Archdiocese of Russian Orthodox churches in Western Europe

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Archdiocese of Russian Orthodox churches in Western Europe
Cathedrale-A-Nevski-Paris.jpg
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Paris, home to the archdiocese
Location
TerritoryWestern Europe, British Isles
HeadquartersParis
Statistics
Parishes65
Information
DenominationEastern Orthodox Church
RiteByzantine
Music: Russian Chant, Byzantine Chant
Calendar: Julian
Established1931
Website
exarchat.eu (in French)

archeveche.eu (in French) exarchate.org.uk (in English)

esarcato.it (in Italian)

The Archdiocese of Russian Orthodox churches in Western Europe (abbreviation: AROCWE; Russian: Архиепископия православных русских церквей в Западной Европе) is a disbanded Paris-headquartered diocese (exarchate) of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople established in 1931. At the time, it comprised Russian Orthodox parishes that were under administration of the Russian émigré bishop Eulogius Georgiyevsky. The latter decided to switch under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate as he was unwilling to continue his administrative subordination to the Moscow Patriarchate, then under full control of the Soviet State, nor was he willing to recognize the authority of the Yugoslavia-based Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, then headed by Antony Khrapovitsky.

The Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of the Russian Tradition in Western Europe was disbanded on 27 November 2018 by the Holy Synod of the Patriarchate of Constantinople; the former exarchate's parishes were instructed to join the relevant dioceses of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.[1][2][3]

Having voted to continue as a legal entity in February 2019, the Archdiocese as an entity failed to pass a resolution to switch to the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Moscow on 28 September 2019 as was proposed by its last primate, who had personally joined the Moscow Patriarchate,[4] and its parishes and monasteries currently face a challenge to independently choose and join a jurisdiction they prefer. The Archdiocese, whose legally binding Statute (Article 11) expressly says that its primate must be a bishop of the Ecumenical Patriarchate[5] continues to exist as a legal entity, nevertheless.[6] Currently, the parishes and other entities of the former exarchate are in the process of formally (ecclesiastically as well as legally) joining various jurisdictions such as the Greek Orthodox Metropolis of France[7] (under the Ecumenical Patriarchate), the Moscow Patriarchate, or the Romanian Orthodox Church.[8]

History[edit]

During the 19th century, several parishes were created for the Russian diaspora in various countries of Western Europe, under the jurisdiction of the Russian Orthodox Church. In 1861, Alexander Nevsky Church was built in Paris, and soon became the main regional center of Russian Orthodoxy. Within the Russian Orthodox Church, jurisdiction over parishes in Western Europe was granted to the Metropolitan of Saint Petersburg.[9]

After the onset of the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, Russian Orthodox Christians based outside Russia, and those who fled there from the communist regime, found themselves in a very difficult situation. In 1920, Metropolitan Eulogius (Georgiyevsky) was sent to Western Europe in order to organize provisional administration. His jurisdiction was confirmed on 8 April 1921, by Patriarch Tikhon of Moscow and Metropolitan Benjamin of Petersburg, who issued a decree creating the Provisional Administration of Russian Parishes in Western Europe, centered in Paris, and appointing Metropolitan Eulogius as its first hierarch.[10][11]

Faced with new political realities in Russia, and severe restrictions imposed by the Soviet regime upon the Moscow Patriarchate, Metropolitan Eulogius and other exiled Russian hierarchs found a temporary solution in the formation of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (ROCOR). During the early 1920s, the vast majority of Russian Orthodox Christians in diaspora supported ROCOR, united in their opposition to the Soviet government.[12]

At first, Metropolitan Eulogius was member of the ROCOR Synod, but in 1927 he came into conflict with the majority of ROCOR hierarchs and was subsequently suspended by them. In order to remove Metropolitan Eulogius from his office, ROCOR hierarchs decided to replace him with Metropolitan Seraphim (Lukyanov), but great majority of parishes in Western Europe remained loyal to Metropolitan Eulogius. Thus a split was created within the Russian community in Western Europe, between those who continued to follow Metropolitan Eulogius and those who recognized Metropolitan Seraphim as their new hierarch. Faced with those challenges, Metropolitan Eulogius appealed the Moscow Patriarchate, and received confirmation of his jurisdiction in Western Europe.[13]

