Architecture of Taiwan
The architecture of Taiwan can be traced back to stilt housing of the aborigines in prehistoric times; to the building of fortresses and churches in the north and south used to colonize and convert the inhabitants during the Dutch and Spanish period; the Tungning period when Taiwan was a base of anti-Qing sentiment and Minnan-style architecture was introduced; in Qing dynasty period, a mix of Chinese and Western architecture appeared and artillery battery flourished during Qing's Self-Strengthening Movement; During the Japanese rule of Taiwan, the Minnan, Japanese and Western culture were main influencers in architectural designs and saw the introduction and use of reinforced concrete. Due to excessive Westernization as a colony, after the retrocession of Taiwan to the Republic of China in 1945 from Japan at the end of World War II, Chinese classical style became popular and entered into international mainstream as a postmodern design style. Today, Taiwanese architecture has undergone much diversification, every style of architecture can be seen.
- 1 Prehistory (-1621)
- 2 Dutch and Spanish settlement (1624-1662)
- 3 Kingdom of Tungning (1662-1682)
- 4 Qing Dynasty (1683-1895)
- 5 Period of Japanese rule (1896-1945)
- 6 Republic of China (1946-)
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
A stilt house of the Truku tribe.
Prehistoric man made use of caves for their dwellings and Taiwan's oldest known civilization is the Changbin culture (長濱文化) dating back to over 50,000 years. An example of an archaeological site of a cave dwelling is the Bashian Caves in Changbin Township, Taitung County which is dated from between 5,500 and 30,000 years. The actual cave itself has a height of around ten meters and can accommodate some ten persons.
Spread over the vast prehistoric Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean areas, stilt houses vary greatly. In more recent times, Taiwanese aborigines make use of them for holding church meetings, as places to cool down and to hold ancestral activities. Apart from their cooling effect, stilt houses also have various functions such as avoiding miasma, dampness, flood, and insects and snakes from entering, it is also easier to construct.
Stone Slab Housing
The Paiwan and Bunun tribes made houses using thatched roofing and made walls from stones, homes of nobles were decorated with elaborate wood carvings. The special characteristics of such houses is that dark colored building materials help conceal the buildings in its environment and the layered use of rocks mimic the scales of the hundred pacer snake that they worship.
Chinese and aborigines made use of natural materials for basic construction materials such as straw, wood, bamboo, grass, stone, soil, etc. The types and styles vary depending on the environment, climate, and cultural influences of each tribe. For example, the Amis tribe tend to live in larger communities and planned the layout of their community such as placement of communal homes and a plaza for matters of governance inside, planting a bamboo forest around the outside with camps and guard stations to defend against foreign aggressors. The Atayal and Saisiyat tribes made their homes out of wood and bamboo while the Tao tribe who live further away on Orchid Island and faced strong changes in seasonal weather such as typhoons, developed houses that made use of digging vertically into the ground to strengthen their foundations.
Dutch and Spanish settlement (1624-1662)
Fort Zeelandia was built by the Dutch in 1624 and is now known as Anping Fort.
Fort Provintia was a bastion structure, the remains of which are now known as Chihkan Tower.
Taioan Street (大員市街) was built by the Dutch and is now the present day Yanping Street (延平街) in Anping District, Tainan.
Fort San Domingo was built by the Spanish in 1628 and after their defeat was rebuilt by the Dutch. It is known as Âng-mn̂g-siâⁿ (Red-haired Fort) after the Dutch people.
The 16th century was a time of Western naval navigation, exploration and trade and also the shifting of power from the Ming dynasty to the Qing dynasty. Most of the architecture in Taiwan from this period were dominated by fortresses, primarily the Dutch Fengguiwei Fort (風櫃尾城), Fort Zeelandia, Fort Provintia in the south and the Spanish Fort San Domingo to the north. The Dutch used red bricks in construction while the Spanish used stone. Both sides made use of ports and constructed fortresses to consolidate their power on the island. The fortresses were square shaped with an additional side for the installment of artillery. This period saw Taiwan architecture enter the peak of Western colonization. Such structures from this period represent the first generation of architectural works and is now listed as a world heritage by the Republic of China government.
