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Archezoa was a kingdom proposed by Thomas Cavalier-Smith[1][2] for eukaryotes that diverged before the origin of mitochondria. At various times, the pelobionts and entamoebids (now Archamoebae), the metamonads, and the Microsporidia were included here. These groups appear near the base of eukaryotic evolution on rRNA trees. However, all these groups are now known to have developed from mitochondriate ancestors, and trees based on other genes do not support their basal placement. The kingdom Archezoa has therefore been abandoned.[3]


  1. ^ Tom Cavalier-Smith (May 1989). "Archaebacteria and Archezoa". Nature. 339 (6220): 100–101. doi:10.1038/339100a0. PMID 2497352.
  2. ^ Tom Cavalier-Smith (December 1993). "Kingdom protozoa and its 18 phyla". Microbiological Reviews. 57 (4): 953–994. PMC 372943. PMID 8302218.
  3. ^ Poole, Anthony; Penny, David (21 June 2007). "Engulfed by speculation" (PDF). Nature. 447 (7147): 913. doi:10.1038/447913a. PMID 17581566. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011.