||This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: horrifically bad direct translations. (September 2014)|
|City of Arequipa|
|Nickname(s): La Ciudad Blanca (The White City)|
|Established||August 15, 1540|
|Founded by||Garcí Manuel de Carbajal|
|• Mayor||Alfredo Zegarra Tejada|
|• Region capital||69 km2 (27 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,923.53 km2 (1,128.78 sq mi)|
|Elevation||2,335 m (7,661 ft)|
|• Estimate (2015)||869,351|
|Time zone||PET (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||PET (UTC−5)|
Arequipa is the capital and largest city of the Arequipa Region and the seat of the Constitutional Court of Peru. It is the third most populous metropolitan area of Peru and according to the National Institute of Statistics and Informatics is the second most populous city with 861,145 inhabitants.
Arequipa is the second most industrialized and commercial city of Peru. Its industrial activity includes manufactured goods and camelid wool products for export. The city has close trade ties with Chile, Bolivia and Brazil.
The city was founded on August 15, 1540 by Garcí Manuel de Carbajal as 'Villa Hermosa de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción". By Royal Decree of September 22, 1541, King Charles V of Spain granted Arequipa the title of 'City'. During the Colonial period, Arequipa became highly important for its economic prosperity and for its loyalty to the Spanish Crown.
After Peru gained its independence from Spain, the city acquired greater prominence in politics, being the center of uprisings. Many Peruvian intellectual, political, and religious figures became prominent in this era. Moreover, it was declared the capital city of Peru in 1835 and 1883.
The historic center of Arequipa spans an area of 332 hectares and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Its historic heritage, natural scenery and cultural sites, make the city a national and international tourist destination. Its religious, colonial, and republican architectural styles blend European and native characteristics into a unique style called "Escuela Arequipeña".
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Education
- 7 Culture
- 8 Sports
- 9 Law and Government
- 10 Sights and attractions
- 11 Infrastructure
- 12 Twin towns – Sister cities
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 Bibliography
- 16 External links
The name of the city is a Spanish language transliteration of the name of the valley in which the city was founded. Based on traditions, there are various tales that attempt to explain the origins of the name.
A local tradition states that the Inca Mayta Capac received a petition from his subjects to reach the valley of the River Chili. They asked him for permission to stay in the region as they were impressed by the beauty of the landscape and the mild climate. The Inca answered "Ari qhipay" (Quechua: "Yes, stay").
Another similar tale says that when the Europeans first arrived there, they pointed at the ground and asked for the name of the land. the local chief, not understanding the question, assumed they were asking for a permission to sit down and gave a positive answer, which sounded like "Arequipa".
Chroniclers Blas Valera and Inca Garcilaso de la Vega suggested that the name of the city came from an ancient Aymara phrase, "ari qquepan", supposedly meaning "trumpet sound", in reference to the sound produced from blowing into an empty conch-like seashell.
Another possible origin of the city's name comes from the Aymara language phrase "qhipaya ari" or "Ari qipa" (from 'ari': acute, sharp or pointed; and 'qhipaya': behind), which translates to "behind the peak," referring to the nearby volcano, Misti.
||This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: Poor English in this section, possibly translated from another version of Wikipedia. (January 2014)|
Centuries before the rise of the Inca Empire the area was inhabited by nomadic people who relied on activities such as hunting, fishing and gathering for survival; pre-Inca cultures domesticated llamas and became sedentary with the generation of agriculture. Eventually, after the start of migration process within the region, early settlements were established, many close to the sea, and as such giving rise to the first communication channels and thereby increasing the accessibility of the territory.
During this time, major irrigation channels were built within the valley of the Chili river, which allowed the development of agriculture by means of terraces built on both sides of the river. The Yarabaya and Chimbe tribes settled in the city's current location, and together with the Cabana and Collagua tribes they developed an agrarian economy in the desert valley.
When the Inca Huayna Capac arrived in the valley of the Chili river, he didn't build cities. Instead, he ordered his mitimae (settlers from lands within the Inca empire) to settle in the valley to gain control of the existing population, perform intelligence tasks and strengthen border enclaves as a way to control the unconquered villages.
The mitimae system of settlements in the Inca Empire was not related to the act of founding of a town. The Inca, when conquering a new land, didn't order the founding of new cities; instead, they replaced most of the native population with settlers loyal to the Inca, while moving that native population to other places within the Inca Empire. A Hispanic version of the events, detailed by chronicler Garcilaso de la Vega, who has been described as historically inaccurate, suggests that around 1170 Huayna Capac stopped with his army in the valley of the Chili River, which he called Ari qepay - an expression meaning "let's stay here". Lands were then distributed among three thousand families who founded the towns of Yanahuara, Cayma, Tiabaya, Socabaya, Characato and others, which still exist nowadays.
Arequipa was founded on 15 August 1540 by Garci Manuel de Carbajal in the valley of the Chili river as "Villa de la Asunción de Nuestra Señora del Valle Hermoso de Arequipa" in an area occupied by some Native American villages. When the city was founded, the first blocks around the main square were given to the Pizarro Family, the Cabildo (or City Hall) and the Dominican Order.
At the time of its foundation, Arequipa had already a city council, because the foundation of the town occurred in part as a relocation of Villa Hermosa de Camana, a coastal city. The name was partially conserved as Villa Hermosa de Arequipa. Charles V of Germany and I of Spain gave the town a status of 'city' by Royal Decree on 22 September 1541. The relocation efforts were led by Garci Manuel de Carbajal, who was selected as the political authority for the foundation of the new town.
Among the first public works carried out in the city are the Main Church, the City Hall, the bridge on the Chili River and the monastery of Nuestra Señora de Gracia.
Arequipa during the Independence from Spain
Although revolutionary movements like the one commanded by Pumacahua and pro independence troops entered Arequipa, the city remained under Spaniard control until the Battle of Ayacucho due to internal struggles for local political power.
Colonial authorities were flexible concerning liberal thinking and higher education in Arequipa. An example of this is the foundation of the Academia Lauretana de Ciencias y Artes (Lauretan Academy of Sciences and Arts) on 10 December 1821, which was also home to the first printing office in the region. The main members of the academy: Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro, Aparicio Gómez Sánchez, Francisco de Paula Gonzalez Vigil, Gualberto Valdivia, Manuel Amat y Leon and Juan de Dios Salazar took sides in favor of the independence from Spain. The result of the activity of the Lauretan Academy was the foundation of the National College of American Independence and the National University of San Agustin created in 1827.
One aspect that distinguished Arequipa from the rest of the country was the particularly explicit and public commitment of the city to the Spanish Crown, a phenomenon called fidelismo. Among its most remarkable defenders were Francisco de Paula Quiroz, Mariano de Rivero, Nicolás Fernández, and José Miguel de Lastarria. It was this attitude of its citizens the reason why the city received the title of Faithful by Royal Charter in 1805.
Since its Spanish founding and over three centuries, the population of the city was mostly of Spanish origin, which represented a faithful following of Spain. Another factor was geography, because of its location Arequipa was not heavily influenced by libertarian movements, and also kept the city distant to other cities with big Aboriginal population.
After independence, the territory corresponding to the "Intendencia de Arequipa" was given the status of 'Departamento' or Region of Arequipa by decree of 26 May 1822. The Peruvian Congress of 1826 and the Constitutional Assembly of 1827 were led by Arequipa native Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro. During the government of Bolivar, right after the victory of the Battle of Ayacucho, Arequipa was a political center against the dictatorial powers of Bolivar.
Arequipa did not have an important official status during the colonial period although it did play an important economic role. During colonial times its location was at the crossroads of the trade route of silver and after independence, the wool trade route. This privileged location allowed Arequipa to accumulate administrative, commercial and industrial power which benefited local social classes committed to the future of the city. Thus, Arequipa not only was the birthplace of significant political figures in Peru, but also the scene of several important political movements that achieved national prominence.
From the 1820s until the end of the decade, Peruvian society was in a transitional period right after its independence from Spain. Also during this time, the pillars that supported the economy of Arequipa – manufacture of wool products and the operation of the Southern Railway – began to decline. For these and other reasons, Arequipa saw the rise of a number of political leaders shaped by a growing middle class of professionals, intellectuals and technocrats, who played a role in the defense of the legal and economic stability of the city. It was during this period that the population of the city increased significantly and its citizens had a prominent political participation thus establishing the importance of Arequipa as the country's second city, and in frequent rivalry with Lima.
In 1835, General Orbegoso moved his government from Lima to Arequipa, by presidential decree on 13 January 1835. Meanwhile, in Lima, General Felipe Santiago Salaverry named himself Supreme Chief of the Republic, arguing that the country was leaderless, i.e. without President, as Orbegoso was outside the capital. Orbegoso then sought support from then Bolivian President Andrés de Santa Cruz against the claims of Salaverry. Deciding battles between troops and Salaverry Confederation were in Uchumayo, near the city of Arequipa, on 4 February 1836, where he defeated Salaverry, and Socabaya, three days later, on 7 February, beating Santa Cruz. On 18 February 1836, Salaverry and his top aides were shot in the main square of the city.
After expressing their rejection of the Confederation, Chile sent under General Ventura Blanco Encalada a military expedition that reached the territory arequipeño 12 October 1837. Before going into battle were negotiations that allowed signing a peace treaty in Paucarpata, adjacent to the city district, on 17 November, between the Chilean military chief Gen. Quiroz, of the Confederation. Chile did not endorse the treaty and sent a second expedition under General Bulnes, the following year, in support of Ramón Castilla and other Peruvian military leaders opposed to Santa Cruz.
In the following years the city hosted insurrectionary successive military coups. On 20 February 1843, there was proclaimed as the supreme head of the Republic General Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco, whose ambitions ended with the Battle of Carmen Alto on 22 July 1844.
On 14 April 1854 from Arequipa insirió as interim president General Ramon Castilla, who managed to take power. Against this de facto government, on 1 November 1856 took up arms again in Arequipa, General Vivanco. After failing his military expeditions to Lima and Trujillo, had to return to Arequipa in late 1857 to organize its defense. The forces commanded by Miguel de San Román Vivanco faced in the battle of Paucarpata on 29 June 1857.
