) (Florence 1762), pp. 252, 263, 268. Savio, p. 296.
  57. ^ He is mentioned in one of Gregory of Tours' miraculous stories. Savio, pp. 296-297. Lanzoni, pp. 1048-1049.
  58. ^ Bishop Ursicinus was consecrated in 560 and died on 20 October 609. His tombstone, discovered in 1843, states that he was bishop for 46 years, and died around the age of 80. Rondolino, p. 34-35 (with photo). Savio, pp. 297-299. Lanzoni, pp. 1049-1050.
  59. ^ Rusticus was present at the Roman synod of Pope Agatho, in 679 or 680. He was buried on 15 September 691. Semeria, p. 45. Rondolino, pp. 36-37 (with photo).
  60. ^ Savio, p. 300, makes no mention of this person, nor does Bosio, pp. 1609-1610, nor does Semeria, p. 50, nor does Ughelli, p. 1025.
  61. ^ Claudius was an Iconoclast heretic, and he rejected the use of images, the cult of the cross, and the practice of pilgrimages. Claudius died in 827; he was not deposed for heresy, though refutations of his opinions were beginning to circulate (Noble, p. 290). Semeria, pp. 53-59. Savio, pp. 301-319. Thomas F. X. Noble (2012). "Chapter Seven: Art and Argument in the Age of Louis the Pious". Images, Iconoclasm, and the Carolingians. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 287–364. ISBN 0-8122-0296-1.
  62. ^ Witgerius served on at least one occasion as missus dominicus. Savio, pp. 319-320. Semeria, p. 59, is out-of-date in his rejection of Witgerius, as Savio points out.
  63. ^ Semeria, p. 59.
  64. ^ The document which mentions Lancius has been identified as a forgery by Semeria, p. 66; and as a copyist's error for Amulo by Savio, p. 324. There was no Bishop Lancius.
  65. ^ Amolone was accused of having been involved in the death of the Emperor Lambert, who died on 15 October 898. Semeria, p. 61-62. Carlo Cipolla, Di Audace vescovo di Asti e di due documenti inediti che lo riguardano (Torino 1887), p. 228. Savio, pp. 322-325.
  66. ^ Eginolf (Heginulfus,Hegilulfus): Ughelli, p. 1027. Savio, pp. 325-326, suggests that the bishop is actually Bishop Heilulfus of Asti.
  67. ^ In 906, during an invasion of Saracens, Bishop Guglielmo received the monks of Novalesa and gave them the church of S. Andrea; it was at this time that the remains of S. Solutore were brought to Turin. The monks were still there in 929. Savio, pp. 326-328.
  68. ^ In 955 he served as a Missus for the Emperor. In 969 he was unable to attend the synod of Milan, but sent the Archdeacon Guntard to represent him. Schwartz, p. 130.
  69. ^ In 989 Amizo made a donation to the monastery of S. Pietro. Bishop Amizo was present at the synod of Pope Gregory V at Pavia in the Spring of 997. Savio, pp. 331-334. Schwartz, p. 130.
  70. ^ In October 1046, Bishop Cunibertus was present at the synod of Pavia. He was at the Roman synod of 1049, and was summoned to the Roman synod of Pope Nicholas II in 1059. In 1063 Pope Alexander II wrote to him, replying to an inquiry and stating that a special penance for breaking the newly invented 'Truce of God' could not be imposed, since it was not covered by Canon Law. He is said to have been a follower of the Emperor Henry IV, and, after the Emperor's excommunication, to have been a schismatic: William of Chiusa, Monumenta Germaniae Historica: Scriptores Tomus XII, p. 204. Savio, pp. 347-350. Schwartz, pp. 131-132.Carlo Cipolla (1900). La "Bulla Maior" di Cuniberto: vescovo di Torino. Memorie della Reale Accademia delle Scienze di Torino, Serie II, Tom. L (in Italian). Torino: C. Clausen.
  71. ^ Witelmus (loosely called Wilelmus by some) is known from only two documents, one dated 3 August 1083, in the third year of his episcopate; the other is dated 15 March 1089. The author of the Life of St. Benedict Abbot of Chiusa characterizes him as omnium quos terra sustinet, moribus esset turpissimus (Of all living people, his morals were the worst). Savio, pp. 350-351.
  72. ^ Guiberto: Savio, pp. 352-353. Cipolla, p. 12 (114).
  73. ^ On 15 July 1100 Bishop Mainardus took part in the consecration of Bishop Grossolano of Savona. He may have joined the schism of Wibert (Antipope Clement III, 1084–1100). He died on 10 September 1117 or 1118. Savio, pp. 353-354.