In 1930, Metropolitan Sergius (Stragorodsky), acting as locum tenens of the Russian Patriarchal Throne, initiated proceedings against Metropolitan Eulogius because of his public support for Christians suffering under the Soviet regime. On 10 June 1930, a decree was issued, intended to remove Metropolitan Eulogius from his office, and replace him with Metropolitan Vladimir (Tikhonicky). Decree failed, on both accounts, since both hierarchs decided not to obey it. Moscow responded by sending another hierarch, Metropolitan Eleutherius (Bogoyavlensky), who arrived in Paris at the beginning of 1931. Faced with new jurisdictional crisis, second in four years, majority of parishes decided to remain loyal to Metropolitan Eulogius, while minority recognized Metropolitan Eleutherius. Since there also was another group, created earlier (1927) under Metropolitan Seraphim, Russian diaspora in Western Europe found itself divided into three fractions, headed by Eleutherius (Moscow), Seraphim (ROCOR) and Eulogius (independent).[14][15]

Under the Church of Constantinople[edit]

Russian Orthodox Metropolitan Eulogius (Georgiyevsky)

In order to regulate his canonical position, Metropolitan Eulogius petitioned Patriarch Photius II of Constantinople, asking to be received under his canonical care. On 17 February 1931, he was appointed an exarch, with provisional jurisdiction over Russian parishes in Western Europe, and thus a provisional exarchate of the Ecumenical Patriarchate was created.[16][17] That action caused a direct conflict between two Patriarchates (Constantinople and Moscow), leading to exchange of protests and accusations, without resolution.[18]

Metropolitan Eulogius remained under the jurisdiction of Constantinople until 1944, when he decided to lead his community back into the Moscow Patriarchate. Reunion was formalized in 1945, but many important questions remained unsolved. However, after his death in 1946, a further break occurred in 1947, with a large number of parishes once again entering the Patriarchate of Constantinople.[19][20]

The Provisional Exarchate was closed by Patriarch Athenagoras I through a letter dated 22 November 1965,[19] with an assembly meeting 16–18 February 1966 noting that such provisional ethnic structures were no longer necessary, given that the passage of several generations had allowed immigrants to become accustomed to their new lands, which were now made up of more and more converts to the faith. The implementation of those decisions was challenged, and subsequently reconsidered. On 22 January 1971, the same Patriarch Athenagoras I regulated the position of the Archdiocese, under the Omophorion of the Patriarch of Constantinople, recognising its internal autonomy.[19]

New reorganization was implemented on 19 June 1999, when Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople created the exarchate by granting it a tomos.[19][21] According to the Exarchate's own account, Patriarch Bartholomew "recognised the full autonomy of the Archdiocese in administrative, pastoral and material terms".[22] In 2006, against the protests of Moscow, the Exarchate received Bishop Basil (Osborne) of Amphipolis (formerly the temporary administrator of the Moscow Patriarchate's Diocese of Sourozh), along with a number of parishes and clergy in the United Kingdom. Bp. Basil was elected as an auxiliary of the Exarchate's archbishop and given care of the Episcopal Vicariate of Great Britain and Ireland, formed of those parishes and clergy that came with him.[citation needed]

Disbandment by the Ecumenical Patriarchate and aftermath[edit]

On 27 November 2018, the Synod of the Ecumenical Patriarchate decided unanimously to dissolve its exarchate of the Archdiocese of Russian Orthodox churches in Western Europe.[23][24][25]

