Archimède

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Bathyscaphe Archimede.jpg
Archimède in 1961, on launch
History
France
Name: Archimède
Namesake: Archimedes
Commissioned: 27 July 1961
General characteristics
Type: Bathyscaphe
Displacement: 61 tons

The bathyscaphe Archimède is a deep diving research submersible of the French Navy. It used 42,000 US gallons (160,000 l) of hexane as the gasoline buoyancy of its float.[1] It was designed by Pierre Willm and Georges Houot.[2] In 1964, Archimède descended into "what was then thought to be the deepest part of the Puerto Rico Trench"[3], which the NY Times reported as 27,500 feet (8,400 m)[4]. On 21 December 2018, a dive by Victor Vescovo in the DSV Limiting Factor found the "true bottom"[5] of the Atlantic Ocean to be 27,480 feet (8,380 m)[6], in the first manned descent to the deepest "verified bottom"[7] of the Atlantic Ocean.

Archimède was christened on 27 July 1961, at the French Navy base of Toulon. It was designed to go beyond 30,000 yards (27,000 m),[8] and displaced 61 tons.[9] In October 1961, Archimède passed its first dive tests, diving to 5,000 feet (1,500 m) unmanned.[10] On 27 November 1961, Archimède achieved a speed of 3 knots (5.6 km/h; 3.5 mph), over a distance of 4.5 miles (7.2 km) at a depth of 7,870 feet (2,400 m) in the Mediterranean Sea.[11]

On 23 May 1962, Archimède descended to 15,744 feet (4,799 m) off Honshu, Japan, in the Pacific, at the Japan Deep.[12] On 15 July 1962, Archimède descended to 31,350 feet (9,560 m) into the Kurile-Kamchatcha Trench, making it the second deepest dive ever, at that point in time, second only to the Bathyscaphe Trieste dive on the Challenger Deep.[13] On 12 August 1962, Archimède descended to 30,511 feet (9,300 m) in the Japan Deep south of Tokyo.[14]

Archimède explored the Mid-Atlantic Ridge jointly with the submarine Cyana and submersible DSV Alvin, in Project FAMOUS (French-American Mid-Ocean Undersea Study) in 1974.[15][16][17][18]

Archimède operated until the 1970s.[19] As of 2008, it is on operational reserve, at Toulon.[20] Archimède was honoured with a stamp in Palau.[21]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cloud, Wallace (August 1964). "Jeeps in the Deep". Popular Science. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
  2. ^ Aksyonov, Andrei & Chernov, Aleksandr Alekseevich (1979). Exploring the Deep. Collins. p. 118.
  3. ^ StokstadDec. 19, Erik (19 December 2018). "'Five Deeps' mission to explore mysterious ocean trenches". Science Magazine. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  4. ^ "DEEPEST ATLANTIC TEEMING WITH LIFE; Scientists in the Bathyscaph Surprised by Terracing in Puerto Rico Trench". The New York Times. 21 August 1964. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  5. ^ correspondent, Rupert Neate Wealth (22 December 2018). "Wall Street trader reaches bottom of Atlantic in bid to conquer five oceans". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  6. ^ Daley, Jason (2 January 2019). "Submersible Is First to Reach Bottom of Atlantic Ocean". Smithsonian. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  7. ^ Strege, David (21 December 2018). "Explorer makes historic submersible dive". USA Today. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  8. ^ "French Bathyscaphe". Dayton Beach Morning Journal. Associated Press. 29 July 1961.
  9. ^ "New French Bathyscaphe to Seek Record Ocean Deep". The New York Times. 29 July 1961.
  10. ^ "French Bathyscaphe Tested". The New York Times. 30 October 1961.
  11. ^ "Bathyscaphe Hits 3 Knots". Milwaukee Sentinel. Associated Press. 28 November 1961. p. 2.
  12. ^ "French Bathyscaphe Dives To 15,744 Feet". Baltimore Sun. 24 May 1962. p. A2.
  13. ^ "Reports Intensive Life Down At 31,350 Level Of Ocean". Dayton Beach Morning Journal. Associated Press. 16 July 1962. p. 3.
  14. ^ "Bathyscaphe Archimede Descends 30511 Feet". The New York Times. Associated Press. 13 August 1962.
  15. ^ Paine, Lincoln P. (2000). Ships of Discovery and Exploration. Mariner Books. p. 7.
  16. ^ Sullivan, Walter (21 May 1975). "3 Craft to Dive Deep in Mid-Atlantic Valley". The New York Times.
  17. ^ "A cry 'Eureka!' From the Mid-Atlantic Ridge". New Scientist. 7 June 1973. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
  18. ^ "F.A.M.O.U.S. (French American Mid Ocean Underwater Survey)". Encyclopaedia Universalis (in French). 2010.
  19. ^ Benson, Keith R. & Rehbock, Phillip F., eds. (2002) [1993]. Oceanographic History: The Pacific and Beyond. University of Washington Press. p. 388.
  20. ^ Coic, Joseph (2008). Carnet de bord de vingt ans de campagne oceanographiques (in French). Editions Quae. p. 16.
  21. ^ "Maritime Topics On Stamps : Research Submersibles". seemotive.de. Retrieved 11 September 2010.

External links[edit]