  74. ^ On 13 December 1122 he appears in a document, and again in December 1125 in a document of Archbishop Olrich of Milan. Schwartz, p. 134.
  75. ^ Guilelmus: Savio, pp. 353-354.
  76. ^ Carlo: Savio, p. 364.
  77. ^ Milo had been Archdeacon of the Church of Milan before becoming Bishop of Turin, and continued to hold the Archdiaconate during his term as bishop. He was elected Archbishop of Milan on 5 December 1187. Savio, p. 365. Chiuso, p. 434.
  78. ^ Arduino's latest document is dated 7 June 1207. Savio, pp. 366-369. Cf. Eubel, I, p. 475, who cites Savio, but follows the older incorrect date given by Gams, p. 824.
  79. ^ Carisio: Eubel, I, p. 475.
  80. ^ Hugo resigned in 1243, and retired to the Cistercian house in Genoa, where he was seen by Fra Salimbene in 1249. Savio, p. 372.
  81. ^ Joannes was elected by mandate of Pope Innocent IV, carried out by the Papal Legate Gregorio de Montelongo. Savio, p. 372.
  82. ^ Teodisius: Eubel, I, p. 475 with note 3.
  83. ^ Guido Canale: Semeria, pp. 192-193.
  84. ^ The second Thomas of Savoy was only 24 years old when appointed, by Pope Clement VI. He was consecrated a bishop on 3 April 1351, by Bishop Nicholas of Aosta. Eubel, I, p. 475 with note 5.
  85. ^ Aimo: Eubel, I, p. 475; II, p. 247.
  86. ^ Ludovicus de Romagnano: Eubel, II, p. 247.
  87. ^ Giovanni had been Abbot of Six in Geneva. He received his bulls for Turin on 21 November 1469. He was transferred to the diocese of Geneva on 24 July 1482 by Pope Sixtus IV (della Rovere). On 14 June 1484 he was transferred to the diocese of Tarentaise, where he died on 28 June 1492. Eubel, II, pp. 158, 245, 247.
  88. ^ Domenico, born in Turin in 1442, was the brother of Cardinal Cristoforo della Rovere. Domenico was named a cardinal in the Consistory of 10 February 1478 by Pope Sixtus IV (della Rovere), and was elected Archbishop of Tarentaise in 1478. He was transferred to the diocese of Geneva on 19 July 1482, and to the diocese of Turin on 24 July 1482. He spent most of his time at the Roman Curia, where died on 22 April 1501. G. C. Alessi, "Biografia e bibliografia di Domenico della Rovere," in: Italia medioevale e umanistica 27 (1984), pp. 175-231. Eubel, II, p. 18 no. 23; 158; 245; 247.
  89. ^ Giovanni Ludovico, son of Giacomo della Rovere, was the first cousin of Cardinal Domenico, and acted as his Vicar General from 1484 to 1489.
  90. ^ Giovanni della Rovere was appointed Coadjutor with the right of succession on 10 May 1504 by Pope Julius II. He was promoted to the rank of Metropolitan Archbishop by Pope Leo X on 21 May 1515. He died towards the end of 1516. Eubel, Hierarchia catholica III, p. 309.
  91. ^ Giovanni della Rovere was promoted to the rank of Metropolitan Archbishop by Pope Leo X on 21 May 1515. He died towards the end of 1516. Eubel, Hierarchia catholica III, p. 309.
  92. ^ Cybo was the nephew of Pope Leo X (1513–1521), and the cousin of Pope Clement VII (1523–1534). He was created a cardinal at the age of twenty-two, and was twenty-five years old at the time of his appointment to Turin. He was never consecrated a bishop, and therefore could only be Administrator. He could, however, collect the income. Innocenzo Cybo and his nephew Cesare Cybo have been accused of lack of interest in the diocese, and ignorant and neglectful of their pastoral duties: Lucia Felici (2009). Profezie di riforma e idee di concordia religiosa: visioni e speranze dell'esule piemontese Giovanni Leonardo Sartori (in Italian). Rome: L.S. Olschki. p. 20. ISBN 978-88-222-5822-9., Innocenzo e Cesare Cybo, sempre assenti dalla loro sedi e disinteressati alla cura delle anime e delle istituzioni; ignoranti e inadempienti dei dei loro doveri pastorali (sopratutto nelle Valli Valdesi) i sacerdoti; incline al libertinaggio gran parte del clero regolare.... Luigi Staffetti, Il cardinale Innocenzo Cybo (Firenze 1894).