On 28 November, a communiqué concerning the Ecumenical Patriarchate's decision to dissolve its exarchate of the AROCWE was published in French on the Phanarion blog[26] and on the official Facebook page of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.[27] The communiqué says the Ecumenical Patriarchate "decided to revoke the patriarchal tomos of 1999 by which it granted pastoral care and administration of orthodox parishes of Russian tradition in Western Europe to His Archbishop-Exarch. [...] [T]he ecumenical patriarchate has decided to integrate and connect parishes to the various holy Metropolises of the ecumenical patriarchate in the countries where they are located."[28] ROC officials responded with a reminder of the 2003 proposal of Alexy II to the AROCWE to move to the Moscow Patriarchate.[29]

On the same day, a communiqué on the website of the AROCWE exarchate was published. In the AROCWE communiqué, it is stated: that the AROCWE had "in no way" requested the Ecumenical Patriarchate's decision, that the AROCWE primate (Archbishop John of Charioupolis) had not been consulted prior to this decision being taken, and that said primate had learned about the decision during a private conversation with the Ecumenical Patriarch in Istanbul. The communiqué also asked the faithfuls of the AROCWE to maintain their calm.[30]

On 28 November, the St. Sergius Orthodox Theological Institute, which was under the jurisdiction of the AROCWE, published a communiqué in which it declared it "renews today its faithful attachment to the person and action of His All-Holiness Bartholomew I and reaffirms its attentive following in the spirit of unity called by the Holy and Great Council of Crete."[31][32]

On 29 November, after the synod had ended, the same communiqué which had been released one day prior concerning the Ecumenical Patriarchate's decision to dissolve the AROCWE was released, in French, on the official website of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.[33] The Ecumenical Patriarchate "never explicitly justified" its decision to dissolve the AROCWE.[34]

On 30 November, the council of the AROCWE declared in a communiqué that this decision of the Ecumenical Patriarchate was "unforeseen". The communiqué added that since the AROCWE had not requested this decision, two things should be done before the AROCWE would comply to this decision: Archbishop John of Charioupolis, as the head of the AROCWE, will have to "invite the priests of the Archdiocese to a pastoral assembly, on December 15, 2018, to discuss with those who carry with him the spiritual responsibility of the parishes and faithful of the Archdiocese" and the AROCWE council will have to "convene a general assembly of the Archdiocese, in which all the clergy and lay delegates elected by the parishes and communities, which are the adherent associations of the Diocesan Union, will take part." The communiqué concluded that since John of Charioupolis had not requested this decision, he still remained fully in pastoral charge of the Russian Orthodox Churches in Western Europe.[35][36]

On 10 December, the AROCWE published a communiqué saying the Pastoral Assembly of 15 December was not a "a statutory decision-making body regarding the future of the Archdiocese [...] The legitimate collegial bodies to which our statutes [...] entrust the administrative responsibility for any decisions are the General Assembly [...] and, between two assemblies, the Archdiocesan Council."[37][38]

After its 15 December Pastoral Assembly, the AROCWE released a communiqué in which it states that it decided to call an extraordinary General Assembly, scheduled for 23 February 2019, in Paris. The goal of this General Assembly was to discuss the November 2018 decision of the Ecumenical Patriarchate to dissolve the AROCWE.[39][40]

On 17 January 2019, the AROCWE responded to the fact that "[i]n recent days, many priests and deacons of the Archdiocese have received a letter from the Greek Metropolitan of the country where they reside, ordering them to cease commemorating their own Archbishop, to join the clergy of the Greek Metropolia, to consider that our parishes and communities are already part of these Metropolia and finally ordering them to hand over all relevant parish documents and records". In this official communiqué, the AROCWE reaffirmed that the AROCWE still existed and that John of Charioupolis was still its primate.[41][42]

On 17 (or 18) January 2019, the council of the AROCWE sent an official letter to the Ecumenical Patriarch, informing him that "the structures of our Archdiocese permit no other body except the General Assembly to respond to a question of an existential nature concerning the status of our ecclesiastical body." The letter also reads concerning the existence of the AROCWE inside the Ecumenical Patriarchate: "we would not want this long and fruitful period to end without a human, face-to-face meeting between the representatives mandated by our diocesan structures. Indeed, we would never be able to find the right words to express our gratitude to the Ecumenical Patriarchate for its canonical protection during all these years."[43][44][45][46]