Kingdom of Tungning (1662-1682)
Kaichi Matsu Temple (開基天后宮) in Tainan is one of the earliest temples dedicated to Mazu.
Temple of the Five Concubines (1683), extended in 1746.
Taiwan Confucian Temple, Tainan (1665)
Qing Dynasty (1683-1895)
- Minnan architecture
North Gate (承恩門 Cheng'enmen) of the Walls of Taipeh
West Gate (寶成門 Baochengmen) of the Walls of Taipeh
North Gate of Taiwan Castle (台灣城), present day Watching Moon Pavilion (望月亭) in Taichung Park
Tower of Prospective Fragrance, Wufeng Lin Family Mansion and Garden, Taichung (1864)
Bridge in Lin Family Mansion and Garden
Lukang Longshan Temple, Changhua
Lee Teng-fan's Ancient Residence, Taoyuan
Houses constructed of mud and straw by the Siniticized Ketagalan tribe of Kanatsui settlement (圭武卒社)
- Hakka architecture
- Western-style architecture
Immaculate Conception Cathedral, Taipei (1889)
Holy Rosary Cathedral, Kaohsiung (1861)
Oxford College, Tamsui (1882)
Tamsui Customs Officers' Residence, Tamsui (1870)
Period of Japanese rule (1896-1945)
- Western-style Architecture
Nanyang-style Mid-Lake Pavilion (湖心亭) in Taichung Park, Taichung (1908)
Hsinchu Station (1913)
Kodama-Goto Memorial Hall (1915)
Taihoku Prefecture Government Building, Taipei（1915年）
Former Taichung Station (1917)
Yu Jen Jai (1930)
Hayashi Department Store, Tainan (1922)
Taiwan High Court, Taipei (1934)
Public Hall, Taipei (1936)
Bank of Taiwan (1938)
Taichung Broadcasting Bureau, Taichung
New State (Tamsui Theater), Twatutia, Taipei.
Republic of China (1946-)
The expansion designs implemented in the Taipei Grand Hotel from 1952-1973.
The railings at National Theater, Taipei
National Concert Hall, Taipei
Taichung Confucius Temple Dachengdian.
Taichung Confucius Temple Guandemen.
Nanhai Academy, Taipei
- Newly built traditional Chinese architecture
Taiwan Lai Family Ancestral Hall, Taichung
Wuqi Zhenwu Temple, Taichung (1849)
Taichung Le Cheng Matsu Temple, Taichung (1790)
Wan He Temple, Taichung (1684)
Taichung Folklore Park, Taichung
Wu Chang Temple, Nantou County (1903, rebuilt 2010)
Nan Kun Shen Dai Tian Temple, Tainan (1662)
- Modern Architecture
Taipei 101, Taipei (2004)
85 Sky Tower, Kaohsiung (1997)
Tunghai University Luce Memorial Chapel, Taichung (1963)
Chung Shan Hall, Taichung
Hsinchu Station, Hsinchu (2006)
Lanyang Museum, Yilan County (2010)
Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei (1983)
National Stadium, Kaohsiung (2009)
Taichung City Government Building, Taichung
New Taipei City Hall, New Taipei City (2003)
National Museum of Natural Science, Taichung (1986)
Taipei Public Library, Taipei (2006)
National Library of Public Information, Taichung
National Taichung Theater, Taichung (2014)
- (in Chinese) History of Taiwanese architecture
- (in Chinese) Pre-historic Taiwanese architecture, National Chiayi University - Dead link
- (in Chinese) Kungdavane - Dead link
- (in Chinese) Building structures of the Amis tribe, Digital Museum of Taiwan Indigenous Peoples
- (in Chinese) Housing layout of the Yami (Tao) tribe, Digital Museum of Taiwan Indigenous Peoples
- (in Chinese) Origins of Tamsui's Fort Zeelandia