Epoch J2000 Equinox J2000
|Right ascension||14h 15m 39.7s|
|Declination||+19° 10′ 56″|
|Apparent magnitude (V)||−0.05|
|Spectral type||K0 III|
|Apparent magnitude (J)||−2.25|
|U−B color index||+1.28|
|B−V color index||+1.23|
|R−I color index||+0.65|
|Note (category: variability):||H and K emission vary.|
|Radial velocity (Rv)||−5.19 km/s|
|Proper motion (μ)|| RA: −1093.45 mas/yr |
Dec.: −1999.40 mas/yr
|Parallax (π)||88.83 ± 0.54 mas|
|Distance||36.7 ± 0.2 ly |
(11.26 ± 0.07 pc)
|Absolute magnitude (MV)||−0.30±0.02|
|Surface gravity (log g)||1.66±0.05 cgs|
|Metallicity [Fe/H]||−0.52±0.04 dex|
|Rotational velocity (v sin i)||2.4±1.0 km/s|
Bright Star Catalogue (5th rev. ed.),
VizieR catalog entry
Arcturus, designation α Boötis (Latinized to Alpha Boötis, abbreviated Alpha Boo, α Boo), is the brightest star in the constellation of Boötes, the fourth-brightest in the night sky, and the brightest in the northern celestial hemisphere. Together with Spica and Denebola (or Regulus, depending on the source), Arcturus is part of the Spring Triangle asterism and, by extension, also of the Great Diamond along with the star Cor Caroli. When viewed from Earth, it appears to be positioned almost at the north galactic pole of the Milky Way.
Relatively close at 36.7 light-years from the Sun, Arcturus is a red giant of spectral type K0III—an aging star around 7.1 billion years old that has used up its core hydrogen and moved off the main sequence. It is 1.08±0.06 times as massive as the Sun, but has expanded to 25.4±0.2 times its size and is around 170 times as luminous.
The traditional name Arcturus derives from Ancient Greek Ἀρκτοῦρος (Arktouros) and means "Guardian of the Bear", ultimately from ἄρκτος (arktos), "bear" and οὖρος (ouros), "watcher, guardian". It has been known by this name since at least the time of Hesiod, circa 700 BC.
One astronomical tradition associates Arcturus with the mythology around Arcas, who was about to shoot and kill his own mother Callisto who had been transformed into a bear. Zeus averted their imminent tragic fate by transforming the boy into the constellation Boötes, called Arctophylax "bear guardian" by the Greeks, and his mother into Ursa Major (Greek: Arctos "the bear"). The account is given in Hyginus's Astronomy.
An alternative lore associates the name with the legend around Icarius, who gave the gift of wine to other men, but was murdered by them, because they had had no experience with intoxication and mistook the wine for poison. It is stated this Icarius, became Arcturus, while his dog, Maira, became Canicula (Procyon), although "Arcturus" here may be used in the sense of the constellation rather than the star.
In 2016, the International Astronomical Union organized a Working Group on Star Names (WGSN) to catalog and standardize proper names for stars. The WGSN's first bulletin of July 2016 included a table of the first two batches of names approved by the WGSN; which included Arcturus for this star. It is now so entered in the IAU Catalog of Star Names.
With an apparent visual magnitude of −0.05, Arcturus is the brightest star in the northern celestial hemisphere and the fourth-brightest star in the night sky, after Sirius (−1.46 apparent magnitude), Canopus (−0.72) and α Centauri (combined magnitude of −0.27). However, α Centauri AB is a binary star, whose components are both fainter than Arcturus. This makes Arcturus the third-brightest individual star, just ahead of α Centauri A (officially named Rigil Kentaurus), whose apparent magnitude is −0.01. The French mathematician and astronomer Jean-Baptiste Morin observed Arcturus in the daytime with a telescope in 1635, a first for any star other than the Sun and supernovae. Arcturus has been seen at or just before sunset with the naked eye.
Arcturus is visible from both of Earth's hemispheres as it is located 19° north of the celestial equator. The star culminates at midnight on 27 April, and at 9 p.m. on June 10 being visible during the late northern spring or the southern autumn. From the northern hemisphere, an easy way to find Arcturus is to follow the arc of the handle of the Big Dipper (or Plough). By continuing in this path, one can find Spica, "Arc to Arcturus, then spike (or speed on) to Spica".