Thereafter, "for the purpose of the preparation of the General Assembly of 23 February 2019", the AROCWE published a translation of the synodal canonical act sent by the Ecumenical Patriarchate, dated from 27 November 2018, which dissolved the AROCWE.[47][48][49]

On 7 February 2019, Metropolitan Emmanuel of France [fr] wrote a letter to the priests of the AROCWE. In his letter, Emmanuel declared he was ready to give within his Metropolis of France the statute of vicariate to the members of the AROCWE, with the following characteristics:[50]

  • "the preservation of the existing association, which will continue to manage the property belonging to it, and to function according to its own statutes, probably with some necessary adaptations;
  • the commemoration by His Excellency, Archbishop John, of His Holiness the Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew;
  • the guarantee, in keeping with the Ecumenical Patriarchate’s constant care about it, of the preservation of your Russian liturgical and spiritual tradition, as well as of your work of Orthodox witness in Western societies."

Emmanuel also declared in his letter he had met Archbishop John of Charioupolis, primate of the AROCWE, and had proposed those points to him.[50]

On 8 February, the AROCWE published "a reminder that the Extraordinary General Assembly has been convened in response to the decision of the Ecumenical Patriarchate to change the status of the Archdiocese, that is to say, to withdraw its title of Patriarchal Exarchate. It is certainly the responsibility of the Patriarchate to grant or not the status of Exarchate to our Archdiocese; on the other hand, it is the responsibility of the Archdiocese and, in this case, of its sovereign statutory body, the EGA, to decide on its dissolution."[51][52]

On 15 February 2019, Metropolitan Emmanuel of France gave an interview to Orthodoxie.com concerning the future of the AROCWE.[53]

Extraordinary General Assembly and refusal of the dissolution[edit]

On 23 February, the AROCWE held its Extraordinary General Assembly (EGA). 191 out of the 206 voters voted against the dissolution, 15 voted in favor of the dissolution. A new assembly may possibly be held in June to choose a jurisdiction.[54] After the vote, Archbishop John of Charioupolis read a letter that Archbishop Anthony of Vienna and Budapest, head of the Moscow Patriarchate's Synodal Department for the Administration of Institutions Abroad, had written. In his letter, Anthony wrote that the Russian Orthodox Church was ready to receive the AROCWE under its jurisdiction.[55][56][57] Following the assembly, the AROCWE published a communiqué that said: "For the moment, the life of the Archdiocese continues as on the eve of the EGA. It should be noted, in celebrations, the Archbishop commemorates the Ecumenical Patriarch and the parish clergy commemorate the Archbishop according to the canonical rule."[58][59][60]

Parishes switch to various jurisdictions[edit]

According to La Croix, the Romanian Orthodox Church and the Moscow Patriarchate had proposed to "open their arms" to the AROCWE.[61]

On 13–14 February 2019, a delegation of the AROCWE met with bishops of the ROCOR, namely the primate of the ROCOR Metropolitan Hilarion.[62][63]

On 29 March 2019, the AROCWE published a communiqué that said that a delegation of the AROCWE had met with the Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew. The delegation "handed over to H.H. the Ecumenical Patriarch the letter written by the Council of the Archdiocese, following the Extraordinary General Assembly of 23 February 2019, which refused to acccept the dissolution of the Archdiocese by nearly 93% of the votes." The commiqué also stated that a "constructive exchange" has begun and that "it is planned to continue this consultation to consider the future of the Archdiocese."[64][65][66][67]

On 9 August, Archbishop John wrote that the AROCWE had petitionned the ROCOR, the OCA, the RomOC, and the Moscow Patriarchate to be received into their jurisdictions, and that a delegation of the AROCWE also met with the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Only the Moscow Patriarchate was able to propose a satisfying status to the AROCWE, i.e. if the AROCWE was to join the ROC, the former would maintain its structures and autonomy.[68][a]