War with Chile
Lizardo Montero arrived in Arequipa on 31 August 1882, declaring the capital of Peru. Also, Montero convened a National Congress on 28 April 1883.
«De la noche a la mañana Arequipa se convirtió en la "Capital del Perú": con presidente y escolta en "palacio", con ministros y secretarios en sus despachos, con el alto mando militar en sus cuarteles. Un viejo y reitarado sueño se transformaba en realidad aunque con visos de sainete y de tragedia: el gobierno no ejercía el poder en todo el territorio nacional que en sus zonas neurálgicas estaba militarmente ocupado por el enemigo...»—Niera, Máximo, «Historia General de Arequipa»
Montero's government had a "National Congress" installed on 22 April 1883 in the cloisters of the College Independence and National University of San Agustin, a military support consists of all males 20 to 60 years that formed an army of 4,000 men and 8,000 National Guardsmen to 10 000 and an important financial support based on quotas and taxes erogacione both the economic elite and the various southern agricultural districts.
However, Peru's Arequipa forces revolted against the authority of Lizardo Montero. On 25 October 1883, a popular uprising overthrew the government and military of Lizardo Montero Flores who retired in Arequipa to La Paz, bringing Chilean troops under Jose Velasquez occupied the city on 29 October, this being delivered by the diplomatic corps of the city.
Twentieth and twenty-first centuries
Reached the twentieth century, the city was the scene of military coups on 22 August 1930, when the commander Luis Sánchez Cerro was proclaimed Supreme Head and forced the resignation to President Augusto B. Leguia, and 27 October 1948, when General Manuel A. Odria formed a joint government and ousted President José Luis Bustamante y Rivero.
The city was also the scene of brave civic protests against arbitrariness. The two most important were against the Odria, one on 17 June 1950, featuring students of the College of American Independence and the second for nine days of December 1955. As usual earthquakes in the department had special significance earthquakes in 1868,1878 and 1913, for the severe injury and damage that resulted.
The city's economic development was favored by the railroad Arequipa Islay built by Henry Meiggs. This was linked to the railway linking Arequipa, Cuzco and Juliaca. The first telegraph system in the region, which connected Mollendo, Arequipa and Vitor, was established in 1908. Drinking water was supplied to the city with an aqueduct leading Yumina mineral waters, opened in 1914. In 1931 he built roads Yura Arequipa-Puno and Arequipa. In Chili to 78 kilometres (48 miles) from the city and 4300 masl dam was built to irrigate El Fraile 3000 ha in the plains of La Joya. This hardworking engineering work was completed in 1938. In 1940 he inaugurated the modern Alfredo Rodriguez Ballon Airport.
In the mid-nineteenth century, the expansion of international demand helped reorganize the landlords and warlords colonial exploitation of indigenous peasants in Puno through the expansion of large estates while a circle of Arequipa controlled the marketing and processing wool at the expense of rural communities.
The momentum of this market, broader than deep, Arequipa is built from the second half of the nineteenth century as a city of middle classes, merchants, artisans, professionals, home to an elite regional macro in modern business city located. In time, the elite arequipeña happens to collect, process and export wool, producing, acquiring lands medium farmers or indigenous highland and developing an operating system supported by income. This modern twentieth-century Arequipa, old families, industries, large middle classes and workers organized in unions, is constructed as a bourgeois city, civic, democratic.
In the early twentieth century intellectual groups emerged, such as the "Group Aquelarre" movement, whose demands were focused on political decentralization and a regional identity which coincided with a resurgence of anti-limeño/anti-centralist sentiment. These groups were disassociated from issues related to social justice and economic reform and ultimately came to an abrupt end as a result of the Great Depression. Prominent leaders also arose such as Victor Andres Belaunde and José Luis Bustamante y Rivero, who left their mark as strong-willed constitutionalists in early 1930, and from 1945 to 1948 when José Luis Bustamante y Rivero served as president of Peru.
In 1945 Bustamante y Rivero became the president of Peru thanks to an alliance with the APRA party and lobbying from Arequipa and other supporters in Lima and other parts of the country. However, the alliance with APRA collapsed early in his presidency weakening his government and giving rise to a military coup by Odría who suppressed APRA and its leaders.
In 1950 the lawyer Francisco Mostajo (a prominent liberal from Arequipa since 1901) led a failed revolution in Arequipa against the dictator general Odria. In 1962 and in 1963 Fernando Belaunde Terry and his Popular Action party with the support of another party originally from Arequipa, the Christian Democrats, won the presidency of Peru.
Law 15,923 of 10 January 1966 authorized the creation of the industrial park of Arequipa, important motivator mediated regional manufacturing.
In the early years of this century the historic center of Arequipa was declared Cultural Heritage of Humanity, there was also an 8.4 magnitude earthquake on 23 June 2001, one of the largest earthquakes in the world since 1900, and of greater magnitude in the history of Peru because of this earthquake, many of the historic buildings in Arequipa were damaged or destroyed.
Throughout history Arequipa policy have led to many uprisings that earned the city the adjective of "The Lion of the South". According to Leslie Bethell Cambridge University "if Arequipa was the capital of liberalism the other regions of Peru promoted their own interests only through their ideology'. other authors conclude that revolutions were not developed under personal interests or politicians that incentivized, but by passion for law and justice, for his religious faith and his honor.
Leslie Bethell emphasizes the importance of revolutions of Arequipa stating:
:«None of the numerous aprista insurrections in the three decades, including that in Trujillo in 1932, secured as much political leverage as these three Arequipa-based movements.»
- «Ninguna de las numerosas insurrecciones apristas en las tres décadas, incluyendo la de Trujillo en 1932, han garantizado una gran influencia política como estos tres movimientos surgidos en Arequipa.»—Leslie Bethell, The Cambridge History of Latin America: Latin America since 1930
This revolutionary fame known among Peruvians still won it through numerous rebellions where almost all revolutions, some with national impact, armed themselves to defend local autonomy, compared to a centralizing capital more and more taking up arms in the revolutions following:
- Revolution of 1834
- Revolution of 1841
- Revolution of 1844
- Revolution of 1851
- Revolution of 1854
- Revolution of 1856
- Revolution of 1865
- Revolution of 1867
- Revolution of 1883
- Revolution of 1884
- Revolution of 1930
- Revolution of 1931
- Revolution of 1950
- Revolution of 1955
The starting point of the political path followed by Arequipa is marked by the new national bourgeoisie, which appears to challenge the existing bourgeois elite in Peru, where there was a significant and growing stratum of people in Peru with professional, administrative and trade.
Since the 1900s the rebellious spirit Arequipa, reborn from the pen of a group of intellectuals, a new generation of liberal anticlericalism characterized by a very Catholic society and opposition to economic and political centralization of the country, this opposition Arequipa to the political and economic centralization of the country naturally led to a constitutional position in the 1930s and the subsequent adoption of ideologies Christian Democrats in the 1940s and 1950s. Lawyers and projected a strong church influence in politics Arequipa, as well as the middle class gained further declined participation to economic prosperity in the south of the country.
These new interests take political structure more clearly inside the country whose strongest political structure was the city of Arequipa, and their potential strengths of this national election that was reflected by strength in the candidacy of Fernando Belaunde Terry in the 1956 presidential elections. The southern region, dominated by the city of Arequipa has a long history of separatism and the Republic of Peru, Arequipa and the upper class of the twentieth century has preserved a distinctive regional identity.
The city is located at 2,328 metres (7,638 ft) of elevation above sea level, with the lowest part of the city being at 2,041 metres (6,696 ft) above sea level in the area called Huayco Uchumayo while the highest is located at 2,810 metres (9,220 ft) above sea level.
The central part of the city is crossed by the Chili River from north to south; to the north and east of Arequipa are the Andes mountains, while to the south and west there are minor mountain ranges associated to the Andes. The valley of Arequipa, open toward the coast, plays a key role in allowing Arequipa to be a city that strategically links the coastal and highland regions of southern Peru.
A series of volcanic cones dominates the skyline from the city. These volcanoes form mountains like the Misti, Pikchu Pikchu and Chachani. This rugged Andean western edge of South America is characterized by thick layers of volcanic lava that cover large areas.
The climate of the city is predominantly dry in winter, autumn and spring due to the low atmospheric moisture and an effective precipitation corresponding to that of a semiarid climate. Arequipa has also 300 days of sunshine a year on average. Throughout the year, temperatures do not exceed 25 °C (77 °F) and rarely drop below 10 °C (50 °F). The wet season lasts from December to March and is marked by the presence of clouds in the afternoon and low rainfall. In winter (June, July), weather gets a little cooler and the temperature drops to an average of 10 °C (50 °F).
The average relative humidity is 46%, with an average high of 70% in the summer season and a minimum average of 27% during the seasons of autumn, winter and spring, according to data from the weather station at Goyeneche Hospital.
The winds are influenced by a system of local winds and the passage of frontal systems of low atmospheric pressure, which are conditioned by the topographical surrounding the valley where the city is. These winds occur mainly in the evening and early morning; mountain breezes flow in a north-east direction and in the course of the day valley breezes dominate with a South-West direction. The wind velocity along the day fluctuates between 1.5 m / s and 2.5 m / s.
|Climate data for Arequipa|
|Average high °C (°F)||21.5
|Average low °C (°F)||8.6
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||28.0
|Source: World Meteorological Organization|
The global solar radiation recorded in the city ranges from 850–950 W / m 2 (watts / square meter), considered one of the highest levels of radiation in South America and the highest recorded in Peru. This phenomenon is due to its proximity to the area of influence of the Atacama Desert and pollution at every stage.
On 15 August 1540 a plot was made forty-nine "blocks or islands." [nota 1] sides were measured and each had a length of "400 feet Castilians' (111.40 meters), separated by streets" 37 feet Castilian "(10.30 meters), so that the checkerboard foundation is characterized by perfection in drawing apples. [nota 2]
The writer Pedro Davalos and Lisson, in his book The First Century contains the description given by Paz Soldan in 1855:
Fundose esa ciudad por orden de Francisco Pizarro y con bando solemne el día 15 de agosto de 1540. Su primer sitio, fue atrás de Caima, pero después se trasladó al en que hoy se halla, por presentar más extensión y comodidades. Al trazarla se cuidó que sus calles se cortasen en ángulos rectos y en dirección casi de NS y EO, y que cada cuadra tuviese 150 varas de largo y doce poco más o menos de ancho. Para conservar la salubridad, comodidad y aseo, se cortaron acequias en el medio de las calles, así rectas como transversales, cuyo cauce está bien acanalado. Las calles que corren −230- de E a O son ocho (las principales) y las otras también ocho: sus aceras todas están bien enlosadas con una especie de piedra blanca volcánica, llamada Sillary el piso restante empedrado con guijarros.—Pedro Dávalos y Lissón – La primera centuria : causas geográficas, políticas y económicas que han detenido el progreso moral y material del Perú en el primer siglo de su vida independiente. Tomo II.’’
