Archer Avenue Lines
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (June 2014)|
|IND/BMT Archer Avenue Lines|
The E, J, and Z trains serve the Archer Avenue Lines.
|System||New York City Subway|
west of Jamaica–Van Wyck (south, upper level)
south of Sutphin Boulevard – Archer Avenue – JFK Airport (south, lower level)
|Owner||City of New York|
|Operator(s)||New York City Transit Authority|
|No. of tracks||2-4|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)|
|Electrification||600V DC third rail|
|Archer Avenue Lines|
The Archer Avenue Lines are two rapid transit lines of the New York City Subway, mostly running under Archer Avenue in the Jamaica neighborhood of Queens. Conceived as part of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority's 1968 expansion plans, they opened on December 11, 1988.
The two lines are built on separate levels, served by trains from the IND Queens Boulevard Line (E train) on the upper level, and the BMT Jamaica Line (J Z trains) on the lower. Since the two levels share no track connections and have different chainings and radio frequencies, they are two separate lines—the B2 (IND) Division Archer Avenue Line (upper level) and the B1 (BMT) Division Archer Avenue Line (lower level).
Extent and service
The following services use the Archer Avenue Line:
|Lines served||Section of line|
|IND||Eighth Avenue Local and Queens Boulevard Express||upper level, north of junction with the IND Queens Boulevard Line|
|BMT||Nassau Street and Jamaica Local/Express||lower level, north of 121st Street (at 129th Street) on the BMT Jamaica Line|
The two Archer Avenue Lines begin at a northern terminal, Jamaica Center – Parsons/Archer (E J Z trains), as a bi-level subway, each level having two tracks. The two lines run compass west along Archer Avenue to another station at Sutphin Boulevard – Archer Avenue – JFK Airport, where connections can be made to the Long Island Rail Road and AirTrain JFK. West of this station, the two levels diverge. The lower level tracks (J Z trains) continue roughly compass northwest, emerging from a portal near 89th Road and 130th Street and paralleling the Main Line of the LIRR before turning west onto the elevated structure of the BMT Jamaica Line. The upper level tracks (E train) turn compass north under the Van Wyck Expressway, with another station at Jamaica Avenue. Just north of Hillside Avenue, they meet the four tracks of the IND Queens Boulevard Line at a flying junction, with connections to both the local and express tracks.
Jamaica Center – Parsons/Archer was not intended to be the lines' northern terminal, as there are spurs on both levels for possible future extensions. On the lower level, they continue one train length and end with at bumper blocks. This was a planned extension toward 190th Street – Hollis Avenue. Where the lower level tracks end, there is a provision for a diamond crossover switch at the end of the tunnel (under 160th Street). On the upper level, the tracks curve south to run under 160th Street and stop at about South Road, also ending at bumper blocks. The plan was for this line to use the LIRR Atlantic Branch ROW and run to Springfield Boulevard or Rosedale. Where the upper level tracks stub end, there is a provision for a portal to go outside if the line going to Southeastern Queens is ever built. The tail tracks on both levels are currently used for storage.
Construction on the Archer Avenue subway began on October 24, 1973 at Archer Avenue and 151st Street, paving the way for the southeast Queens subway line and the demolition of the Jamaica Avenue Elevated from 129th Street to the 168th Street terminal. It was then expected that the subway would be complete by 1980 or 1981.The first tunnel between the Jamaica Avenue Elevated and the Archer Avenue subway was holed through in October 1977. The second tunnel connection holing through of the Archer Avenue subway tunnels occurred in December 1977. In October 1979, groundbreaking for a 1,300 ft cut and cover section of the Archer Avenue line occurred. This section also included the Jamaica – Van Wyck station.
In October 1980, the MTA considered stopping work on the line, due to its budget crisis and the bad state of the existing subway system. Originally set to be opened in 1980, the line kept getting delayed, and by the late 1970s, the opening was delayed to 1983, then to 1985 or 1986. Progress of the Archer Avenue Line temporarily stopped in March 1982, when on March 5th, part of the tunnel caved in around the vicinity of Archer Avenue and 138th Street, where one construction worker was killed, and three others narrowly escaped injury.
Despite the delays, disagreements over the condition of the line and the speed of construction, and the federal Urban Mass Transportation Administration's reluctance to provide funding to complete the line due to concerns over the quality of concrete and the leakage of water into the tunnels, construction was completed a year ahead of schedule, in 1983. Due to the city's fiscal crisis, the subway line was truncated to Jamaica Center – Parsons/Archer. The line, which consisted of the first stations added to the subway system since the 57th Street station opened in 1968, and the first stations in Queens since the IND Rockaway Line in 1956, opened on December 11, 1988—at a cost of nearly five times its original budgeted cost and severely cut back to a length of 2 miles (3 km).
In the original service plan, the G and N trains (the N ran on the IND Queens Boulevard Line until 1987, when the R train replaced the N to allow it access to the Jamaica Yard) were to go to Jamaica Center, while the E and F would have remained going towards 179th Street. In the original service plan the N train was to run between Jamaica Center and Coney Island during weekdays while G trains were to terminate at 71st Avenue. During weekends the G train was to run between Jamaica Center and Smith–Ninth Streets, while N trains would terminate at 57th Street – Seventh Avenue or 71st Avenue. During late nights there was supposed to be a G train shuttle between Jamaica Center and Van Wyck Boulevard. The signage indicating such service was installed inside the Kew Gardens – Union Turnpike station in the mid-1980s. When the Archer Avenue Line opened in 1988, a simpler service plan was put into effect, which involved the E going to Jamaica Center and the F going to 179th Street, with all local service terminating at 71st Avenue. That plan remains as of 2010.
The original plan also called for the upper level, E train, to continue as a two-track line along the right of way of the Atlantic Branch of the Long Island Rail Road through the Locust Manor and Laurelton stations. The Montauk Branch through St. Albans already provides parallel service to Jamaica; the new line would include a new station adjacent to Jamaica Station of the LIRR for transfer to LIRR and AirTrain JFK trains. The line would have served a large-scale housing development at Rochdale Village; such a line would have required conversion involving modifying existing platforms at Locust Manor and Laurelton to accommodate the IND loading gauge, as well as constructing new stations to serve Southeast Queens. Due to a lack of funding as well as some political opposition, this plan was never implemented.
|Station service legend|
|Stops all times|
|Stops rush hours in the peak direction only|
|Time period details|
|Station||Tracks||Services||Opened||Transfers and notes|
|Jamaica||Jamaica Center – Parsons/Archer||all||E J Z||December 11, 1988|
|Sutphin Boulevard – Archer Avenue – JFK Airport||all||E J Z||December 11, 1988||Connection to LIRR at Jamaica
Connection to AirTrain JFK to JFK Int'l Airport
|Merge into BMT Jamaica Line (lower level) (J Z )|
|Jamaica – Van Wyck||upper level||E||December 11, 1988|
|Merge into IND Queens Boulevard Line (upper level) (E )|
- Johnson, Kirk (1988-12-09). "Big Changes For Subways Are to Begin". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-07-05.
- "Dies in Cave-In: Sand Avalanche Buries Worker in Queens IND," New York Daily News, March 5th, 1982, page 3.
- "New Subway Line Finally Rolling Through Queens," Newsday, December 11th, 1988, page 7.
- N Roll Signs to Jamaica Center by GP38/R42 Chris; Archer Avenue at 20 (SubChat)
- G Roll Signs to Jamaica Center by GP38/R42 Chris; Archer Avenue at 20 (SubChat)
- "R46 Jamaica Image 14".[dead link]
- nycsubway.org—The 1968 MTA "Program for Action"
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