η Boötis, or Muphrid, is only 3.3 light-years distant from Arcturus, and would have a visual magnitude −2.5, about as bright as Mercury from Earth, whereas an observer on the former system would find Arcturus as bright as Venus as seen from Earth.
In 1984, the 90 cm (36-inch) reflecting Yapp telescope at Herstmonceux was tested with an echelle spectrograph from Queen's University Belfast and a CCD camera. Observations of the stars Arcturus and Deneb (Alpha Cygni) were conducted in the summer of 1984.
Based upon an annual parallax shift of 88.83 milliarcseconds as measured by the Hipparcos satellite, Arcturus is 36.7 light-years (11.26 parsecs) from the Sun. The parallax margin of error is 0.54 milliarcseconds, translating to a distance margin of error of ±0.23 light-years (0.069 parsecs). Because of its proximity, Arcturus has a high proper motion, two arcseconds a year, greater than any first magnitude star other than α Centauri.
Arcturus is moving rapidly (122 km/s) relative to the Sun, and is now almost at its closest point to the Sun. Closest approach will happen in about 4,000 years, when the star will be a few hundredths of a light-year closer to Earth than it is today. (In antiquity, Arcturus was closer to the centre of the constellation.) Arcturus is thought to be an old-disk star, and appears to be moving with a group of 52 other such stars, known as the Arcturus stream.
With an absolute magnitude of −0.30, Arcturus is, together with Vega and Sirius, one of the most luminous stars in the Sun's neighborhood. It is about 110 times brighter than the Sun in visible light wavelengths, but this underestimates its strength as much of the light it gives off is in the infrared; total (bolometric) power output is about 180 times that of the Sun. With a near-infrared J band magnitude of −2.2, only Betelgeuse (−2.9) and R Doradus (−2.6) are brighter. The lower output in visible light is due to a lower efficacy as the star has a lower surface temperature than the Sun.
Arcturus is an evolved red giant star with a stellar classification of K0 III. As the brightest K-type giant in the sky, it was the subject of an atlas of its visible spectrum, made from photographic spectra taken with the coudé spectrograph of the Mt. Wilson 2.5m telescope published in 1968, a key reference work for stellar spectroscopy. Subsequent spectral atlases with greater wavelength coverage and superior signal-to-noise ratio made with digital detectors have supplanted the older work, but the Arcturus spectrum remains an important standard for stellar spectroscopy.
As a single star, the mass of Arcturus cannot be measured directly, but models suggest it is slightly larger than that of the Sun. Evolutionary matching to the observed physical parameters gives a mass of 1.08±0.06 M☉, while the oxygen isotope ratio for a first dredge-up star gives a mass of 1.2 M☉. The star displays magnetic activity that is heating the coronal structures, and it undergoes a solar-type magnetic cycle with a duration that is probably less than 14 years. A weak magnetic field has been detected in the photosphere with a strength of around half a gauss. The magnetic activity appears to lie along four latitudes and is rotationally-modulated.
Arcturus is estimated to be around 6 billion to 8.5 billion years old, but there is some uncertainty about its evolutionary status. Based upon the color characteristics of Arcturus, it is currently ascending the red-giant branch and will continue to do so until it accumulates a large enough degenerate helium core to ignite the helium flash. It has likely exhausted the hydrogen from its core and is now in its active hydrogen shell burning phase. However, Charbonnel et al. (1998) placed it slightly above the horizontal branch, and suggested it has already completed the helium flash stage.
As one of the brightest stars in the sky, Arcturus has been the subject of a number of studies in the emerging field of asteroseismology. Belmonte and colleagues carried out a radial velocity (Doppler shift of spectral lines) study of the star in April and May 1988, which showed variability with a frequency of the order of a few microhertz (μHz), the highest peak corresponding to 4.3 μHz (2.7 days) with an amplitude of 60 ms−1, with a frequency separation of c. 5 μHz. They suggested that the most plausible explanation for the variability of Arcturus is stellar oscillations.
Asteroseismological measurements allow direct calculation of the mass and radius, giving values of 0.8±0.2 M☉ and 27.9±3.4 R☉. This form of modelling is still relatively inaccurate, but a useful check on other models.
Astronomers term "metals" those elements with higher atomic numbers than helium. Arcturus has an enrichment of alpha elements relative to iron but only about a third of solar metallicity. Arcturus is possibly a Population II star.
Possible planetary system
Hipparcos satellite astrometry also suggested that Arcturus is a binary star, with the companion about twenty times dimmer than the primary and orbiting close enough to be at the very limits of humans' current ability to make it out. Recent results remain inconclusive, but do support the marginal Hipparcos detection of a binary companion.