Because of this, there is no doubt that the former "Villa Hermosa de Arequipa" he intended to occupy the regional capital. The city became a connecting link between Cuzco, ponds and the ocean. And in fact the city of Arequipa in the exploitation phase of silver in Potosi, has since become "'a major logistics hub." The urban setting near the present district of San Lazaro, where was erected the first chapel of the city occupied an area of 850 x 875 meters.
The square foundation, located three blocks from the river and occupied an eccentric position in the founding and checkerboard patterns as Hispanic was the focal point of the city. Apples was occupied by four or eight lots, and were distributed according to their importance in the new neighborhood. With the passage of time some religious institutions came to occupy a block as the case of the Convent of Santa Catalina and San Francisco Monastery.
In the Republican era shows a growth process similar to the colonial era, where the urban area has grown at the expense of the countryside, a process that has worsened in recent decades. The city also experienced an expansion to the east of what is now called historic, new avenues were plotted as Parra Boulevard and Twentieth Century Avenue, was established wooded neighborhood of El Vallecito, where he built the first shawls to the 1940s, and the city extended into Yanahuara, poor people came to occupy the districts of Miraflores, Barrio Obrero, Jacinto Ibanez.
Urban architecture is extended with new construction, and moved the market town located in the Plaza de Armas to the park Duhamel and later to its present location at the Convent of the Order of St. Camillus agonizing Parents, between 1905 and 1910 Goyeneche Hospital was built, also built bridges linking the city center with the district as the bridge Yanahuara Real. By the year 1940, the first project was proposed expansion and urban facilities. This plan envisaged the creation of a ring of houses greater than existing growth plan consolidating regarding radial and concentric paths regarding land use, neighborhoods were enabled Cuarto Centenario and Selva Alegre. He was also given a boost to urban facilities with the construction of the Municipal Theatre, the Hotel de Turistas, the Municipal Library, the Athenaeum Theatre, American Independence College, Campus of the Universidad Nacional de San Agustin.
Until the late 1950s there were two factors that substantially changed the trends of urban growth, the earthquakes in the years of 1958 and 1960 and the drought plateau, which accelerated peripheral growth.
This period starts with greater force the displacement of resident population sectors, there is a shift in the industry that was located in the Barrio del Solar and El Barrio Obrero following the creation of the industrial park, causing a process outsourcing of the city center towards commercial activities primarily in the informal sector. An example of this exodus is the displacement of some educational institutions that previously were located in the city center as the National University of San Agustin in the year of 1962 and residential sectors to consolidate the periphery to the center of the city as a dynamic central business district.
According to census XI of 2007, the province of Arequipa concentrates 75.5% of the total population of the region and the city of Arequipa, the capital of the department, with 70% of the total population and 90% of urban population. [nota 3]
One of the first references that can be found is the one by historian Ventura Travada y Córdova who in the mid-eighteenth century, wrote:
El número de gentes que tiene esta ciudad es de 30.000 de todos sexos, estados y edades. Los indios apenas 4.000 y para su doctrina basta una sola parroquia en la ciudad – la de Santa Marta – que comprende todos los indios forasteros y naturales que viven dispersos en la ciudad y para ser una sola no es muy numerosa porque excepcionando algunos negros, mulatos y otros apenas llegan a 6.000. todos los demás son españoles, muchos de ellos de nobleza conocida cuya sangre procuran honroso no degenerar...—Ventura Travada y Córdova
One of the first population census in the city date back to 1796 where there were 37,241 inhabitants in the 'pen' which corresponded to 22 207 Spanish, 5929 Indians, mestizos 4908, 2487 and 1710 slave castes. At the end of the first half of the twentieth century, the effects of momentum multplicadores to Arequipa by the works of 1940 demonstrated very quickly which was clearest symptom population growth, as annual population growth of 1.1% for the period of 1876 to 1917 tripled to 3.3% annually in the period that goes from 1940 to 1960.
In the early years of the second half of the twentieth century the city would rise from 85,000 in 1940 to 158,000 in 1961 in an unprecedented population explosion process, whose possible reasons have to do with the establishment of the first industrial enterprises generated as opening import substitution due to World War II and the transformation of agricultural production. The demographic trend is substantially modified by two factors: the earthquake of 1958 and the drought plateau, accelerating migration and urbanization, and peripheral growth that lasts until today. The population explosion was enhanced by the rearrangement of urban space after the earthquakes was really impressive and Arequipa's population doubled in a decade. The 158 000 inhabitants in 1961, would be 309 000 in 1972 and almost 500,000 in 1983. The expansion of the urban area to previous rural areas incorporated subsistence farming actively into the urban cycle.
Evolution of the population of Arequipa in the period between 1796 and 2012
- Sources: Population Census 1804 (Gil de Toboada) Viceroyalty of Peru in 1812, [nota 4] Census of inhabitants of Peru (1876) [nota 5] Census of the City of Arequipa in 1917 INEI, INEI 2012 population estimate
Since Arequipa is predominantly urban, industry, commerce and construction taking place in the capital of the department have a central role in the future of the town. However, the presence of fertile valleys and high Andes allows agricultural activity has great importance for the development of the city: a central axis of the demands arequipeñas is building irrigation to improve their productivity. Finally, in recent times, the mining industry has entered a stage of modernity, has ceased to be only artisanal or small business to include large-scale mining, as in the case of Cerro Verde, established in 1993 in the Arequipa.
From the twentieth century in the city have developed the industries related to the primary sector, highlighting the textile and agricultural industries. They constitute a center of exchange and mediation in the southern Andes, serving as a link between the coast and the mountains.
The contribution of the city of Arequipa in Arequipa region's GDP is 74.2% of its GDP according to studies by the National University of San Agustin, also the region's GDP is the highest Arequipa after Lima.
In the period 2003–2008 was the "City with greatest economic growth in Latin America", according to the report in 2009 of "America Economia" presenting a percentage change in GDP per capita of 66.1%. Also in 2007–2008 was the city with the highest percentage change in GDP in Latin America with a variation of 9.59%.
|Economic Indicators – City of Arequipa|
|Population (MM)||GDP 2010 (millions U.S. $)||GDP per capita 2010 (U.S. $)||% Unemployment 2011||No. investment banks|
|Source: American Journal Economics. Special Cities|
According to the "Specialized Household Survey on Employment Levels" has the largest amount of "Economically able to work" within the country amounting to 625 547 people, and the most economically active population (PEA) which amounts to 376 764 people having a same employment rate above the national average with an average monthly income of 928 soles whose main areas of activity in which play is manufacturing (12.9%), trade (23%) and non-personal services (36.6%).
The contribution to the national sales tax is 20.3%, in solidarity tax on 17% being the second national taxpayer in these taxes. Arequipa has a production structure strongly biased to trade and services sectors, the primary sector of agriculture and mining accounted for 29.6% of GDP, the secondary sector of manufacturing industry and 20.7% in the tertiary sector and trade and services 49.7%, it was strengthened in recent years by a lack of productive investment.
The construction sector of the city is the second most dynamic in the country, after Lima, according to the Study of Urban Buildings by the Institute of Construction and Development of the Peruvian Chamber of Construction. Building activity in 2011 amounted to 611 961 m 2, 65% for housing, 10% for offices and commercial premises 4%. In the case of housing supply, departments account for 70% and 30% households of the total supply in this sector of destination.
Fairs, exhibitions and congresses
- International Book Fair
The III International Book Fair held in Arequipa in 2011 had an influx of 400,000 people and a collection of a million and a half soles
- Mining Convention
Oriented mining sector entrepreneurs, investors and government delegations in the last edition in the year 2011 had the presence of 40 countries bringing together 50,000 people.
In Arequipa tourism is a factor of the economy energizing establishing itself as the third most visited city in the country after Cusco and Lima. In 2010, Arequipa received a total of 1.395 million visitors according to the Ministry of Commerce and Tourism.
The city's industrial sector has the largest nationwide diversification and is the second most industrialized city of Peru product of the Industrial Park was established during the first government of Fernando Belaúnde Terry. After two major earthquakes, in 1958 and 1960, with the law of the "Rehabilitation and Development Board of Arequipa» Industrial Park was built with two or three factories at that time, and the Yura Cement factory.
The city's industrial sector comprises industrial parks among which may be mentioned the "Parque Industrial de Arequipa" orientaado to large and medium enterprises, the "Industrial Park APIMA" to small businesses, the "Industrial Park Rio Seco "and industrial areas in the Alfonso Ugarte Av, Alternative Uchumayo and North Cone. Finally, there is a consolidated sector and planned and Ladrilleras Umapalca Yarabamba way. Spatial occupancy for industrial zones cover an area of 286 hectares.
- Arequipa Industrial Park, along its existence has undergone several transformations of their industries, showing a more dynamic consumer related industries (food and beverages), construction (PVC, cement and steel) and those of Export (textile companies). In this industrial companies are also engaged in the chemical industry and plastics, companies producing non-metallic minerals, stationery and printing, among others, conglomerando over 150 companies, among which we can highlight to Alicorp SAA, Processed Foods SA, Laive, La Iberica, Manuel Muñoz Najar, Bin Pan SA, Consorcio Industrial Arequipa SA, Omniagro, Backus & Johnston, Corporación Aceros Arequipa. Also in Arequipa is developed textiles both cotton and alpaca and wool factories represented by: Francky and Ricky, Michell & Cia. e IncaTops, companies are also in the Arequipa Industrial Park.
