República Argentina (Spanish)
|Sol de Mayo|
(Sun of May)
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages|
|Government||Federal presidential constitutional republic|
|Cristina Fernández de Kirchner|
|Juan Luis Manzur|
|Chamber of Deputies|
|25 May 1810|
|9 July 1816|
|1 May 1853|
|2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi)[B] (8th)|
• Water (%)
• 2021 estimate
• 2010 census
|14.4/km2 (37.3/sq mi) (214th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
|$1.033 trillion (26th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
|$444.458 billion (25th)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2020)|| 42.9|
|HDI (2019)|| 0.845|
very high · 46th
|Currency||Argentine peso ($) (ARS)|
|Time zone||UTC−3 (ART)|
|Date format||dd.mm.yyyy (CE)|
|ISO 3166 code||AR|
Argentina (Spanish pronunciation: [aɾxenˈtina] (listen)), officially the Argentine Republic[A] (Spanish: República Argentina), is a country in the southern half of South America. Argentina covers an area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi),[B] making it the largest Spanish-speaking nation in the world by area. It is the second-largest country in South America after Brazil, the fourth-largest country in the Americas, and the eighth-largest country in the world. It shares the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, and is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. Argentina is a federal state subdivided into twenty-three provinces, and one autonomous city, which is the federal capital and largest city of the nation, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over a part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
The earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times. The country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century. Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence (1810–1818) was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation. The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration, mainly Italians and Spaniards, radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook; over 60% of the population has full or partial Italian ancestry, and Argentine culture has significant connections to Italian culture.
The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh-wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. In 1896, Argentina's GDP per capita surpassed that of the United States and was consistently in the top ten before at least 1920. Currently, it is ranked 71st in the world. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, although it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow and vice president, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, before being overthrown in 1976. The following military junta persecuted and murdered thousands of political critics, activists, and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism and civil unrest that lasted over until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as president in 1983.
Argentina is a developing country that ranks very high in the Human Development Index, the second-highest in Latin America after Chile. It is a regional power, and retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. It maintains the second-largest economy in South America, and is a member of G-15 and G20. Argentina is also a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Mercosur, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States.
Name and etymology
In English, the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language; however, the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina (masculine argentino) means in Italian "(made) of silver, silver coloured", derived from the Latin "argentum" for silver. In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is often used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina.
The name Argentina was probably first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are respectively plata and prata and "(made) of silver" is plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina,[C] a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was already in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, and "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence.
The 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was also commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", and that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as legally valid.[D]
In English, the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and perhaps resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name 'Argentine Republic'. 'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, and now the country is simply referred to as "Argentina".
The earliest traces of human life in the area now known as Argentina are dated from the Paleolithic period, with further traces in the Mesolithic and Neolithic. Until the period of European colonization, Argentina was relatively sparsely populated by a wide number of diverse cultures with different social organizations, which can be divided into three main groups. The first group are basic hunters and food gatherers without development of pottery, such as the Selknam and Yaghan in the extreme south. The second group are advanced hunters and food gatherers which include the Puelche, Querandí and Serranos in the centre-east; and the Tehuelche in the south—all of them conquered by the Mapuche spreading from Chile—and the Kom and Wichi in the north. The last group are farmers with pottery, like the Charrúa, Minuane and Guaraní in the northeast, with slash and burn semisedentary existence; the advanced Diaguita sedentary trading culture in the northwest, which was conquered by the Inca Empire around 1480; the Toconoté and Hênîa and Kâmîare in the country's centre, and the Huarpe in the centre-west, a culture that raised llama cattle and was strongly influenced by the Incas.
Europeans first arrived in the region with the 1502 voyage of Amerigo Vespucci. The Spanish navigators Juan Díaz de Solís and Sebastian Cabot visited the territory that is now Argentina in 1516 and 1526, respectively. In 1536 Pedro de Mendoza founded the small settlement of Buenos Aires, which was abandoned in 1541.
Further colonization efforts came from Paraguay—establishing the Governorate of the Río de la Plata—Peru and Chile. Francisco de Aguirre founded Santiago del Estero in 1553. Londres was founded in 1558; Mendoza, in 1561; San Juan, in 1562; San Miguel de Tucumán, in 1565. Juan de Garay founded Santa Fe in 1573 and the same year Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera set up Córdoba. Garay went further south to re-found Buenos Aires in 1580. San Luis was established in 1596.