In 1993, radial velocity measurements of Aldebaran, Arcturus and Pollux showed that Arcturus exhibited a long-period radial velocity oscillation, which could be interpreted as a substellar companion. This substellar object would be nearly 12 times the mass of Jupiter and be located roughly at the same orbital distance from Arcturus as the Earth is from the Sun, at 1.1 astronomical units. However, all three stars surveyed showed similar oscillations yielding similar companion masses, and the authors concluded that the variation was likely to be intrinsic to the star rather than due to the gravitational effect of a companion. So far no substellar companion has been confirmed.
In Arabic, Arcturus is one of two stars called al-simāk "the uplifted ones" (the other is Spica). Arcturus is specified as السماك الرامح as-simāk ar-rāmiħ "the uplifted one of the lancer". The term Al Simak Al Ramih has appeared in Al Achsasi Al Mouakket catalogue (translated into Latin as Al Simak Lanceator).
This has been variously romanized in the past, leading to obsolete variants such as Aramec and Azimech. For example, the name Alramih is used in Geoffrey Chaucer's A Treatise on the Astrolabe (1391). Another Arabic name is Haris-el-sema, from حارس السماء ħāris al-samā’ "the keeper of heaven". or حارس الشمال ħāris al-shamāl’ "the keeper of north".
Arcturus was once again called by its classical name from the Renaissance onwards.
In Chinese astronomy, Arcturus is called Da Jiao (Chinese: 大角; pinyin: Dàjiǎo; lit.: 'great horn'), because it is the brightest star in the Chinese constellation called Jiao Xiu (Chinese: 角宿; pinyin: Jiǎo Xiǔ; lit.: 'horn star'). Later it became a part of another constellation Kang Xiu (Chinese: 亢宿; pinyin: Kàng Xiǔ).
The Wotjobaluk Koori people of southeastern Australia knew Arcturus as Marpean-kurrk, mother of Djuit (Antares) and another star in Boötes, Weet-kurrk (Muphrid). Its appearance in the north signified the arrival of the larvae of the wood ant (a food item) in spring. The beginning of summer was marked by the star's setting with the Sun in the west and the disappearance of the larvae. The people of Milingimbi Island in Arnhem Land saw Arcturus and Muphrid as man and woman, and took the appearance of Arcturus at sunrise as a sign to go and harvest rakia or spikerush.:24,69,112 The Wailwun of northern New South Wales knew Arcturus as Guembila "red".:84
Arcturus had several names that described its significance to indigenous Polynesians. In the Society Islands, Arcturus, called Ana-tahua-taata-metua-te-tupu-mavae ("a pillar to stand by"), was one of the ten "pillars of the sky", bright stars that represented the ten heavens of the Tahitian afterlife. In Hawaii, the pattern of Boötes was called Hoku-iwa, meaning "stars of the frigatebird". This constellation marked the path for Hawaiiloa on his return to Hawaii from the South Pacific Ocean. The Hawaiians called Arcturus Hoku-leʻa. It was equated to the Tuamotuan constellation Te Kiva, meaning "frigatebird", which could either represent the figure of Boötes or just Arcturus. However, Arcturus may instead be the Tuamotuan star called Turu. The Hawaiian name for Arcturus as a single star was likely Hoku-leʻa, which means "star of gladness", or "clear star". In the Marquesas Islands, Arcturus was probably called Tau-tou and was the star that ruled the month approximating January. The Māori and Moriori called it Tautoru, a variant of the Marquesan name and a name shared with Orion's Belt.
As one of the brightest stars in the sky, Arcturus has been significant to observers since antiquity.
Prehistoric Polynesian navigators knew Arcturus as Hōkūleʻa, the "Star of Joy". Arcturus is the zenith star of the Hawaiian Islands. Using Hōkūleʻa and other stars, the Polynesians launched their double-hulled canoes from Tahiti and the Marquesas Islands. Traveling east and north they eventually crossed the equator and reached the latitude at which Arcturus would appear directly overhead in the summer night sky. Knowing they had arrived at the exact latitude of the island chain, they sailed due west on the trade winds to landfall. If Hōkūleʻa could be kept directly overhead, they landed on the southeastern shores of the Big Island of Hawaiʻi. For a return trip to Tahiti the navigators could use Sirius, the zenith star of that island. Since 1976, the Polynesian Voyaging Society's Hōkūleʻa has crossed the Pacific Ocean many times under navigators who have incorporated this wayfinding technique in their non-instrument navigation.