Media and Entertainment
On 15 August 1959 was the first television transmission in the city of Arequipa at the Cultural Hall of the National University of San Agustin. It was an initiative of businessman Jack Dwyre through his new company Televisora Sur Peruana in partnership with the National University of San Agustin as Channel 2 (now TV UNSA). The aforementioned university became one of the first in South America to operate a public TV station from inside its campus.
Furthermore, two other public television stations began to operate in Arequipa: Radio Television Continental (Channel 6) in 1962 and Compañía de Radiodifusión Arequipa (Channel 8) in 1987 (broadcasting as ATV Sur since 2012).
Among the newspapers that are printed in the city, El Pueblo is the oldest (active since 1 January 1905) and the second oldest in the country. Writers like Percy Gibson and Alberto Hidalgo, and politicians like Hector Cornejo Chavez, Mario Polar Ugarteche and Alfonso Montesinos started their careers in this newspaper.
According to the 2007 Census data INEI in Arequipa, there is a student population totaling 823,148 inhabitants of three years or more to attend a regular school, which represents 95.24% of the entire provincial population of Arequipa.
Nursery, primary and secondary
In 2007 in the districts of the city 20% nbsp; 595 students at grade level or initial childhood education, primary education, 143 543 and 219 305 secondary education. Among the oldest schools in the city are the Seminary of San Jeronimo in operation since 1622, the American Independence College, St. Francis College, Don Bosco Salesian College, College De La Salle and St. Joseph College.
The city of Arequipa has the presence of more than 15 universities, with only one national and eight private headquartered in the city, the rest are private and national universities both at home and abroad (Chile).
In 2007 in the existing universities housed a university population of 70,894 students and colleges university not a population of 56 087 students, becoming the city with the highest number of home university of the country after the capital and the city with the highest population percentage-wise university of Peru. The population categorized with university and complete university reached 108 823 and 70 252 students respectively.
National University of San Agustin
It is the second largest public university in the country, behind the University of San Marcos, had the predecessor to the Royal and Pontifical University Intra calustra, created by decree on 22 January 1714 and the Academy of Sciences Lauretana Arts and founded on 10 December 1821, from which was born the National University of San Agustin who was installed on 11 November 1828 but according to the university law recognizes the creation of the university on 2 June 1827.
The construction of the university city of the National University of San Agustin is a product of the projection made by the architect Hector Velarde in 1940 but it was not until 1962 that the university decentralizes its functions and moves to the campus. The campus features correspond to a scheme totally academic teaching style of L'Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, with remarkable symmetry in the arrangement of the elements and pavilions which then lead to a neo-formal lexicon that led it to adopt a "style arequipeño" whose formal features transcended the city and were projected to other centers of Peru and the rest of America. [nota 6]
The first private university established in the city was the Catholic University of Santa Maria, the establishment of this university was followed by San Pablo Catholic University, University of San Francisco. and the University of La Salle, it belongs to International Network of Universities of La Salle, and Javier Prado Private University and Southern University.
Additionally, in the city are located branches from other universities, as a branch of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, subsidiaries of Néstor Cáceres Velásquez Andean University, Technological University of Peru, Peruvian Wings University; San Pedro Private University, the University del Mar, Chile, the University of Chimbote Los Angeles, School of Business San Francisco Xavier, the Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and San Martin de Porres University for example-that add universities established in the city of Arequipa.
|National University of San Agustin||1828||24188||Arequipa|
|Catholic University of Santa Maria||1963||12268||Arequipa|
|San Pablo Catholic University||2004||4769||Arequipa|
|San Francisco University||2010||–||Arequipa|
|University of La Salle||Maestría en Ingeniería del Software Aplicada||–||Arequipa|
|Private University of Health Sciences||Maestría en Ingeniería del Software Aplicada||–||Arequipa|
|Private Autonomous University of South||Maestría en Ingeniería del Software Aplicada||–||Arequipa|
|Javier Prado University||Maestría en Ingeniería del Software Aplicada||–||Arequipa|
|San Francisco Xavier University||2010||–||Arequipa|
|Alas Peruanas University||2004||9743||Lima|
|José Carlos Mariátegui University||Maestría en Ingeniería del Software Aplicada||–||Lima|
|Néstor Cáceres Velásquez University||2006||1038||Puno|
|Technological University of Peru||2007||1201||Lima|
|San Pedro Private University||2010||–||Chimbote|
|University Los Angeles de Chimbote||2009||344||Chimbote|
|University of the Sea||2009||–||Chile|
Source: Second National Census of Universities (2010)
Arequipa culture is marked by the regionalism of its inhabitants. Arequipa, unlike other big Peruvian cities with mestizo and indigenous features, has been highlighted as a "Spanish island in an indigenous sea", resulting in regional cultural features more clearly defined than in the rest of Peru, being described both culturally and geographically as a cultural and natural oasis. This important Spanish presence is documented by many historians and chroniclers such as Ventura Travada y Córdova:
«El número de gentes de esta ciudad es apenas 30.000... los negros, mulatos y otros apenas llegan a 6000, todos los demás son españoles, muchos de ellos de conocida nobleza, porque esta ciudad es de las que sobresalen en el reino de gente española cuya sangre procuran no degenerar, celebrando muchos casamientos con españoles llamados huampos. [Estos españoles] al instante que arriban a este reino se aplican al comercio mercantil porque generalmente es uno de los empleos más honrosos...»—Ventura Travada y Córdova
Unlike other regional sentiments within Peru, Arequipa's regionalism was connected to the fight against centralism:
«En contraste con otros regionalismos peruanos, especialmente el del Cusco con su singular legado de haber sido la capital del Imperio Incaico, el sentimiento regionalista arequipeño estaba conectado a la lucha contra la política centralista de crear un Estado moderno, alternativa creíble para el centralismo limeño. El regionalismo arequipeño ha logrado evitar ser despedido como un mero provincianismo. Critíca a la política descentralista esfuerzo sobre la base de una reserva de locales, el lugar específico de las imágenes como capital simbólico para validar el éxito material de las clases dominantes regionales.»—Thomas Love, Redefining Identity, Maintaining Control in Southwestern Peru
This proud regionalism, expressed in numerous insurrections or revolutions that have earned the city the nickname "Ciudad Caudillo" (Warlord City) or better explained by Peruvian historian Jorge Basadre: "Arequipa is a gun pointed at the heart of Lima ', when making a reference to the antagonism between both cities.
An element of culture in Arequipa City is its Spanish dialect that incorporates a distinctive rhythmic way of speaking, which usually elongates the last vowel of the final word in each sentence. Spanish language in Arequipa, also incorporates several Quechua words, besides the use of the voseo.
Many sources agree that the province of Arequipa is the representative area of Peruvian voseo, that is, the use in Spanish language of the pronoun 'vos' to replace the use of 'tú' or 'usted' (all meaning the pronoun 'you'). In Peru, the voseo is sometimes heard only in rural areas except in Arequipa, where that way of speaking is heard in both rural and urban areas.
It is a rural dialect of the city, has been largely lost due to migration from other provinces and the standardization of Castilian by the media in the capital, however, always in schools competitions are promoted lonccos poems.
Its principle is based or iconographic art of petroglyphs and pre-Columbian pottery. The site with more graphs in stone are the Toro Muerto has been the subject of many studies, most notably those of Dr. Eloy Linares Málaga and Dr. Antonio Núñez Jiménez Cuban.
His second contribution is the Spanish state and Indo-American, who initially had applications in the size of walls, faces carved churches and altars, des painting appeared as mestizo, which is a naïve tried to recreate the Christian symbolism . The art of deep chiaroscuro, anatomical and ingenuity hieratic provisions lasted for many years since the European Renaissance failed hard because of geographical distance, but so that the increased media and travel advances and ado came to the third stage, which is the art academic and romantic, then arequipeñas wealthy families brought European art, mostly from France, England and Spain, the art, but not high-level teachers, gave the foundation for what would advance the fourth state of our history of fine arts, Carlos Baca Flor, Masias and Reynoso Vinatea preamble contemporary art Teodoro Nunez Ureta, Ureta Alejandro Nunez and Luis Palao Berastain among youth of that based on the short edge new American realism and impressionism .
After the fifth stage amorphous art, symbolist and other current and conceptual styles imported from North America and Europe with vertigo by mass media, among the master of this new era are Ramiro Pareja, Germán Rondon, Ricardo Córdova, the Evaristo and brothers Dario Callo Anco, Erick Huanca, Juan Carlos Zevallos, Companoca and other young master that currently contribute at various isms and boundaries of what is visual art. The Museum of Contemporary Art and the Museum of Arequipa Fundo del Fierro are good benchmarks.
The city has a great diversity of foods compared to many other parts of Peru, with a registered 194 varieties of dishes, which represent 40 entrees, 11 soups or lunches, 11 wines, 70 dishes, 51 desserts and 11 drinks. The cuisine of the city stands by the use of seasonings and preparation methods introduced by both Andean and Europeans, because many dishes were created to satisfy the tastes of Spanish merchants, soldiers and priests who had settled in Arequipa.
The eating habits are characterized by a slow diet for each day of the week, this fact shows that in most restaurants and picanterías gets used to prepare on Monday: Chaque, Tuesday: Chairo, Wednesday: Chochoca, Thursday: Suck Colorado or potato flour, Friday: Suck, Saturday: stew or Timpusca and Sunday: white broth or Pebre loins. This practice follows a global context where food has established fixed schedules and are respected by the population and most restaurants and picanterías city and moved to the availability of specific ingredients in local markets to meet demand according to the day of the week.
Among the most popular dishes are the shrimp Suck, Ocopa Arequipa, Rocoto filling Adobo Arequipa, Single cheese, potato cake, fried ribs, Cuy chactado, Cauche cheese, Locro pectoris, Chaque, among others. For dessert highlight the cream cheese, donuts, convent sweets, chocolates, and beverages such as, Chicha de Jora, the region anise (anise or aniseed liqueur).
The identity of Arequipa literature is linked to the early nineteenth-century libertarians. Mariano Melgar is, in that sense, a compulsory reference, as to the quality of his lyrics, his example and his vital attention to the themes and modes land drew the line that would guide the creative writing in his hometown. In the mid-nineteenth century, the poetic voices from Benito Bonifaz, Manuel Castillo, José Mariano Llosa, Ignacio Gamio, among others, gave prestige to the letters Arequipa. Later that century, the novel George, the son of the village (1892), Maria Nieves and Bustamante, on the line of Victor Hugo, in the opinion of Luis Alberto Sanchez, gave us in his interesting 'Introduction', some signs preciosistas White City.