On 31 August, the Holy Synod of the Ecumenical Patriarchate decided to "discharge Archbishop Ioannis of Harioupolis from the Apostolic and Patriarchal Ecumenical Throne, personally and only to him, thereby relieving him of the responsibility of the Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox parishes of the Russian Tradition in Western Europe." It was also decided that the charge of the parishes of the AROCWE in France are transferred to Metropolitan Emmanuel of France [fr].[69][70] On 2 September, Metropolitan Emmanuel of France was named by the Ecumenical Patriarchate locum tenens of the legal association "Union directrice des associations orthodoxes russes" which depends of the AROCWE;[6][71] the next day Emmanuel sent a circular letter to ask members of the AROCWE in France to commemorate him, and wrote that the 7 September Extraordinary General Assembly would have "no decisionary power".[72] Archbishop John responded to Met. Emmanuel's letter and said Emmanuel's letter was "falsely alarming about the reality of the legal situation of our Archidiocese and the scope of our General Assembly on Saturday."[73][74][75]

At the 7 September Extraordinary General Assembly, 104 voters out of the 186 voted in favor of the AROCWE being subordinated to the Moscow Patriarchate (58.1%).[76][77] The Statutes of the Archdiocese required a two-thirds majority, and consequently the motion failed to pass.[77][78][79]

On 9 September, the ROC said it would continue consultations with the AROCWE,[80] and would accept communities from the AROCWE which wished to join the ROC.[81][82] On 10 September, the AROCWE released a communiqué in which it said that "The administration council will soon examine the follow-up to be given to the situation thus created."[77][78]

On 14 September, Archbishop John (Renneteau) [ru] personally joined the jurisdiction of the Moscow Patriarchate, and the ROC granted him the title of Archbishop of Dubna. According to the Russian media, the change of jurisdiction also applied to the clergymen subordinated to him and parishes that were willing to join the Moscow Patriarchate.[83][84][85][86][b] On the same day, archbishop John published an official communiqué in which he said concerning the statute of the AROCWE: "We cannot bring a legal answer to a pastoral question. We cannot "twist", or rather deflect our statutes that are silent on the question of whether a general meeting can decide on a canonical attachment." He also said it was his responsibility, as primate of the AROCWE, to decide of a change of jurisdiction. He concluded: "We cannot continue to commemorate the Patriarch with whom, at the latest on September 7, the majority of our Archdiocese broke the canonical bond. [...] Therefore, in the absence of an Episcopal Committee so far, but after consultation with the deans and many priests, as ex-officio president of our archdiocese, I decided today to put myself, as well as our Archdiocese, under the canonical obedience proposed by the Moscow Patriarchate to meet the needs of the communities that compose our Archdiocese. I will commemorate His Holiness Patriarch Cyril of Moscow this Sunday, and I invite all clerics to continue to commemorate me."[87]

On 28 September, Archbishop John held what he called the "Pastoral Assembly" of the Archdiocese, at which a large majority (51 members of the clergy present + 37 members of the clergy who could not be present) voted to support Archbishop John's request to join the jurisdiction of the Moscow Patriarchate.[4][88][89][90] On 2 October, Archbishop John (Renneteau) announced he had signed, with the support of two-third of the clergy of the Archidiocese, the official request for canonical attachment to the Moscow Patriarchate "in the terms that had been negotiated by the joint commission and decided this summer".[91] On 7 October 2019, the Holy Synod of the ROC passed the resolution to include the AROCWE under its jurisdiction at meeting of said Holy Synod.[92][93][94]

On 5 October, Metropolitan Emannuel Adamakis, who had been appointed by the Ecumenical Patriarch the locum tenens of the Archdiocese, notified that he had held an assembly of the clergy and laypeople of the former exarchate who had expressed their intent to join the Greek Orthodox Metropolis of France.[95][96][97]

On 11 October, seven members of the Council of the Archdiocese published a communique in which they expressed their protest against what they said was an act of "gross violation of the Statute" on the part of Archbishop John Renneteau that had occurred in the St Sergius Church in Paris on 8 October where he intruded and celebrated liturgy without the invitation and against the will of the Rector.[98][99]