In ancient Mesopotamia, it was linked to the god Enlil, and also known as Shudun, "yoke", or SHU-PA of unknown derivation in the Three Stars Each Babylonian star catalogues and later MUL.APIN around 1100 BC.
In Ancient Rome, the star's celestial activity was supposed to portend tempestuous weather, and a personification of the star acts as narrator of the prologue to Plautus' comedy Rudens (circa 211 BC).
In the Middle Ages, Arcturus was considered a Behenian fixed star and attributed to the stone Jasper and the plantain herb. Cornelius Agrippa listed its kabbalistic sign under the alternate name Alchameth.
One of the possible etymologies offered for the name "Arthur" assumes that it is derived from "Arcturus" and that the early Medieval character on whom the myth of King Arthur is based was originally named for the star.
Arcturus achieved fame when its light was rumored to be the mechanism used to open the 1933 Chicago World's Fair. The star was chosen as it was thought that light from Arcturus had started its journey at about the time of the previous Chicago World's Fair in 1893 (at 36.7 light-years away, the light actually started in 1896).
The star is mentioned in the 1977 documentary film Powers of Ten, in which it is seen when a camera zooms from Earth to the whole of the known universe.
- van Leeuwen, F. (November 2007). "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 474 (2): 653–64. arXiv:0708.1752. Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357. S2CID 18759600.
- Ducati, J. R. (2002). "VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catalogue of Stellar Photometry in Johnson's 11-color system". CDS/ADC Collection of Electronic Catalogues. 2237: 0. Bibcode:2002yCat.2237....0D.
- Gray, R. O.; Corbally, C. J.; Garrison, R. F.; McFadden, M. T.; Robinson, P. E. (2003). "Contributions to the Nearby Stars (NStars) Project: Spectroscopy of Stars Earlier than M0 within 40 Parsecs: The Northern Sample. I". The Astronomical Journal. 126 (4): 2048. arXiv:astro-ph/0308182. Bibcode:2003AJ....126.2048G. doi:10.1086/378365. S2CID 119417105.
- Massarotti, Alessandro; Latham, David W.; Stefanik, Robert P.; Fogel, Jeffrey (2008). "Rotational and Radial Velocities for a Sample of 761 HIPPARCOS Giants and the Role of Binarity". The Astronomical Journal. 135 (1): 209–231. Bibcode:2008AJ....135..209M. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/135/1/209.
- Perryman; et al. (1997). "HIP 69673". The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues.
- Carney, Bruce W.; et al. (March 2008). "Rotation and Macroturbulence in Metal-Poor Field Red Giant and Red Horizontal Branch Stars". The Astronomical Journal. 135 (3): 892–906. arXiv:0711.4984. Bibcode:2008AJ....135..892C. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/135/3/892. S2CID 2756572.
- I. Ramírez; C. Allende Prieto (December 2011). "Fundamental Parameters and Chemical Composition of Arcturus". The Astrophysical Journal. 743 (2): 135. arXiv:1109.4425. Bibcode:2011ApJ...743..135R. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/743/2/135. S2CID 119186472.
- Schröder, K.-P.; Cuntz, M. (April 2007). "A critical test of empirical mass loss formulas applied to individual giants and supergiants". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 465 (2): 593–601. arXiv:astro-ph/0702172. Bibcode:2007A&A...465..593S. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20066633. S2CID 55901104.
- Henry George Liddell; Robert Scott. "Ἀρκτοῦρος". A Greek-English Lexicon. Retrieved 2019-01-16.
- Henry George Liddell; Robert Scott. "ἄρκτος". A Greek-English Lexicon. Retrieved 2019-01-16.
- Henry George Liddell; Robert Scott. "οὖρος". A Greek-English Lexicon. Retrieved 2019-01-16.
- Rogers, John H. (1998). "Origins of the Ancient Constellations: II. The Mediterranean Traditions". Journal of the British Astronomical Association. 108 (2): 79–89. Bibcode:1998JBAA..108...79R.
- Eratosthenes; Hyginus; Aratus (2015). Eratosthenes and Hyginus: Constellation Myths, with Aratus's Phaenomena. Hard, Robin (transl.). Oxford University Press. pp. 5–7, 35–37. ISBN 9780198716983.