Poetry is heading towards the teaching of Manuel González Prada vibrant, and there are poems full of ideas and concepts Jorge Polar, philosopher and jurist, author of Arequipa. Description and social studies (1891), whose statement: "Years Arequipa has fought bravely to win free institutions for the Fatherland. Not born in vain at the foot of a volcano ", summarizes the feeling that inaugurated Mariano Melgar and that in one way or another, is present in Arequipa literature of the nineteenth and much of the twentieth, and the romantic voice of Francisco Mostajo, popular leader, who openly criticized the prevailing tone and advocated without success, the vital airs of modernism in its statements to the wind, 1908.
The twentieth century imposes rhythm and casually characteristic of youth. In this area appears Group The Coven, with distinctly modernist aspirations. Their representatives make up a generation varied, but a common concern for change. They are in their ranks: Percy Gibson, Cesar Rodriguez Atahualpa, and Renato Federico Morales Agüero Well Rivera. This group Arequipa, sort of "colónidos" (Colónida group of Lima, founded by Abraham Valdelomar in the decade of 10), to which are added the poets featured Alberto Guillen and Alberto Hidalgo latter a vanguard that has not yet received the recognition it deserves, assumes a freer language, away from the prevailing rhetoric and romantic. His affiliation would be closer to some avant-garde notions.
The gathering is organized in the halls, and the talents of the poets of the time are not indexed for arequipeño masterfully, but Valdelomar Abraham, who evokes an evening of 1910 in the article "The throne of the sun. Notes of a journey." The Conde de Lemos highlights in it to Percy Gibson author of the verses of the famous waltz Melgar, who put music Benigno Ballon, who invites Colónida write in the journal.
In this Gibson he published the poem "Democratic Gospel":
For its part, the paradoxes Tower (1926), Cesar Rodriguez Atahualpa, which pays homage to his homeland, as well as his "Song of Arequipa" (1918), set the tone of the regionalist pride to which we have referred at the beginning. This group accounted mamuel happened that Gallego Sanz, brothers Jorge and Xavier Bacacorzo and Guillermo Mercado (1904–1983), the latter poet who started within indigenismo and published, among other books, Golden Soul (1925) A chullo of poems (1928) and Song of Sachaca (1940). The prose had its greatest exponent in the first half of the twentieth century, in the figure of Augusto Morales Aguirre (1888–1957), who left as proof of his masterly novel The People of the sun (the first is around 1924), which managed continental resonance. His works include Dream Flower (1906) and Prayer (1913), poems, and Justice of Huayna Capac (1919), novel.
Scholar and journalist, Aguirre Morales worked in newspapers and Universal Chronicle. Among his contemporaries are Juan Manuel Osorio and Juan Manuel Polar. Later, Arequipa also produce a noted literary critic, internationally recognized, Enrique Cornejo Quea (1936–1996) who applied the concept so sharply of "diversity" in American literary studies. Born in Arequipa in 1931, Oswaldo Reynoso released in 1961, "The innocent stories", and in 1964, the novel "In October there are no miracles, who have had multiple reprints. Owner of a poetic prose breath, then posted The beetle and man "(1970)", In search of Aladdin "(1993) and" The eunuchs immortal "(1995). But undoubtedly the most renowned Arequipa in the field of letters is Mario Vargas Llosa (1936), Nobel Prize for Literature in 2010 and author among other texts of the Hero (1964), The Green House (1966), The War of the End of the World (1981), The Feast of the Goat (2000) and inspired by the life of Flora Tristan, The Paradise on the other corner (2003).
Arequipa maintains an intense literary life, to mention a few names of different generations, quote Jose Ruiz Rosas, poet who, although born in Lima (1928), developed his poetic valuable in the city of Arequipa and currently resides in this, among others, the poems Grocery (1978), Poems (1980), gathered Poetry (1992) in the White City; Oswaldo Chanove (1953), poet, author of The Hero and his relationship with the heroine (1983), Study on the action and passion (1987) y.el Pale Rider (1994), or Carlos Herrera (1961), the original focus narrator who posted black and white (1995) and blind Argonaut Chronicles (2002).
Museums and cultural centers
Cultural events are mainly in the cultural institutes, organizations such as the Alliance Française, the Peruvian Center for German and Peruvian North American Cultural Center organized activities around the arts, music, dance and literature, among others. Meanwhile, the Centro Cultural de la Rosa Chaves National University of San Agustin and the Catholic University of Santa Maria promote cultural activities.
In the 1990s banking institutions showed great interest in promoting and managing cultural activities, private companies, meanwhile, joined this movement by sponsoring various projects.
- Cathedral Museum
- Virtual Hall of Arequipa, located at the "Gateway to the City" are contained several aspects of urban town of the historic center of Arequipa, more precisely the area that has been declared as a World Heritage Site and some nearby; here shows the evolution of the architecture over time arequipeña.
- Regional Museum of the Central Reserve Bank. The center has a numismatic room, where you can see notes and coins that were minted in the Central Reserve Bank of Arequipa in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The museum also has a gallery comprising 17 eighteenth-century paintings of the Cusco School, and archaeological pieces in metal and ceramics from the Chavin, Chimu, Moche, Viru, Recuay, Nasca and Inca.
- Archaeological Museum José María Morante
- Archaeological Museum of the University of St. Augustine, located in a seventeenth-century mansion, the museum exhibits a varied collection comprising lithic, bone remains of human sacrifices, pottery elementary and pre-Columbian textiles.
- UCSM Archaeological Museum, displays about 1000 objects developed different cultural groups in the region from 12 000 a year. C. until the colony: Nasca, Tiahuanaco, Wari, Churajón, Acari, Aruni and Inca, and colonial and transitional material.
- Andean Sanctuaries Museum of the Catholic University of Santa Maria, was created on 26 March 1997, following the significant archaeological research by Project 'height Sanctuaries Southern Andes ", led by Professors Johan Reinhard and Jose Antonio Chavez. In this museum is the Mummy Juanita who was sacrificed on Mount Ampato, despite being an attractive displays, museum work has been questioned.
- Numismatic Museum
- Museum of Contemporary Art, is devoted to painting and photography from 1900 onwards, houses an interesting collection of twentieth-century art, photography and exhibitions of Miguel Vargas and Carlos Vargas, Cusco photographer Martin Chambi, was mentor of the two brothers, that through his work documenting daily life and customs of the city of Arequipa twentieth-century. Also on display are works by young local artists, paintings of Peruvian artists like Fernando and Carlos Enrique Polanco Szyszlo, Ramiro Llona, José Tola, Gerardo Chavez, Natalia Iguíñiz, Jaime Higa, Light Letts, Carlos Runcie Tanaka, Amelia Weiss, Claudia Cuzzi and Venancio Shinki.
- Museum of Natural History, located in the metropolitan district of Yanahuara, under the administration of the convent of La Recoleta.
- Museo de Santa Catalina
- Graphic Museum Gazette, the house museum located in Bolivar, it shows the evolution of writing from cave paintings to the first printing presses and machinery involved in the production process of official gazette El Peruano. In this museum you can see the resolution of Arequipa passport and Original Declaration in which Arequipa is declared on 4 September 1882 as "Capital of Peru".
- Colonial Art Museum Santa Teresa
- Columbian Museum La Recoleta
- Chiribaya Culture Museum
- The Amazonian Museum, located in the district of Yanahuara exhibiting objects from the activity of the missionaries in the jungle during the XVI, XVII, XVIII.
- Forestry Museum Ecological Police, this museum located in the metropolitan district of Paucarpata has a sample of more than 300 animal species of Peruvian wildlife, especially the one in danger of extinction. Also has 35 live animals.
Since late viceroyalty there are important academic composers like Mariano Melgar (who was best known in his role as poet), Pedro Jiménez Tirado April and Florentino Diaz is apparently coming to Arequipa one of the cities in the country with more of the best composers and musical training.
In the Republican era include Manuel Aguirre who assimilated the teachings of Chopin and Schuman to give them some melanconlia and simplicity to his music. Similarly, Luis Duncker Lavalle-a master pianist who can speak both academic folk-music as Octavio Polar, Manuel Aguirre, David H. Molina, who spread his orchestral works with the Association of Arequipa and Aurelio Diaz Espinoza who was author of the Hymn of Arequipa. Also, with a more modernist highlights Carlos Sanchez Malaga. Later in the twentieth century include Roberto Ramirez-Ortiz Zevallos, Roberto Carpio Valdez, Juan Francisco Ballon Ballon, Armando Sanchez-Málaga and Benigno Ballón Farfán González, author of numerous yaravíes, sailors and popular waltz Melgar.
Coat of arms
Nearly a year after the founding of the town, King Charles I of Spain elevated it to the rank of city by royal decree on 22 December 1540, awarding it a coat of arms on which a mythical animal carries a banner with the inscription Karlos V or Del Rey. Peruvian writer Ricardo Palma in his Peruvian Traditions, explains the position and meaning of some components in the shield based on the report of a chronicler with knowledge of heraldry. In Palma's tradition of "The godson of providence", it is explained:
«Such Democrat who writes this —understands nothing of Heraldry— Thus listen to the explanation of such allegory, that a chronicler gives: Says he, that the inscription of the flag; expresses the way in which the King took possession of Arequipa, that when he placed that One(flag)— not under the feet but in the hand of "The Griffin"— so wished the monarch to manifest his appreciation for the city; not stepping on her like a servant one, instead giving her a hand as a favored one. If there exists one who explains this better, his finger he may raise...(English translation)»—Ricardo Palma, Tradiciones Peruanas
The origin of the crimson flag of the city has been a subject of debate among historians. In 1940 various scientific publications such as those by historians Francisco Mostajo and Victor M. Barriga firmly confirmed the crimson color of the banner, as opposed to the blue banner proposed as the original by historian Victor Benavente. This matches the color used in sports activities in the city. On September 2, 1940, Francisco Mostajo sent a letter to the Mayor of the City to explain his views regarding the color of the Banner of Arequipa, basing his claims on the 'Act of the oath of King Carlos III " of 11 August 1788. On September 23 of the same year, Father Victor M. Barriga also published an important document in the Catholic newspaper El Deber that contains a description of the royal standard of Arequipa found in the "Act of 3 September 1789".