In early October, Archbishop John Renneteau told TASS he would travel to Moscow and sign a document on the incorporation of those who would follow him into the ROC on 3 November 2019.[100] However, on 1 November 2019, Patriarch Kirill of the ROC single-handedly signed the patriarchal and synodal tomos that claimed to restore the "unity" of the Archdiocese with the ROC.[101][102][103] Later, on the same day, the delegation of the AROCWE, with Archbishop John, arrived in Moscow to participate in the ceremony of reunion.[104] On 3 November, during a liturgy in which the delegation of the AROCWE participated, Patriarch Kirill handed the letter of union to Archbishop John.[105][106][107][108] Archbishop John was elevated to the rank of Metropolitan "considering [his] firm standing in canonical truth and [his] in pastoral work leading to the restoration of the Church's unity."[106][107][108] Now-Metropolitan John commented that the ROC gave the AROCWE "an opportunity to survive", and that the ROC insured the preservation of the liturgical, theological, pastoral, administrative and financial situation of the AROCWE in the way this situation always was.[109][108]

Structure and composition[edit]

As of 7 October 2019, the AROCWE had "65 parishes, 11 active churches, two monasteries and seven sketes in France, Belgium, the UK, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Italy, and Spain, and its clergy is composed of over 100 priests and 30 deacons."[92][93] The AROCWE is financially independent.[110]

Communities of the Archdiocese, the largest Orthodox group in France where it is centered, range throughout Western Europe, including Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Italy and Spain. The Archdiocese has been particularly active in missionary work in Scandinavia, including developing worship in the local languages. Archimandrite Johannes (Johansen) announced on 16 December 2018 that the Norwegian Orthodox Parish of St. Nicholas has left the Archdiocese of Russian Orthodox churches in Western Europe and is now subject to the Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Britain and Scandinavia.[111]

Perhaps the best known institution of the Archdiocese was the St. Sergius Orthodox Theological Institute, founded in 1925 by Metropolitan Eulogius and sometime home of several well-known Orthodox theologians and writers of the twentieth century, including Georges Florovsky, Alexander Schmemann and John Meyendorff (although not Vladimir Lossky, who neither taught at St. Sergius nor was a member of the Archdiocese, himself remaining loyal to the Moscow Patriarchate).[citation needed]

Deanery of Great Britain and Ireland[edit]

From 9 June 2006 to 12 October 2009 the Episcopal Vicariate of Great Britain and Ireland was a vicariate of the Archdiocese, overseen by an episcopal vicar in these countries (known at times simply as "The Vicariate");[citation needed] since the retirement of its bishop on 12 October 2009,[112] it has become a Deanery within the Archdiocese.[113]

The Vicariate, as it existed under its vicar-bishop, was made up of a number of full-time parishes and some parishes and communities that meet less frequently. It was created by an act of the Council of the Archdiocese during an extraordinary meeting held on 9 June 2006, one day after the Holy Synod of the Patriarchate of Constantinople had met (8 June 2006) and issued a statement receiving Bishop Basil of Sergievo into the Patriarchate of Constantinople - an act that caused substantial controversy, as he had not been released from the Moscow Patriarchate.[114] The same statement gave Bishop Basil the new title, Bishop of Amphipolis (taken from an ancient see in Greece that no longer has a bishop), and charged him with the care of parishes in Great Britain and Ireland, as auxiliary bishop under Archbishop Gabriel of Komana in Paris.[115] At that time, no such parishes existed. After his appointment a number of parishes and communities, as well as some of the clergy and laity of the Diocese of Sourozh, followed Bishop Basil into the Archdiocese and came to constitute the Episcopal Vicariate. Other parishes and communities were formed later, where none had previously existed, for example in Cumbria, and Northampton.[citation needed]

Bishop Basil's first liturgical service as a member of the Archdiocese was a concelebration of the Divine Liturgy with Archbishop Gabriel in the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Paris on 18 June 2006. Statutes were adopted by the Episcopal Vicariate on 23 June 2007,[116] and the Vicariate was registered as a charity (registration number 1124252) on 29 May 2008.[117][118]

