Padmasana or Lotus Position (Sanskrit: पद्मासन [pədmaːsənə], IAST: padmāsana) is a cross-legged sitting asana originating in meditative practices of ancient India, in which each foot is placed on the opposite thigh. It is an established asana, commonly used for meditation, in the Yoga, Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist contemplative traditions. The asana is said to resemble a lotus, to encourage breathing properly through associated meditative practice, and to foster physical stability.
The name of the pose is from the Sanskrit पद्मासन Padmāsana , "Lotus [throne] position". This is also a term for actual thrones, often decorated with lotus foliage motifs, on which figures in art sit. The Hindu (Vedic) and Jain Goddess of Prosperity, Sri Lakshmi, sits atop a lotus flower.
From sitting cross-legged on the floor in Sukhasana, one foot is placed on top of the opposite thigh with its sole facing upward and heel close to the abdomen. The other foot is then placed on the opposite thigh as symmetrically as possible.
The knees are in contact with the ground. The torso is placed in balance and alignment such that the spinal column supports it with minimal muscular effort. The torso is centered above the hips. To relax the head and neck, the jaw is allowed to fall towards the neck and the back of the neck to lengthen. The shoulders move backwards and the ribcage lifts. The tongue rests on the roof of the mouth.
The eyes may be closed, the body relaxed, with awareness of the overall asana. Adjustments are made until balance and alignment are experienced. Alignment that creates relaxation is indicative of a suitable position for the asana. The asana should be natural and comfortable, without any sharp pains.
In most cases, a cushion (zafu) or mat (zabuton) is necessary in order to achieve this balance. One sits on the forward edge of the cushion or mat in order to incline one's pelvis forward, making it possible to center the spine and provide the necessary support. Only the most flexible people can achieve this position without a support under their pelvis (and likewise does the Dalai Lama explicitly advise).
In half lotus, अर्ध पद्मासन (ardha padmāsana), one leg is bent and resting on the floor, the other leg is bent with the foot in lotus position. It is an easier meditation position than full lotus.
In bound lotus, बद्ध पद्मासन (baddha padmāsana), the practitioner sits in full lotus, and each hand reaches around the back to grasp the opposite foot.
Other meditation asanas such as Siddhasana are indicated until sufficient flexibility has been developed to sit comfortably in the Lotus. Sciatica, sacral infections and weak or injured knees are contra-indications to attempting the asana.
The lotus position may be impossible to achieve if the knees naturally point in when the feet point straight ahead, as this is an indication that the joints on the opposite ends of the femurs and tibiae are rotated relative to each other.
- Budilovsky, Joan; Adamson, Eve (2000). The complete idiot's guide to yoga (2 ed.). Penguin. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-02-863970-3. Retrieved 11 April 2011.
- Iyengar, B. K. S. (1979). Light on Yoga. Thorsons. pp. 129–132.
- Hua, Hsuan (2004). The Chan handbook: talks about meditation (PDF). Buddhist Text Translation Society. p. 34. ISBN 0-88139-951-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 March 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
- Rinpoche, Patrul; Padmakara Translation Group (trans.) (1998). Words of My Perfect Teacher: A Complete Translation of a Classic Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism (Revised ed.). AltaMira Press. p. 440.
- track 1 of "Opening the Eye of New Awareness"
- Swami Satyananda Saraswati (1996). Asana Pranayama Mudra Bandha (PDF). Munger, Bihar, India: Yoga Publications Trust. p. 97. ISBN 978-81-86336-14-4.
- Sjoman, Norman E. (1999) . The Yoga Tradition of the Mysore Palace (2nd ed.). Abhinav Publications. p. Plate 6. ISBN 81-7017-389-2.
- Zimmer, Heinrich (1953) [April 1952], Campbell, Joseph, ed., Philosophies Of India, London, E.C. 4: Routledge & Kegan Paul, p. 209–10, ISBN 978-81-208-0739-6
- Iyengar, B. K. S. (1979). Light on Yoga. Thorsons. pp. 116–120.
- How to sit cross-legged, when hip joint or knees are not flexible , Yogi with Coffee, 1 August 2016
- "Health Guide to Torsional Deformity". drugs.com. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
- Iyengar, B. K. S. (1 October 2005). Illustrated Light On Yoga. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-81-7223-606-9. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
- Saraswati, Janakananda (1 February 1992). Yoga, Tantra and Meditation in Daily Life. Weiser Books. ISBN 978-0-87728-768-1. Retrieved 11 April 2011.
- Saraswati, Satyananda (1 August 2003). Asana Pranayama Mudra Bandha. Nesma Books India. ISBN 978-81-86336-14-4. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
- Saraswati, Satyananda (January 2004). A Systematic Course in the Ancient Tantric Techniques of Yoga and Kriya. Nesma Books India. ISBN 978-81-85787-08-4. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
- Temple, Anton (2007). Becoming the lotus: a systematic course of stretching and posture leading to the safe and comfortable adoption of the lotus posture, including a guide to the symbolism and spiritual meaning behind the lotus flower. Merkur. ISBN 978-1-885928-18-4. Retrieved 11 April 2011.