- Ridpath, Ian. "Star Tales Boötes". Retrieved 26 November 2017.
- Eratosthenes et al. (2015), pp. 38–40, p. 182 (note to p. 40)
- "IAU Working Group on Star Names (WGSN)". Retrieved 22 May 2016.
- "Bulletin of the IAU Working Group on Star Names, No. 1" (PDF). Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- "IAU Catalog of Star Names". Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- Kaler, James B. (2002). The Hundred Greatest Stars. New York, New York: Copernicus Books. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-387-95436-3.
- Schaaf, Fred (2008). The Brightest Stars: Discovering the Universe Through the Sky's Most Brilliant Stars. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons. pp. 126–36. Bibcode:2008bsdu.book.....S. ISBN 978-0-471-70410-2.
- Schaaf, p. 257.
- Rao, Joe (June 15, 2007). "Arc to Arcturus, Speed on to Spica". Space.com. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- "Follow the arc to Arcturus, and drive a spike to Spica | EarthSky.org". earthsky.org. April 8, 2018. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- Bates, B.; McKeith, C. D.; Jorden, P. R.; Van Breda, I. G. (1985). "High dispersion spectroscopy trials using an echelle spectrograph with CCD camera". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 145: 321. Bibcode:1985A&A...145..321B.
- Ramya, P.; Reddy, Bacham E.; Lambert, David L. (2012). "Chemical compositions of stars in two stellar streams from the Galactic thick disc". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 425 (4): 3188. arXiv:1207.0767. Bibcode:2012MNRAS.425.3188R. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21677.x. S2CID 119253279.
- Griffin, R. E.; Griffin, R. (1968). A photometric atlas of the spectrum of Arcturus, λλ3600-8825Å. Cambridge: Cambridge Philosophical Society. Bibcode:1968pmas.book.....G.
- Hinkle, Kenneth; Wallace, Lloyd; Valenti, Jeff; Harmer, Dianne (2000). Visible and Near Infrared Atlas of the Arcturus Spectrum 3727-9300 Å. San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Bibcode:2000vnia.book.....H. ISBN 978-1-58381-037-8.
- Hinkle, Kenneth; Wallace, Lloyd; Livingston, William Charles (1995). Infrared atlas of the Arcturus spectrum, 0.9-5.3 microns. San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Bibcode:1995iaas.book.....H.
- Hinkle, Kenneth; Wallace, Lloyd; Valenti, Jeff; Ayres, Thomas (2005). Ultraviolet Atlas of the Arcturus Spectrum, 1150-3800 Å. San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Bibcode:2005uaas.book.....H.
- Abia, C.; Palmerini, S.; Busso, M.; Cristallo, S. (2012). "Carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios in Arcturus and Aldebaran. Constraining the parameters for non-convective mixing on the red giant branch". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 548: A55. arXiv:1210.1160. Bibcode:2012A&A...548A..55A. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201220148. S2CID 56386673.
- Sennhauser, C.; Berdyugina, S. V. (May 2011). "First detection of a weak magnetic field on the giant Arcturus: remnants of a solar dynamo?". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 529: 6. Bibcode:2011A&A...529A.100S. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201015445. A100.
- Pavlenko, Ya. V. (September 2008). "The carbon abundance and 12C/13C isotopic ratio in the atmosphere of Arcturus from 2.3 µm CO bands". Astronomy Reports. 52 (9): 749–759. arXiv:0807.3667. Bibcode:2008ARep...52..749P. doi:10.1134/S1063772908090060. S2CID 119268407.
- Belmonte, J. A.; Jones, A. R.; Palle, P. L.; Roca Cortes, T. (1990). "Acoustic oscillations in the K2 III star Arcturus". Astrophysics and Space Science. 169 (1–2): 77–84. Bibcode:1990Ap&SS.169...77B. doi:10.1007/BF00640689. ISSN 0004-640X. S2CID 120697563.
- Kallinger, T.; Weiss, W. W.; Barban, C.; Baudin, F.; Cameron, C.; Carrier, F.; De Ridder, J.; Goupil, M.-J.; Gruberbauer, M.; Hatzes, A.; Hekker, S.; Samadi, R.; Deleuil, M. (2010). "Oscillating red giants in the CoRoT exofield: Asteroseismic mass and radius determination". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 509: A77. arXiv:0811.4674. Bibcode:2010A&A...509A..77K. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200811437. S2CID 15061735.