  93. ^ Seyssel held the degree Doctor in utroque iure (Civil and Canon Law), and had been a Councilor and Master of Requests of King Louis XII, through whose influence he was elected Canon and Archdeacon of the Cathedral Chapter of Bourges. He had then been Bishop of Marseille (1511–1517). He was transferred to the diocese of Turin by Pope Leo X on 11 May 1517. He was a prolific author of works on history, law, and moral theology. He died on 1 June 1520. His Last Will and Testament, dated 27 May 1520, along with several inventories, survives: Chiusi, pp. 499-519. According to those documents (p. 506) notarized by a Public Notary, he died Die Mercurii penultima die mensis Maji...hora XVIa dicti diei. (30 May 1520) Semeria, pp. 267-275. Eubel, III, pp. 237 with note 3; 309.
  94. ^ Innocenzo Cybo's Vicar in Turin was Bishop Filippo Mari of Ventimiglia. Semeria, pp. 276-282. Staffetti, pp. 235-236.
  95. ^ Born in Genoa in 1495, Cesare Cybo (Usodimare) had been Administrator (until he was 27 years of age) and then Bishop of Mariana (Sardinia) from 1 December 1531. He was succeeded there on 22 June 1548 by his brother Ottaviano Cybo, as he was promoted to the diocese of Turin. He died on 26 December 1562. Semeria, pp. 282-284. Eubel, III, pp. 235, 309.
  96. ^ D'Avalos was appointed on 3 January 1563, and resigned on 12 May 1564. Semeria, pp. 284-285. Eubel, III, p. 309.
  97. ^ Della Rovere had been Provost of the Cathedral Chapter of Turin. He was nominated Bishop of Toulon by the King of France, and preconised (approved) by Pope Pius IV on 26 January 1560. King Charles IX of France appointed della Rovere his ambassador to the Duke of Savoy, and he so impressed both the Duke and Cardinal d'Avalos that the Cardinal resigned in his favor. Della Rovere was transferred to the diocese of Turin on 12 May 1564. He was named a cardinal on 16 November 1586, and assigned the titular church of San Pietro in Vincoli, the sixth of his family to hold that title since Pope Sixtus IV in 1467. He died in Rome on 26 January 1592, or on 7 February (Eubel contradicts himself). Semeria, pp. 285-293. Eubel, III, pp. 51 no. 10; 309; 315.
  98. ^ Born in Chieri in 1552 of the family of the lords of Santena, in 1591 he was elected Abbot of Fruttuaria. Broglia had been Abbot of S. Benigno. He had been tutor of the sons of Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy. He was appointed Archbishop of Turin by Pope Clement VIII on 20 November 1592, and was consecrated in Rome by Cardinal Agostino Valerio, Bishop of Verona, on 30 November. He held a diocesan visitation and then a diocesan synod in 1595. He died on 8 February 1617. Semeria, pp. 293-305. Eubel, III, p. 309. Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, p. 329 with note 2.
  99. ^ Born in 1564, Milliet was the son of Baron Ludovico of Faverges, the Archchancellor of Duke Carlo Emanuele I. He obtained the degree Doctor in utroque iure (Civil and Canon Law) from the Sapienza in Rome in 1585, and was appointed rector of the church of S. Andrea ai Monti. Pope Gregory XIII appointed him Prior Commendatory of S. Pietro di Lemens and Dean of Viry (diocese of Geneva). Pope Sixtus V named him titular Bishop of Hierapolis (Turkey) in 1590, and appointed him Coadjutor of his uncle Pietro Lamberto Milliet, Bishop of Mariana (Corsica). He succeeded to the diocese on the death of his uncle on 6 May 1591. On 15 March 1608 the Duke named him Abbot of Aulps. Milliet was transferred to the diocese of Turin on 17 December 1618 by Pope Paul V. He died on 17 November 1624. Semeria, pp. 305-307. Gauchat, p. 329.
  100. ^ Ferrero: Semeria, pp. 307-308. Gauchat, p. 329 with note 4.
  101. ^ The principal cause of the disruption was the war between Francis I of France and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. It brought in its wake, death, pillage, plague, and famine. Semeria, pp. 308-309.