Retirement of Bishop Basil, and transition to the Deanery[edit]

Since Bishop Basil retired (on 12 October 2009) the Vicariate has become a deanery within the Archdiocese.[112][113] The formal name has now become the Deanery of Great Britain and Ireland within the Archdiocese of Orthodox Parishes of Russian Tradition in Western Europe.[citation needed]

Bishop Basil initially announced his retirement in a letter to parishioners on 1 September 2009, stating in that letter that he intended to retire on 28 November 2009, the same day that the Archdiocesan Council would meet to, presumably, discuss the Vicariate's future.[119] However, when the Council met on 23 September 2009, under the presidency of Archbishop Gabriel, it moved Bishop Basil's retirement forward, to be effective from 12 October 2009.[112] In its communique No. 05-09 (dated 23 September), it noted that Bishop Basil "will not have any further pastoral, liturgical or administrative mission in the Vicariate" from his retirement. Archbishop Gabriel made clear that the life of the [Vicariate's] parishes and communities in Great Britain and Ireland "are continuing, and that new communities are in formation and the ordinations of new clerics in preparation."[112]

Episcopal ordinaries[edit]

‡ Deceased

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ See also this article (in Russian) with comments of Archbishop John and deacon Alexander of the AROCWE.
  2. ^ See also the Holy Synod session minutes of 14 September 2019.

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "Archevêché des églises russes en Europe occidentale - Act of Canonical Subordination concerning the Parishes of our Archdiocese in Western Europe". exarchat.eu. 19 February 2019. Archived from the original on 27 January 2019. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  3. ^ "Communiqué (29/11/2018). - Announcements - The Ecumenical Patriarchate". www.patriarchate.org.
  4. ^ a b "Archevêché des églises russes en Europe occidentale - Communiqué of the Office of the Archbishop of 29 September 2019". exarchat.eu. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  5. ^ "Archevêché des églises russes en Europe occidentale - Statuts de l'Archevêché - Chapitre 1". www.exarchat.eu. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  6. ^ a b "Le Métropolite Emmanuel nommé locum tenens". Métropole Grecque Orthodoxe de France (in French) (published 4 September 2019). 2 September 2019. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
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  9. ^ Kalkandjieva 2015, p. 37.
  10. ^ Kalkandjieva 2015, p. 37, 43.
  11. ^ Kiminas 2009, p. 156.
  12. ^ Kalkandjieva 2015.
  13. ^ Kalkandjieva 2015, p. 41-43.
  14. ^ Kiminas 2009, p. 156-157.
  15. ^ Kalkandjieva 2015, p. 44-45.
  16. ^ Kiminas 2009, p. 24, 157.
  17. ^ Kalkandjieva 2015, p. 45-46.
  18. ^ Kalkandjieva 2015, p. 46-48.
  19. ^ a b c d Kiminas 2009, p. 157.
  20. ^ Kalkandjieva 2015, p. 242-251.
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  26. ^ Panagiotisandriopoulos (28 November 2018). "Φως Φαναρίου : Η Αγία και Ιερά Σύνοδος ήρε τον Τόμο για την Εξαρχία των Ορθοδόξων Παροικιών Ρωσικής Παραδόσεως". Φως Φαναρίου. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
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  29. ^ "Russian Church reminds Constantinople's Russian parishes in Western Europe about the propose of transition to Moscow Patriarchate". interfax-religion.com. 28 November 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  30. ^ "Archevêché des églises russes en Europe occidentale - Communiqué du Bureau de l'Administration Diocésaine du 28 novembre 2018". www.exarchat.eu. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
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  33. ^ "Communiqué au sujet des églises orthodoxes de tradition russe en Europe occidentale". www.patriarchate.org. 29 November 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
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Official websites

Miscellaneous

Coordinates: 48°52′40″N 2°18′06″E / 48.87778°N 2.30167°E / 48.87778; 2.30167