Both of these documents state that the standard color is crimson and that its origins date back to the colonial flag of the city, which is described as cited:
«(For the Celebration of the Royal feasts of Proclamation and the Oath of the King Sir Carlos IV. The illustrious Council had mandated to make in advance —a new crimson velvet emblem with the Royal coat of arms and the city coat of arms adorned with gold overlay— which was fastened to an exquisitely carved mast, which culminated in a spear head; thereof hanged two crimson silk cords with tassels thus completing an exquisite ensemble. A canopy: with throne cloth panels, pillows and bench covers with both fringe and tassels of gold.) Para la celebración de las fiestas reales de proclamación y jura del rey don Carlos IV, había mandado el Ilustre Cabildo hacer con anticipación un nuevo estandarte de terciopelo carmesí, con los escudos de Arreas Reales y de la Ciudad, guarnecido de sobrepuesto de oro, el cual estaba asido de una asta primorosamente labrada, rematando ésta en una lengueta de espolón, desde cuya garganta pendían dos cordones de seda carmesí con sus borlas, que hacían primoroso juego. Un dosel, paños de sitial, cojines y sobrebancas con flecos y rapacejos de oro.»—Juramento, proclamación y fiestas populares que hicieron celebrar en esta ciudad el Intendente D. Antonio Álvarez y Jiménez y el Alférez Real D. Manuel Flores del Campo en homenaje al Rey Carlos IV, con motivo de su exaltación al trono de España (Oath, Proclamation and Popular feasts whom mandated to celebrate in this city the Foreman D. Antonio Álvarez y Jiménez and the Royal Ensign D. Manuel Flores del Campo in homage to the King Carlos IV on the occasion of his exaltation to the throne of Spain) 
The anthem of the city is called the Fourth Centenary Anthem. It was written by Emilio Pardo Valle with music by Aurelio Diaz Espinoza, who won a contest organized by the city council in 1939 for the creation of the music and lyrics of the anthem. The award was given in 1940 and the hymn has been sung ever since at all important civic events held in the city.
Names and Honorific Titles
Very noble and very loyal Arequipa was one of the cities of the Viceroyalty of Peru that received frequent and intense praise for its weather and its loyalty Among the praises for the city found in the literature is a reference in the play "La Galatea" by classic Spanish writer Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, who mentions that the Spanish poet Diego Rivera Martinez, having been to Arequipa, praised the city with the phrase "In Arequipa, eternal spring".
The city was also awarded various distinctions and titles by the Spanish Crown such as its Coat of Arms and the titles of Very Noble and Loyal, Faithful, and the treatment of Excellence.
Most Faithful One aspect that distinguished Arequipa from other areas of Peru and Lima in particular is the explicit public commitment of the city to the Spanish crown and the close following of its directives. This phenomenon was called "fidelism" and had some notable defenders in Francisco de Paula Quiroz, Mariano de Rivero, Nicólas Fernández, and José Miguel de Aubrey. Since its Spanish foundation and over three centuries the city was mostly inhabited by families of Spanish origin. One reason that contributed to maintaining and strengthening fidelism was obviously the prevalence of Spanish people in high society and their representative organizations. Another factor was geographical because given the city's location it was not likely to be influenced by regions with libertarian movements or by areas with large concentrations of indigenous people.
The ruling classes and city leaders were always faithful and loyal to the Spanish crown during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In the eighteenth century, upon the rise of movements and rebellions from the indigenous and mestizo population, Arequipa retained its political balance. During the Tupac Amaru II uprising the city assembled at its own expense a column of troops that helped destroy the siege of the city of La Paz. This earned the city the epithet of "Restorative province of the Collao ». For these services the King Carlos IV also issued a royal decree in the city of San Lorenzo on 5 December 1805 in which he conferred the title and the name of "Most Faithful" to the city.
Excellence The city received a treatment of "excellence" by a royal decree issued in the city of Madrid on 16 November 1818. This distinction was granted following reports submitted by Don Hipólito Unanue, deputy of the province of Arequipa and the Municipality of the city, of Arequipa's involvement in defending the royal cause in the uprising of the city of La Paz in 1809.
Heroic City of the Free In the republican era, a decree issued by General Orbegoso ordered that the department and its capital city be denominated "Department of Law" and "heroic city of the free". General Orbegoso installed his government in Arequipa in 13 January 1835 and, as a consequence, General Felipe Santiago Salaverry named himself Supreme Chief of the Republic with the pretext that the country was leaderless, i.e. without President, as Orbegoso was outside the capital of Lima.
Among the scenarios that the city has for the practice of football we mention Virgen de Chapi Stadium (property of San Agustin National University), Mariano Melgar Stadium, Los Palitos Stadium and Umacollo Stadium.
Association football or Soccer is the most popular sport in Arequipa, with the most popular team being Melgar F.C. This team currently plays in the Peruvian First Division of association football, winning its first national championship in 1981.
Law and Government
Arequipa, as the capital of the province, is governed by the Provincial Municipality of Arequipa that has jurisdiction over the entire territory of the province. The district municipalities within the province also have jurisdiction over matters relating to their own districts.
The city, as the regional capital, is home to the Regional Government of Arequipa. It is also headquarters of the different regional offices of ministries that make up the Civil Government of Peru.
The Provincial Municipality of Arequipa regulates important citywide, metropolitan and provincial issues like urban planning, transport, municipal tax collection, management of road safety (jointly with the local police), the maintenance of public roads and urban greenery, etc. It is also responsible for the construction of municipal facilities such as sports centers, libraries and social services centers.
|1994–1995||Fernando Sebastián Ramírez Alfaro||Neighborhood Unity Front|
|1996–1998||Roger Luis Caceres Peréz||FRENATRACA|
|1999–2002||Juan Manuel Guillen Benavides||Arequipa.Tradition and future|
|2003–2006||Peyson Yamel Romero Peralta||APRA|
|2007–2011||Simon Balbuena Marroquín||PNP|
|2011–2015||Zegarra Alfredo Tejada||Arequipa Reborn|
Seat of the Constitutional Court
The Constitutional Court is the highest authority and control interpretation of the Constitution. It is autonomous and independent of other constitutional bodies. Subject only to the Constitution and the Organic Law. The court has seven judges elected by the Congress with the favorable vote of at least two thirds of the legal number of members for a period of five years.
The city is the "Legal Capital of Peru" and "Official Headquarters of the Constitutional Court", as a result of a project decentralist the first vice presidential candidate, Manuel Seoane Corrales, who proposed the initiative of the city of Arequipa was the headquarters of the Superior Court of Justice, which would make the city was the Legal Capital of Peru. Due to the military coup that began in Peru, the initiative was in the air, to be reborn after the election of the Constituent Assembly in 1978. This time, the initiative did not succeed due to the high opposition, but later concluded that Arequipa would host the then "Constitutional Court", as stated in Article 304 º of the Constitution of Peru, 1979: "The Constitutional Court is based in the city of Arequipa ".
Later, by the Constitution of 1993, created the "Constitutional Court", which, according to its Charter, is based in Arequipa, although under Regulation Regulatory Constitutional Court.
The city is bounded by the district lines that comprise his constituency, the figure for the same population of the city is not adjusted to the total population of the districts that could be partially or fully recitals within the city, as RENIEC entities considered that the city is divided into 15 administrative districts, coordinated by the provincial municipality, which in turn are subdivided into districts, however INEI uses other methodologies for the delimitation of the city.
|5||Yanahuara||11||JL Bustamante y Rivero|
|6||Alto Selva Alegre||12||Mariano Melgar|
Source: National Institute of Statistics and Informatics
The metropolitan area is to head to the city and consists of 19 districts with metropolitan category, extends over a surface of 305,798 acres (123,752 hectares) of which 10,142 acres (4,104 ha) are distinctly urban. A metropolitan level unemployment level reaches the level of 8%, in contrast to 5% unemployment in the city.
Sights and attractions
The Old Town
In its 332 hectares has 5817 properties of which 500 are categorized as heritage properties, generally have been built in the nineteenth century, on the site of earlier colonial buildings destroyed by the earthquake of 1868. The houses, usually made in ashlar, are characterized by semi-circular arches and vaulted ceilings. Ashlar structures always have thick walls: 1 to 1.5 meters for rooms, 2 meters for churches. Through the use of lime mortar, the walls are shown homogeneous image that is reinforced with brick vaults or ashlar that are justified in the rarity of the wood.
In the city itself is a stylistic school called "School Arequipa" of crucial importance in the region and whose influence reached Potosi. This school is characterized by profuse decoration planiform textilográfica and the open spaces and the design and size of their covers, which differ in these aspects of Cuzco and Lima covers.
The architecture in the historic center is characterized by the prominence of ashlar, the use of which begins in the last third of the s. XVI. This volcanic stone, white or pink exceptionally soft, lightweight, and weatherproof, emerged as a seismic structural solution. The ashlar was unable to take the early years, except for the covers of the main church and some houses. The original city was built with adobe, masonry, sticks and straw roofs or mud pie. Houses of this type were made until the nineteenth century and were common in the eighteenth century, some remain in the original district of San Lazaro. Later came the brick and tile houses with tile found in the Monastery of Santa Catalina. The cataclysm of 1582 settled these systems and raised the earthquake reconstruction. Then came the ashlar as prime structural solution.
Major earthquakes which milestones in the formation of Arequipa architecture. You can mention five periods:
- Founding and village (1540–1582),
- Splendor of Baroque (1582–1784),
- Rococo and Neoclassical Reviews (1784–1868),
- Empiricism and modernizing
- Evocations neo colonial (1868–1960) and
In historical existence is accounted for 14 churches or temples, four chapels, five convents and 3 monasteries, among the monuments of this type include:
It is the most important neoclassical ediicio Peru, product reconstruction started in 1844 and finished three years later and led by architect Lucas Poblete. Its interior is faced with trs ships with one of the side walls of the main square which fills a side façade is divided by Corinthian columns.