  102. ^ Provana was the son of Giovanni Francesco de' Conti di Bussolino e di Collegno, Grand Chancellor of Duke Carlo Emanuele of Savoy. Antonio obtained a degree of Doctor in utroque iure from Turin in 1604. He was appointed Savoyard Ambassador to Venice in 1605, during the strife between Pope Paul V and the Serene Republic. He enjoyed the patronage of Cardinal Maurizio di Savoia in Rome. He was named to the office of Protonotary Apostolic by papal bull of 20 July 1622, and titular bishop of Dyrrachium (Durazzo, Albania) on 21 July 1622. His transfer to Turin was approved in Consistory by Pope Urban VIII on 19 January 1632. He died on 25 July 1640. Semeria, pp. 308-313. Gauchat, pp. 179 with note 3; 329 with note 5. Carlo Pio de Magistris (1906). Carlo Emanuele I e la contesa fra la repubblica veneta e Paolo V (1605-1607).: Documenti editi a cura di Carlo De Magistris. Miscellanea di storia veneta, serie seconda, Tom. X (in Italian). Venezia: a spese della Società. p. passim. Giuseppe Tuninetti; Gianluca D'Antino (2000). Il cardinal Domenico Della Rovere, costruttore della cattedrale, e gli arcivescovi di Torino dal 1515 al 2000: stemmi, alberi genealogici e profili biografici (in Italian). Effata Editrice IT. pp. 94–95. ISBN 978-88-86617-54-3.
  103. ^ Bergera (Bergeria, on his tombstone) was a native of Turin, and held the degree Doctor in utroque iure (Civil and Canon Law). He was Provost of the Cathedral Chapter of Turin, and was elected Vicar Capitular during the Sede Vacante of 1640–1643. He was named Archbishop of Turin on 23 February 1643. In 1646 he conducted a formal visitation of the Collegiate Church of Chieri, for whose Chapter he issued new statutes. He also visited the Collegiate Church of Rivoli in September 1646. He held a synod on 15 May 1647. He died in 1660 at the age of sixty-seven. Semeria, pp. 314-317. Gauchat, p. 329 with note 6.
  104. ^ Beggiamo had previously been Bishop of Mondovì. He died in October 1689. Gauchat, p. 329 with note 7.
  105. ^ Vibo was born in Turin in 1630, and was ordained a priest in 1654. He held the degree doctor of philosophy and master of theology from the University of Turin (1658) He also held the degree Doctor in utroque iure (Civil and Canon Law) from Turin. He was named Abbot Commendatory of SS. Pietro ed Andrea di Ripalta. He served as Internuncio in Paris from April 1666 to November 1668, and again from July 1671 to June 1672. He was named Governor of Carpentras and the Comtat Venaissin in 1672, a post he held for ten years. He was appointed Archbishop of Turin in Consistory on 27 November 1690 by Pope Alexander VIII, on the nomination of Duke Vittore Amadeo of Savoy. He died on 13 February 1713, at the age of 83. Semeria, pp. 320-325. Ritzler-Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica V, p. 370 with note 2.
  106. ^ Victor Amadeus of Savoy had become King of Sardinia at the conclusion of the War of the Spanish Succession in 1713. He and the Papacy were at odds concerning the claims of the King to regalian rights in his domain, that is, the right to claim the income of vacant dioceses and monasteries during the vacancy, and the right to nominate a new incumbent. The model for the King's claim was the similar claim of Louis XIV. During the Vacancy in Turin, the diocese was governed by Vicars Capitular, Ignacio Carocio (1713–1716) and Filippo Domenico Tarino (1716–1727).Semeria, pp. 321-323. Domenico Carutti (barone di Cantogno) (1879). Storia della diplomazia della corte di Savoia: 1663-1730 (in Italian). Torino: Frattelli Bocca. pp. 583–614. Pier Carlo Boggio (1854). La chiesa e lo stato in Piemonte: sposizione storico-critica dei rapporti fra la S. Sede e la corte di Sardegna dal 1000 al 1854 (in Italian). Volume primo. Torino: Seb. Franco e figlii e Company. pp. 113–118.
  107. ^ Francesco was born in the town of Gravellona (diocese of Vigevano) in 1656. As a youth he entered the Barnabite Congregation (Clerics Regular of St. Paul), and engaged in the usual studies of philosophy and theology. He was named Bishop of Alessandria in 1706, and was transferred to the diocese of Turin on 25 June 1727 by Pope Benedict XIII, on the nomination of Victor Amadeus II of Savoy, King of Sardinia, on 11 June 1727. He conducted a diocesan visitation immediately, and then held a diocesan synod in 1729. He was Chancellor of the Royal Athenaeum, and Prefect of the Royal Chapel. Gattinara died in Turin in October 1743. Semeria, pp. 360-362. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, pp. 370-371 with note 3.