- Verhoelst, T.; Bordé, P. J.; Perrin, G.; Decin, L.; et al. (2005). "Is Arcturus a well-understood K giant?". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 435: 289–301. arXiv:astro-ph/0501669. Bibcode:2005A&A...435..289V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20042356. S2CID 14176311., and see references therein.
- Hatzes, A.; Cochran, W. (August 1993). "Long-period radial velocity variations in three K giants". The Astrophysical Journal. 413 (1): 339–348. Bibcode:1993ApJ...413..339H. doi:10.1086/173002.
- Knobel, E. B. (June 1895). "Al Achsasi Al Mouakket, on a catalogue of stars in the Calendarium of Mohammad Al Achsasi Al Mouakket". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 55 (8): 429. Bibcode:1895MNRAS..55..429K. doi:10.1093/mnras/55.8.429.
- "List of the 25 brightest stars". Jordanian Astronomical Society. Retrieved March 28, 2007.
- Allen, Richard Hinckley (1936). Star-names and their meanings. pp. 100–101.
- Wehr, Hans (1994). Cowan, J. Milton (ed.). A dictionary of modern written Arabic.
- Davis Jr., G. A. (October 3, 1944). "The Pronunciations, Derivations, and Meanings of a Selected List of Star Names". Popular Astronomy. 52: 13. Bibcode:1944PA.....52....8D.
- Kunitzsch, Paul; Smart, Tim (2006). A Dictionary of Modern star Names: A Short Guide to 254 Star Names and Their Derivations (2nd rev. ed.). Cambridge, MA: Sky Pub. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-931559-44-7.
- Mudrooroo (1994). Aboriginal mythology : an A-Z spanning the history of aboriginal mythology from the earliest legends to the present day. London: HarperCollins. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-85538-306-7.
- Hamacher, Duane W.; Frew, David J. (2010). "An Aboriginal Australian Record of the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae". Journal of Astronomical History & Heritage. 13 (3): 220–34. arXiv:1010.4610. Bibcode:2010JAHH...13..220H.
- Johnson, Diane (1998). Night skies of aboriginal Australia: a noctuary. Darlington, New South Wales: University of Sydney. pp. 24, 69, 84, 112. Bibcode:1998nsaa.book.....J. ISBN 978-1-86451-356-1.
- "Arcturus". Constellation Guide. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- Hagar, Stansbury (1900). "The Celestial Bear". The Journal of American Folklore. 13 (49): 92–103. doi:10.2307/533799. JSTOR 533799.
- Makemson, Maud Worcester (1941). The Morning Star Rises: an account of Polynesian astronomy. Yale University Press. p. 199. Bibcode:1941msra.book.....M.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Makemson 1941, p. 209.
- Makemson 1941, p. 280.
- Makemson 1941, p. 221.
- Makemson 1941, p. 264.
- Makemson 1941, p. 210.
- Makemson 1941, p. 260.
- Rogers, John H. (1998). "Origins of the Ancient Constellations: I. The Mesopotamian Traditions". Journal of the British Astronomical Association. 108 (1): 9–28. Bibcode:1998JBAA..108....9R.
- Plautus. "Rudens". p. prol. 71.
- Lewis & Short. "Arcturus". Latin Dictionary.
- Tyson, Donald; Freake, James (1993). Three Books of Occult Philosophy. Llewellyn Worldwide. ISBN 978-0-87542-832-1.
- Alan Roberts, Peter; Yeshi, Tulku (2013). "Karandavyuha Sutra Page 45" (PDF). Pacificbuddha. 84000.
- Zimmer, Stefan, Die keltischen Wurzeln der Artussage: mit einer vollständigen Übersetzung der ältesten Artuserzählung Culhwch und Olwen, Winter, 2006, p. 37
- Zimmer, Stefan, "The Name of Arthur – A New Etymology ", Journal of Celtic Linguistics, Volume 13, Number 1, March 2009, University of Wales Press, pp. 131–136.
- Walter, Philippe, Faccia M. (trans.), Artù. L'orso e il re, Edizioni Arkeios, 2005, p. 74.
- Johnson, Flint, The British sources of the abduction and Grail romances, University Press of America, 2002, pp. 38–39.
- Chambers, Edmund Kerchever, Arthur of Britain, Speculum Historiale, 1964, p. 170
- arctūrus, Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, on Perseus
- "Century of Progress World's Fair, 1933-1934". University of Illinois-Chicago. January 2008. Retrieved 2009-09-06.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arcturus.|