The Spanish Empire subordinated the economic potential of the Argentine territory to the immediate wealth of the silver and gold mines in Bolivia and Peru, and as such it became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru until the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776 with Buenos Aires as its capital.
Buenos Aires repelled two ill-fated British invasions in 1806 and 1807. The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and the example of the first Atlantic Revolutions generated criticism of the absolutist monarchy that ruled the country. As in the rest of Spanish America, the overthrow of Ferdinand VII during the Peninsular War created great concern.
Independence and civil wars
Beginning a process from which Argentina was to emerge as successor state to the Viceroyalty, the 1810 May Revolution replaced the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros with the First Junta, a new government in Buenos Aires composed by locals. In the first clashes of the Independence War the Junta crushed a royalist counter-revolution in Córdoba, but failed to overcome those of the Banda Oriental, Upper Peru and Paraguay, which later became independent states. The French-Argentine Hippolyte Bouchard then brought his fleet to wage war against Spain overseas and attacked Spanish California, Spanish Chile, Spanish Peru and Spanish Philippines. He secured the allegiance of escaped Filipinos in San Blas who defected from the Spanish to join the Argentine navy, due to common Argentine and Philippine grievances against Spanish colonization. At a later date, the Argentine Sun of May was adopted as a symbol by the Filipinos in the Philippine Revolution against Spain. He also secured the diplomatic recognition of Argentina from King Kamehameha I of the Kingdom of Hawaii. Historian Pacho O'Donnell affirms that Hawaii was the first state that recognized Argentina's independence.
Revolutionaries split into two antagonist groups: the Centralists and the Federalists—a move that would define Argentina's first decades of independence. The Assembly of the Year XIII appointed Gervasio Antonio de Posadas as Argentina's first Supreme Director.
On 9 July 1816, the Congress of Tucumán formalized the Declaration of Independence, which is now celebrated as Independence Day, a national holiday. One year later General Martín Miguel de Güemes stopped royalists on the north, and General José de San Martín took an army across the Andes and secured the independence of Chile; then he led the fight to the Spanish stronghold of Lima and proclaimed the independence of Peru.[E] In 1819 Buenos Aires enacted a centralist constitution that was soon abrogated by federalists.
An interesting fact is that some of the most important figures of Argentinean independence made a proposal known as the Inca plan of 1816, it proposed that United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (Present Argentina) should be a monarchy, led by a descendant of the Inca. Juan Bautista Túpac Amaru (half-brother of Túpac Amaru II) was proposed as monarch. Some examples of those who supported this proposal were Manuel Belgrano, José de San Martín and Martín Miguel de Güemes. The Congress of Tucumán finally decided to reject the Inca's plan, creating instead a republican, centralist state.
The 1820 Battle of Cepeda, fought between the Centralists and the Federalists, resulted in the end of the Supreme Director rule. In 1826 Buenos Aires enacted another centralist constitution, with Bernardino Rivadavia being appointed as the first president of the country. However, the interior provinces soon rose against him, forced his resignation and discarded the constitution. Centralists and Federalists resumed the civil war; the latter prevailed and formed the Argentine Confederation in 1831, led by Juan Manuel de Rosas. During his regime he faced a French blockade (1838–1840), the War of the Confederation (1836–1839), and a combined Anglo-French blockade (1845–1850), but remained undefeated and prevented further loss of national territory. His trade restriction policies, however, angered the interior provinces and in 1852 Justo José de Urquiza, another powerful caudillo, beat him out of power. As new president of the Confederation, Urquiza enacted the liberal and federal 1853 Constitution. Buenos Aires seceded but was forced back into the Confederation after being defeated in the 1859 Battle of Cepeda.
Rise of the modern nation
Overpowering Urquiza in the 1861 Battle of Pavón, Bartolomé Mitre secured Buenos Aires predominance and was elected as the first president of the reunified country. He was followed by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento and Nicolás Avellaneda; these three presidencies set up the bases of the modern Argentine State.
