Archibald Bulloch c. 1775
|Governor of Georgia|
April 15, 1776 – February 22, 1777
|Preceded by||William Ewen|
(as President of Council of Safety)
|Succeeded by||Button Gwinnett|
|Delegate from Georgia to the Continental Congress|
Charleston, South Carolina
|Died||February 22, 1777 (aged 46–47)|
|Political party||Liberty Party, Whig|
Mary De Veaux
(m. 1764; his death 1777)
Archibald Bulloch (1730 – February 22, 1777) was a lawyer, soldier, and statesman from Georgia during the American Revolution. He was the first governor of Georgia. He was also a great-grandfather of Martha Bulloch Roosevelt, and great-great-grandfather of Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th President of the United States.
Bulloch was born in 1730 in Charleston, South Carolina. He was the son of James Bulloch (1701–1780) and Jean (née Stobo) Bulloch. After receiving his education in Charleston, he began to practice law and was commissioned as a lieutenant in the South Carolina militia.
Bulloch was an early supporter of the revolution in Georgia as a member of the Friends of Liberty. He served as President of the 1st and 2nd Provincial Congresses of Georgia, and was a delegate in 1775 to the Continental Congress. There, he won John Adams's praise for his "Abilities and Fortitude". In the Continental Congress, he was a member of the Secret Committee, which was responsible for gathering war supplies. Speaking to the Provincial Congress, Bulloch said, "This is no time to talk of moderation; in the present instance it ceases to be a virtue."
Bulloch is also recorded as having been a Freemason in Georgia. His name is listed on the 1779 Masonic rolls of Solomon's Lodge No. 1 at Savannah along with George Walton, John Adam Treutlen, James Jackson, Nathaniel Pendelton, and General Samuel Elbert.
Bulloch would have been a signer of the Declaration of Independence, but decided to return to Georgia to aid the revolution there. He wrote to John Adams, "Such a series of Victory having attended the American Arms, emboldens us further to trust in Providence, that has so remarkably interposed in our behalf, and we cannot but entertain the most sanguine Hopes, of still preserving our most invaluable Liberties." Adams was disappointed that Bulloch would not be able to sign the Declaration, saying, "I was greatly disappointed, Sir, in the information you gave me, that you should be prevented from revisiting Philadelphia."
In 1776, Bulloch fought under the command of Colonel Lachlan McIntosh in the Battle of the Rice Boats and the Battle of Tybee Island. On June 20, 1776, he was chosen to be the first President and Commander-in-Chief of Georgia under the state's temporary republican government. When he signed the state constitution on February 20, 1777, his position transferred from president to governor of Georgia. He was thus Georgia's first chief executive under a proper constitutional government, but the third chief executive in all, following the brief tenures of presidents William Ewen and George Walton.
On October 10, 1764, Bulloch was married to Mary De Veaux (1748–1818), the daughter of Ann (née Fairchild) De Veaux and Col. James De Veaux, a prominent Savannah landowner. Together, they were the parents of:
- William Bellinger Bulloch (1777–1852), who later represented Georgia in the United States Senate.
Bulloch died in Savannah while preparing to defend against the British invasion of Georgia in 1777. There is some speculation that he was poisoned, although this has never been proven. His death was a severe blow, as his was the only leadership that united the Whig factions in the troubled young state. He is buried in Savannah's Colonial Park Cemetery.
Archibald's great-great-grandson was President Theodore Roosevelt. His great-great-great granddaughter was First Lady of the United States Eleanor Roosevelt. Theodore Roosevelt's son Archibald was named after his ancestor.
- Jim Schmidt (September 19, 2002). "Archibald Bulloch (1730-1777)". New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved October 10, 2013.
- "BULLOCH, Archibald - Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved July 15, 2019.
- "Archibald Bulloch historical marker". Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- Marston, Jerrilyn Greene (2014). King and Congress : The Transfer of Political Legitimacy, 1774-1776. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 220. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- Niles, Hezekiah (1822). Principles and acts of the Revolution in America. Baltimore: W.O. Niles. p. 160. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- Bulloch, Archibald. "To John Adams from Archibald Bulloch, 1 May 1776". Founders Online. National Archives. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- Bulloch, Joseph Gaston Baillie (1907). A Biographical sketch of Hon. Archibald Bulloch, president of Georgia, 1776-77. n.p. p. 15. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- "Bulloch, Archibald, Appointment as President and Commander-in-Chief of the Colony of Georgia". Commissions, State Officers Appointments, Assembly, Colony of Georgia, RG 49-1-10. Georgia Archives. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- "BULLOCH, William Bellinger - Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved July 15, 2019.
- "Archibald Bulloch". www.nga.org. National Governors Association. Retrieved July 15, 2019.
- "Georgia Kin of Roosevelts" (PDF). The New York Times. November 26, 1933. Retrieved July 15, 2019.
- Krakow, Kenneth K. (1975). Georgia Place-Names: Their History and Origins (PDF). Macon, GA: Winship Press. p. 28. ISBN 0-915430-00-2.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Archibald Bulloch.|
- United States Congress. "Archibald Bulloch (id: B001050)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
- Article in New Georgia Encyclopedia
- Archibald Bulloch historical marker
(President of Council of Safety)
| Governor of Georgia