  108. ^ Semeria, pp. 362-364. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 395 with note 2.
  109. ^ Semeria, pp. 364-366. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 395 with note 3.
  110. ^ Costa was born in Turin in 1737, and held the degree Doctor in utroque iure (Civil and Canon Law) (1767). He had been Rector of the Royal University and Almoner to the King of Sardinia, and was then, on the King's nomination, Bishop of Vercelli (1769–1778). Costa was transferred to the diocese of Turin, on the King's nomination, on 28 September 1778. He was named a cardinal by Pope Pius VI on 30 March 1789, and sent the red biretta. He died on 16 May 1796. Semeria, pp. 367-370. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, pp. 36 no. 55; 395 with note 4; 438 with note 3. Oreste Favaro, "Costa, Vittorio Gaetano," Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani Volume 30 (1984). (in Italian)
  111. ^ Named on 24 July 1797. Semeria, pp. 370-374. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 395 with note 5.
  112. ^ Born in Saluzzo in 1757, Della Torre was a member of the family of the Counts of Luserna e Valle. He entered the Congregation of S. Agostino di Lombardia, and held the offices of teacher of philosophy and theology, Master of Novices, and Prior of the Convent in Turin. In 1789 he was named Bishop of Sassari (Sardinia). On 24 July 1797 he was transferred to the diocese of Acqui, and on 24 July 1805 he was transferred by Pope Pius VII to the diocese of Turin, on the approval of Napoleon I. He restored the seminary. In 1811 he went to Paris for the national assembly of French bishops, and was elected Secretary of the assembly. When the Calvinists and other heretical sects wanted to open a church in Turin, he lobbied Prince Borghese, the Provincial Governor General, and the Minister of Cults in Paris, and had the plan dropped. He died on 8 April 1814. Semeria, pp. 375-377. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, pp. 93, 423; VII, p. 360.
  113. ^ During the Sede vacante, which included the fall of Napoleon after Waterloo, the Hundred Days, the Congress of Vienna, the restoration of the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the restoration of the Papal States, the diocese of Turin was governed by the Vicar Capitular, Msgr Emanuele Gonetti. Semeria, p. 377. Bosio, p. 1771.
  114. ^ Chiaverotti had been Bishop of Ivrea from 1817 to 1818. He was named Archbishop of Turin by Pope Pius VII on 21 December 1818. He died on 6 August 1831. Semeria, pp. 377-379. Ritzler-Sefrin, VII, pp. 225, 361.
  115. ^ A native of Turin, Gastaldi had previously been Bishop of Saluzzo (1867-1871). He was transferred to the diocese of Turin by Pope Pius IX on 27 October 1871. He died on 25 March 1883. Ritzler-Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica VIII, pp. 51, 86, 538.
  116. ^ Ritzler-Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica VIII, pp. 494, 538.
  117. ^ Riccardi: Ritzler-Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica VIII, pp. 324, 420, 538.
  118. ^ Richelmy had previously been Bishop of Ivrea (1886–1897). He was transferred to the diocese of Turin by Pope Leo XIII on 18 September 1897, and was named a cardinal on 19 June 1899. He died in Turin on 10 August 1923. Harris M. Lentz (2002). Popes and Cardinals of the 20th Century: A Biographical Dictionary. London: McFarland & Company. pp. 155–156. ISBN 978-0-7864-1094-1. Martin Bräuer (2014). Handbuch der Kardinäle: 1846-2012 (in German). Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 1901–1902. ISBN 978-3-11-037077-5. Ritzler-Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica VIII, pp. 48, 52, 324, 538.
  119. ^ Gamba had been Canon and Vicar-General of Asti. He was named Bishop of Biella in 1901, and was transferred to the diocese of Novara in 1906. On 20 December 1923 he was transferred by Pope Pius IX to the diocese of Turin. On 20 December 1926 he was named a cardinal. He died in Turin on 26 December 1929, and was buried in the Cathedral. Lentz, p. 76. Bräuer, p. 1910.
  120. ^ Lentz, p. 73. Bräuer, p. 1910-1911.
  121. ^ Bräuer, p. 1966.
  122. ^ Bräuer, p. 1996-1997.
  123. ^ Lentz, p. 163.
  124. ^ Lentz, p. 210.

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acknowledgment[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Turin" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

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Coordinates: 45°04′24″N 7°41′07″E / 45.0733°N 7.6854°E / 45.0733; 7.6854