- Church of the Company
It is the monument maximum Arequipeña School, is one of the most splendid creations of Peruvian Baroque and starting point of this school, in its façade has an inscription inscribed with the year 1698 which shows that the beginning of the eighteenth century this regional art had reached its peak, therein lies a more exaggerated baroque altar.
«Pétrea ciudad adusta. Sólida trabazón de viviendas donde el sillar es símbolo de la psicología colectiva: roca y espuma; dureza y ductilidad. Amalgama de fuego, en que el aliento del volcán funde y anima las piedras y las almas»—José Luis Bustamente y Rivero (President of Perú 1945–1948)
There are 10 buildings that origin were engaged in civic purposes, such as Phoenix theaters. and the Municipal Theatre, the Goyeneche Hospital and the Hospital of Priests of St. Peter, bridges Bolognesi and Grau, the Instituto de la Rosa Chavez, Railway Station, Mercado San Camilo and the Molino de Santa Catalina.
The historic center of Arequipa lacked a wall as we had the city of Lima, they persist despite military monuments as Twentieth Century Prison and Penal Fundo El Fierro women.
Within the historic center there are 246 houses were declared monuments household, this type of construction is characterized by thick walls made solid as drawer, with arches and domes similar to those built in the temples and monasteries religious, giving the same robustness and monumentality to these constructions built from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and generally used for housing.
- Casa del Moral
- Goyeneche Palace
- Tristan del Pozo House
- Casona Ugarte
- House Irribery
- House Arrospide
- Casa del Alferez Flowers
- Casona del Corregidor Maldonado
- Casa del Corregidor April and Maldonado
- Casona Goyeneche
- House of Pastor
- Bronze Tambo
- Tambo of the Loggerhead
- Tambo de Ruelas
Parks and gardens
In the historic center of the city's parks and squares for a total of 26 hectares of green areas that are complemented by 22 acres (9 ha) of countryside within this historic area, between the squares and parks include the following areas:
- Plaza de Armas
- Plaza San Francisco
- Grau Playground
- Biela Park
- Oval Miguel Grau
- Bolognesi Malecón
- Park 28 February
- Parque La Recoleta
- Recoleta park 1
- Recoleta park 2
- Juan Manuel Polar Oval
- Park The Poet
- Benigno Park Ballón Farfán
- Salta Park
- Dante Alighieri Park
- Martinetty Park
- Melgar Park
- South Institute
- San Camilo Plazoleta
- Duhamel Park
- Place 15 August
- Spain Square
- Plaza Santa Teresa
- Plaza Independencia
- Parque San Lazaro
- Park Hotel Libertador
- Selva Alegre Park
- Forest Selva Alegre
- Plaza San Antonio
- Romana Square
- Municipal Nursery
- Selva Alegre Playground
- International Club
Outside this monumental natural areas that stand out are the following:
- Ecological Park of Alto Selva Alegre. is located in the middle of an urban area east of the city, right outside Cayma District and Rio Chili in the territory of the district of Selva Alegre. The park and surrounding areas occupy an area of 1008 hectares of which 460 hectares covering only the ecological park. The back of the park is located in the buffer zone of the National Reserve of Salinas Aguada Blanca.
- Fundo Paradise. is part of the Natural Park of Selva Alegre and occupies an area of 67 hectares
- Chilina Valley countryside. is part of the Natural Park of Selva Alegre and occupies an area of 151 hectares
- Chilpinilla Metropolitan Park. 14 hectares
- Military College Forest Park. 14 hectares.
- Selva Alegre Park. 20 hectares.
- Yanahuara Villa Hermosa, located 2 kilometres (1 mile) from the city, famous for its churches built in Andalusian style alleys which is Yanahuara Monumental Zone Cultural Heritage of the Nation.
- Cayma Villa, 3 miles (5 kilometres) from the centre of town. Place known for its taverns and where there is a beautiful seventeenth-century church. With a viewpoint which affords a beautiful view of Arequipa.
- The thermal baths of Yura, 30 kilometres (19 miles). Its waters come from inside the volcano Chachani. Also, near the city are the medicinal sources of Jesus and Socosani.
- Sabandía natural valley with most crystalline waters in the region. Here is the Sabandía mill was built and in operation since the eighteenth century.
- The farm Sachaca or the Founder's Mansion, is 12 kilometres (7 miles) from the city. Built on the river Socabaya, is a residence that belonged to different owners of historic renown in Peru but became especially known for being one of the family properties princiales Goyeneche. This beautiful piece of architecture is now open to the public.
As the administrative and economic capital of the Arequipa Region, the city has the largest number of both public health centers and private which total 680 establishments. Public health institutions that are present in the city are:
- Hospital Level I: Edmundo Escomel
- Metropolitan Polyclinic
- Hospital Level III: Yanahuara
- Level IV Hospital: National Hospital Carlos Alberto Seguin Escobedo (HNCASE)
- Complex Social Benefits
- Ministry of Health (MOH)
- Regional Hospital Honorio Delgado Espinoza
- Goyeneche Hospital II
- National Institute of Neoplastic Diseases (INEN):
- Regional Institute of Neoplastic Diseases
Metropolitan road network has a structure that supports radiocentric four primary routes or trunks: Army Av, Av Jesus, Av and Av Alcides Carrion Parra and allow the movement of the population from the intermediate and peripheral areas activity centers.
These pathways longitudinal nature are interconnected by bus routes, forming a ring around the central area consists of: Av Venezuela, Lieutenant Ferré, Progress, Av Arequipa, Gomez de la Torre Av, Av La Marina, San Martin, Avenida Salaverry, Mariscal Cáceres, Socabaya Malecon and Avenida Venezuela.
This system is completed with some main roads as Cayma Av, Av Arequipa, Goyeneche Avenue, Kennedy Avenue, Dolores Av, Av Lambramani, flows carrying local roads to bus and vice versa.
In 2011 in the city of Arequipa are registered 182,000 vehicles according to the Superintendency of Public Registries, in the same year the fleet was increased to 64 000 vehicles, of which 12 000 360 were recorded as new units.
Integrated Transport System
A public transport system is under construction in Arequipa. Implemented by the Ministry of Transport and Communications and the Provincial Municipality of Arequipa, the system consists of a network scheme called rationalized based two trunk routes operated transit buses Rapid Transit (BRT) called ArequipaBus interacting with structuring routes and feeder networks.
- Exclusive trunk route or corridor, consisting of two segregated lanes along which articulated buses (BRT), its northern terminus is located in the area of Rio Seco in the district of Cerro Colorado and its southern terminal at Socabaya district.
- Feeder Routes: 43 routes formed by converging on the trunk route, nine of which operate in the northern and southern suburbs of the city and 34 in intermediate areas.
- Structuring routes, comprising 35 routes and according to its characteristics provide a direct service with an origin and destiny.
Arequipa is served by Rodríguez Ballón International Airport located in the district of Cerro Colorado about 12 miles (19 kilometres) northwest of downtown, for its features and facilities is one of the best in the country, from 2011 to through a grant administered by the consortium "Andean South Airports".
In 2011 introduced a passenger flow of 1,025,466 passengers between domestic flights and international and a load flow of 2193 tons in 2010, becoming the second in the southern region in the fluid passenger traffic after Alejandro Velasco Astete International Airport, Cuzco city, and third in the country.
The airport holds daily air connections with the cities of Lima, Cusco, Tacna and Juliaca and international destinations such as Arica, Iquique, Antofagasta and Santiago de Chile, along with regular flights coming to Buenos Aires, Argentina.
In 2011 there are four airlines that offer their services on domestic flights, with a total of 38 daily flights in low season its main destinations and 52 daily flights in high season. The company makes three Sky Airline flights each reguales international destinations (Arica, Iquique, Antofagata, Santiago de Chile) per week, and next to the city of Buenos Aires with Argentine Airlines codeshare.
The railway network system has been operating in Arequipa since 1871, enables communication between the coast and the mountains and different levels of progress and expansion of population centers located in its path. The system consists of the lines: Cusco-Puno-Arequipa and Arequipa-Mollendo. Is of great strategic importance in a multimodal communication system in the southern macro region, since it is the most effective and economical way to transport heavy loads over long distances.
The International Terrapuerto Arequipa is located in the district of James Hunter from which the city and the region of Arequipa is connected by land throughout Peru and La Paz, Santiago de Chile, Mendoza and Buenos Aires.
Apart from having the International Bus Station Bus Terminal has the Arequipa regional usage and services towards the mountains and the coast. In the city of Arequipa interregional routes exist, consisting Uchumayo variant that serves as the connection with the coast, out to Yura that serves as a connection to the Sierra and the departure of Jesus which connects to the highlands of Arequipa and Chiguata area.
Twin towns – Sister cities
- Charlotte (North Carolina, USA) (since 1963)
- Maui (Hawaii, USA. UU.)
- Corrientes (Corrientes, Argentina), (since 1992)
- Arica (Chile) (since 2005)
- Iquique (Chile)
- Guangzhou (China) (since 2004)
- Zibo (China)
- São Paulo (São Paulo, Brazil)
- Ponta Grossa (Brazil)
- Lins (São Paulo, Brazil)
- The Tocuyo (Venezuela)
- Biella (Italy), (1979)
- Florence (Italy), (since 2008)
- La Paz (Bolivia), (since 1989)
- Cochabamba (Bolivia)
- Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada)
- Monterrey (Nuevo León, Mexico), since 2006
- Puebla (Puebla, Mexico), since 2006
- Morelia (Michoacan, Mexico)
- Guanajuato (Guanajuato, Mexico) (since 2004)
- Historic centre of Arequipa
- Arequipa Region
- Rodriguez Ballon International Airport
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- Municipalidad Provincial de Arequipa. "Rutas de l Sistema Integrado de Transportes". Arequipa Bus. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- "Obras del SIT inician en noviembre próximo". La República. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- Mincetur. "Export Investment Guide", p. 26.
- Airport Concession South Andean
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- *"Charlotte – Arequipa". Charlotte, United States. 2004. Retrieved 9 April 2008.
- "Ciudades hermanadas" (PDF). Hawaii Government. Retrieved 26 July 2009.