Starting with Julio Argentino Roca in 1880, ten consecutive federal governments emphasized liberal economic policies. The massive wave of European immigration they promoted—second only to the United States'—led to a near-reinvention of Argentine society and economy that by 1908 had placed the country as the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world. Driven by this immigration wave and decreasing mortality, the Argentine population grew fivefold and the economy 15-fold: from 1870 to 1910 Argentina's wheat exports went from 100,000 to 2,500,000 t (110,000 to 2,760,000 short tons) per year, while frozen beef exports increased from 25,000 to 365,000 t (28,000 to 402,000 short tons) per year, placing Argentina as one of the world's top five exporters. Its railway mileage rose from 503 to 31,104 km (313 to 19,327 mi). Fostered by a new public, compulsory, free and secular education system, literacy quickly increased from 22% to 65%, a level higher than most Latin American nations would reach even fifty years later. Furthermore, real GDP grew so fast that despite the huge immigration influx, per capita income between 1862 and 1920 went from 67% of developed country levels to 100%: In 1865, Argentina was already one of the top 25 nations by per capita income. By 1908, it had surpassed Denmark, Canada and the Netherlands to reach 7th place—behind Switzerland, New Zealand, Australia, the United States, the United Kingdom and Belgium. Argentina's per capita income was 70% higher than Italy's, 90% higher than Spain's, 180% higher than Japan's and 400% higher than Brazil's. Despite these unique achievements, the country was slow to meet its original goals of industrialization: after steep development of capital-intensive local industries in the 1920s, a significant part of the manufacture sector remained labour-intensive in the 1930s.
Between 1878 and 1884 the so-called Conquest of the Desert occurred, with the purpose of giving by means of the constant confrontations between natives and Criollos in the border, and the appropriation of the indigenous territories, tripling the Argentine territory. The first conquest, consisted of a series of military incursions into the Pampa and Patagonian territories dominated by the indigenous peoples, distributing them among the members of the Sociedad Rural Argentina, financiers of the expeditions. The conquest of Chaco lasted up to the end of the century, since its full ownership of the national economic system only took place when the mere extraction of wood and tannin was replaced by the production of cotton. The Argentine government considered indigenous people as inferior beings, without the same rights as Criollos and Europeans.
In 1912, President Roque Sáenz Peña enacted universal and secret male suffrage, which allowed Hipólito Yrigoyen, leader of the Radical Civic Union (or UCR), to win the 1916 election. He enacted social and economic reforms and extended assistance to small farms and businesses. Argentina stayed neutral during World War I. The second administration of Yrigoyen faced an economic crisis, precipitated by the Great Depression.
In 1930, Yrigoyen was ousted from power by the military led by José Félix Uriburu. Although Argentina remained among the fifteen richest countries until mid-century, this coup d'état marks the start of the steady economic and social decline that pushed the country back into underdevelopment.
Uriburu ruled for two years; then Agustín Pedro Justo was elected in a fraudulent election, and signed a controversial treaty with the United Kingdom. Argentina stayed neutral during World War II, a decision that had full British support but was rejected by the United States after the attack on Pearl Harbor. In 1943 a military coup d'état, lead by General Arturo Rawson toppled the democratically elected government of Ramón Castillo. Under pressure from the United States, later Argentina declared war on the Axis Powers (on 27 March 1945, roughly a month before the end of World War II in Europe).
During Rawson dictatorship a relatively unknown military colonel named Juan Domingo Perón was named head of the Labour Department. Perón quickly managed climb the political ladder, being named Ministry of Defence by 1944. Being perceived as a political threat by rivals faction in the military and the conservative camp he was forced to resign in 1945 and was arrested days later. He was later released under mounting pressure from both his base and several allied unions. He would later become president after a landslide victory over the UCR in the 1946 general election as the laborist candidate.
The Labour Party later renamed Justicialist Party, the most powerful and influential party in Argentine history, came into power with the rise of Juan Domingo Perón to the presidency in 1946. He nationalized strategic industries and services, improved wages and working conditions, paid the full external debt and claimed he achieved nearly full employment. He pushed Congress to enact women's suffrage in 1947, and developed a system of social assistance for the most vulnerable sectors of society. The economy began to decline in 1950 due in part to government expenditures and the protectionist economic policies.
He also engaged in a campaign of political suppression. Anyone who was perceived to be a political dissident or potential rival were subject to threats, physical violence and harassment. The Argentine intelligentsia, the middle-class, university students, and professors were seen as particularly troublesome. Perón fired over 2,000 university professors and faculty members from all major public education institutions.
Perón tried to bring under his thumb most trade and labour unions, regularly resorting to violence when needed. For instance, the meat-packers union leader, Cipriano Reyes, organised strikes in protest against the government after elected labour movement officials were forcefully replaced by Peronist puppets from the Peronist Party. Reyes was soon arrested on charges of terrorism, though the allegations were never substantiated. Reyes was tortured in prison for five years and was only released after the regime's downfall in 1955 without any formal charges.