- "Estudiantes de Universidad de San Agustín de Arequipa saludaron a alcaldesa". Municipio de Iquique. Archived from the original on 8 May 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
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- Patto di amicizia against the Arequipa and the Città di Città di Firenze [Florence – Arequipa]
- Avventure nel Mondo – Centro di Documentazione
- Sister cities, Vancouver
- "Ciudades hermanadas" (PDF). Ayuntamiento de Guanajuato (in Spanish). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
- «Se dispusieron las calles a cordel perpendicularmente, formando islas o manzanas en número de 56, es decir, un auténtico damero, que se conserva hasta nuestros días con muy pocas variantes.»
- «La anchura de las calles fue de treinta pies y el largo de cada cuadra de 250 pies. La Planta primitiva fue luego alterada al fundarse los conventos y monasterios que requirieron dos manzanas algunos de ellos: Es entonces cuando recién aparecen las pequeñas plazas. Efectuada la distribución de solares por vecinos, estos no edificaron de inmediato, los Bandos del Cabildo son reiterativos para que edificaran sus viviendas.»
- «El departamento de Arequipa está ubicado en la zona sur occidental del Perú. Tiene una población de 1 140 810 habitantes, distribuida en 8 provincias y 109 distritos ubicados en una superficie de 63 345.39 km2. El 82 % de la población vive en poblados de más de 2000 habitantes, considerados como población urbana y el 84 % vive en la sierra. La provincia de Arequipa concentra el 75,5 % de la población total de la región y la ciudad de Arequipa, capital del departamento, concentra el 70 % de la población total, y el 90 % de la población urbana.»
- «Se ha considerado a la población del partido del "Cercado", que puede ser más amplia que la de la ciudad propiamente dicha, pero puede servirnos de referencia.»
- «La ciudad de Arequipa está compuesta por los distritos de Arequipa, Miraflores y Palomar.»
- «Buen ejemplo del neoarequipeño es el edificio del Diario de la Nación de Buenos Aires en la calle Florida, obra del Arq. Pirovano.»
- Arellano, Fernando (1988). Universidad Católica Andrés, ed. El Arte Hispanoamericano (in Spanish). ISBN 9789802440177. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- Barriga, Víctor M. (1940). editor La Colmena, S.A., ed. Arequipa y sus blasones (in Spanish).
- Benavides Rodríguez, Alfredo (1990). Andrés Bello, ed. La arquitectura en el virreinato del Perú y en la capitanía general de Chile (in Spanish) (ilustrada ed.). p. 282.
- Bethell, Leslie (1991). Cambridge University Press, ed. The Cambridge History of Latin America: Latin America since 1930 (ilustrada ed.). p. 919. ISBN 9780521266529.
- Carricaburo, Norma (1997). Arcos Libros S.L., ed. Las fórmulas de tratamiento en el spanish actual (PDF) (in Spanish). ISBN 847635278-6.
- Chanfreau, Marie-Françoise (1995). M. IFEA: Instituto fránces de estudios andinos, ed. La vivienda en los pueblos jóvenes de Arequipa y Trujillo: creación de una nueva tipologçia regional (PDF) (in Spanish).
- Contreras, Carlos (2004). Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, ed. El aprendizaje del capitalismo:Estudios de historia económica y social del Perú republicano. p. 332. ISBN 9789972510977. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- Congreso de irrigación y colonización del norte (1929). Imprenta Torres Aguirre, ed. Anales del primer Congreso de irrigación y colonización del norte: 19–24 February 1929, Lambayeque, República del Perú. p. 270. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- Cornejo Bouroncle, Jorge (1952). H.G. Rozas, ed. Arequipa: homenaje y recuerdo. p. 35. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- Cuneo Vidal, Rómulo (1931). Sociedad Geográfica de Lima, ed. Boletín de la Sociedad Geográfica de Lima (in Spanish).
- Dávalos y Lissón, Pedro (1863). Librería e Imprenta Gil, ed. La primera centuria : causas geográficas, políticas y económicas que han detenido el progreso moral y material del Perú en el primer siglo de su vida independiente. Tomo II (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional del Perú. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- de la Riva Agüero, José (1858). Librería de Garnier Hermanos, ed. Memorias y documentos para la historia de la independencia del Perú. Librería de la Universidad de Míchigan. p. 304. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- Dirección de Estadística (1878). Ministerio de Gobierno, Imprenta del Estado, ed. Resumen General de Censo General de habitantes del Perú de 1876 (in Spanish).
- Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas, ed. (1944). "Relación de los censos parciales levantados en el Perú después del censo general de 1876". Censo de población y ocupación de 1940. Instituto Nacional de Estadística.
- Galdós Rodríguez, Guillermo (1997). Universidad Nacional de San Agustín, ed. Una ciudad para la historia, una historia para la ciudad: Arequipa en el siglo XX (in Spanish). p. 391.
- Garayar, Carlos (2004). Ediciones Peisa, ed. Atlas Regional: Arequipa (in Spanish). ISBN 9972-40-315-7.
- Gutiérrez, Ramón (1994). Evolución histórica urbana de Arequipa Metropolitana 1540–1990 (ilustrada ed.). p. 249. ISBN 9788489034013.
- Linares Málaga, Eloy (1990). Pre historia de Arequipa (in Spanish). Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Love, Thomas (1995). Departament of Sociology/Anthropology of Linfield College – McMinnville, Oregon, ed. Cash Cows and Fighting Bulls:Redefining Identity, Maintaining Control in Southwestern Perú (PDF).
- Mc Evoy, Carmen (1997). Fondo editor PUCP, ed. La utopía republicana: ideales y realidad en la formación de la Cultura Política Peruana, 1871–1919 (in Spanish). p. 467. ISBN 9972420620. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
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- Monguió, Luis (1967). "Don José Joaquín de la Mora y el Perú de mil ochocientos". In University of California Press. Don José Joaquín de Mora: apuntes biográficos (in Spanish). p. 268. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
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- Nuñez Pacheco, Rosa; Torres Santillana, Gregorio (1991). "Polifonía del silencio, la literatura arequipeña en los últimos diez years". In Promolibro. El author de creación literaria de la Macroregión Sur (in Spanish).
- Palma, Ricardo (1893). Barcelona, Montaner y Simón, ed. Tradiciones peruanas (in Spanish) III. pp. 1–252. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Ponce, Fernando (1960). Retablo de papel, ed. La ciudad en el Perú. Arequipa. p. 53.
- Pardo y Aliaga, Felipe (2007). Fondo editor PUCP, ed. Teatro completo: Crítica teatral; el Espejo de mi tierra (in Spanish). p. 34.
- Zátonyi, Marta (2006). Ediciones Infinito, ed. Gozar el arte, gozar la arquitectura (in Spanish) (ilustrada ed.). p. 292. ISBN 9789879393406.
- Asamblea Nacional de Rectores (2012). ANR, ed. "Datos Estadísticos Universitarios" (in Spanish). II Censo Nacional Universitario. p. 21. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Cáceres-Péfaur, Beatriz (2006). "La visita de Simón Bolívar a la ciudad de Arequipa (Perú). Visión de la historiografía local contemporánea." (PDF) (in Spanish) (11). Presente y Pasado, Revista de Historia. pp. 124–140. ISSN 1316-1369. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Coaguila Valdivia, Jaime Francisco (2010). "Recetario para una construcción relacional de la identidad arequipeña" (PDF) (in Spanish). Jueces, abogados y "escribanos". Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Consejo Nacional de Ambiente. Consejo Nacional del Ambiente, ed. "Gesta Zonal de Aire, Arequipa" (PDF) (in Spanish). Plan a limpiar el aire. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Cornejo Velásquez, Hernán (2006). Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, ed. "El simbolismo de la comida arequipeña" (PDF) (in Spanish) 17. Lima: Investigaciones Sociales. pp. 41–65. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Cotler, Julio (2009). Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el desarrollo, Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, ed. "Poder y cambio en las regiones" (PDF) (in Spanish) (15). Serie Desarrollo Humano. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Empresa de Generación del Energía Eléctrica S.A (EGASA) (2003). "En agosto Arequipa está de fiesta". Egasin Nº2 (16).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arequipa.|
- García de los Reyes Arquitectos y Asociados (2012a). Municipalidad Provincial de Arequipa, ed. "Diagnóstico propositivo para el Plan de Desarrollo Metropolitano de Arequipa". Memoria Síntesis. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- García de los Reyes Arquitectos y Asociados (2012b). Municipalidad Provincial de Arequipa, ed. "Plan de Desarrollo Metropolitano de Arequipa". Memoria Síntesis. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Guajardo Castro, Alejandro (2009). "Aspectos morfosintácticos del habla loncca en la campiña arequipeña" (PDF). Maestría de Lingüística de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (in Spanish).
- Guillemette, Martín (2010). Institut des Hautes Etudes de l'Amérique Latine, ed. "La revolución mexicana y sus impactos en América Latina: una propuesta de análisis a nivel local. El caso de Arequipa, Perú" (in Spanish). México y sus revoluciones (XIII Reunión de historiadores de México, Estados Unidos y Canadá).
- Grup, Franz (2010). Instituto Nacional de Cultura, ed. "Gaceta Cultural del Perú" (PDF) (in Spanish).
- López de Romaña, Flavia (2006). Instituto Nacional de Cultura, ed. "Casos de Gestión Cultural en el Perú" (PDF) (in Spanish).
- Mincetur (Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism). Proexpansión, ed. "Arequipa, Export Investment Guide" (PDF). p. 98. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Municipalidad Provincial de Arequipa; Superintendencia del Centro Histórico y Zona Monumental (30 November 2000). "Historical Center of the City of Arequipa, Compendio Normativo" (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 August 2009.
- Municipalidad Provincial de Arequipa (2002). "Diagnostico del Centro Histórico de Arequipa". Plan Maestro del Centro Histórico de Arequipa (in Spanish). p. 73.[dead link]
- Robles, Elmer (2006). "Origen de las universidades más antiguas de Perú" (PDF) (in Spanish) 8 (1). Revista Historia de la Educación Latinoamericana. pp. 35–48. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Municipality of Arequipa
- Arequipa Region
- Arequipa travel guide from Wikivoyage
- General facts and travel information about Arequipa
- Travel Information about Arequipa
- Local government of Arequipa
- Peru Cultural Society – Arequipa