Perón managed to get reelected in 1951. Eva Perón, his wife who played a critical role in the party, died of cancer in 1952. As the economy continued to tank, Perón started losing popular support. Seen as a threat to the national process and taking advantage of Perón's withering political power, the Navy bombed the Plaza de Mayo in 1955. Perón survived the attack but a few months later, during the Liberating Revolution coup, was deposed and went into exile in Spain.
The new head of State, Pedro Eugenio Aramburu, proscribed Peronism and banned the party from any future elections. Arturo Frondizi from the UCR won the 1958 general election. He encouraged investment to achieve energetic and industrial self-sufficiency, reversed a chronic trade deficit and lifted the ban on Peronism; yet his efforts to stay on good terms with both the Peronists and the military earned him the rejection of both and a new coup forced him out. Amidst the political turmoil, Senate leader José María Guido reacted swiftly and applied anti-power vacuum legislation, ascending to the presidency himself; elections were repealed and Peronism was prohibited once again. Arturo Illia was elected in 1963 and led an increase in prosperity across the board; however he was overthrown in 1966 by another military coup d'état led by General Juan Carlos Onganía in the self-proclaimed Argentine Revolution, creating a new military government that sought to rule indefinitely.
Perón's return and death
Following several years of military rule, Alejandro Agustín Lanusse was appointed president by the military junta in 1971. Under increasing political pressure for the return of democracy, Lanusse called for elections in 1973. Perón was banned from running but the Peronist party was allowed to participate. The presidential elections were won by Hector Cámpora, Perón's surrogate candidate. Dr. Héctor Cámpora, a left-wing Peronist, took office on 25 May 1973, and a month later in June, Perón had returned from Spain. One of Cámpora's first presidential actions was the granting of amnesty to members of terrorist organizations who had carried out political assassinations and terrorist attacks, and who had been tried and sentenced to prison by judges. Cámpora's months-long tenure in government was beset by political and social unrest. Over 600 social conflicts, strikes, and factory occupations took place within a single month. Even though far-left terrorist organisations had suspended their armed struggle, their joining with the participatory democracy process was interpreted as a direct threat by the Peronist right-wing faction.
In a state of political, social, and economic upheaval, Cámpora and Vice President Vicente Solano Lima resigned in July 1973, calling for new elections, but this time with Perón as the Justicialist Party nominee. Perón won the election with his wife Isabel Perón as vice president. Perón's third term was marked by the escalating conflict between left and right-wing factions within the Peronist party, as well as the return of armed terror guerrilla groups like the Guevarist ERP, leftist Peronist Montoneros, and the state-backed far-right Triple A. After a series of heart attacks and with signs of pneumonia in 1974, Perón's health deteriorated quickly. Perón suffered a final heart attack on Monday, 1 July 1974, and died at 13:15. He was 78 years old. After his death, Isabel Perón, his wife and Vice President, came into office.
Isabel, born María Estela Martínez Cartas, a grade school drop-out and a former nightclub dancer, proved to be a thoroughly incompetent and weak president. During her presidency, a military junta along with the Peronists' far-right fascist faction became once again the de facto head of state. She served as President of Argentina from 1974 until 1976 when she was ousted by the military. Her short presidency was marked by the collapse of Argentine political and social systems and led to a constitutional crisis paving the way for a decade of instability, left-wing terrorist guerrilla attacks, and state-sponsored terrorism.
National Reorganization Process
The "Dirty War" (Spanish: Guerra Sucia) was part of Operation Condor, which included the participation of other right-wing dictatorships in the Southern Cone. The Dirty War involved state terrorism in Argentina and elsewhere in the Southern Cone against political dissidents, with military and security forces employing urban and rural violence against left-wing guerrillas, political dissidents, and anyone believed to be associated with socialism or somehow contrary to the neoliberal economic policies of the regime. Victims of the violence in Argentina alone included an estimated 15,000 to 30,000 left-wing activists and militants, including trade unionists, students, journalists, Marxists, Peronist guerrillas, and alleged sympathizers. Most of the victims were casualties of state terrorism. The opposing guerrillas' victims numbered nearly 500–540 military and police officials and up to 230 civilians. Argentina received technical support and military aid from the United States government during the Johnson, Nixon, Ford, Carter, and Reagan administrations.
The exact chronology of the repression is still debated, yet the roots of the long political war may have started in 1969 when trade unionists were targeted for assassination by Peronist and Marxist paramilitaries. Individual cases of state-sponsored terrorism against Peronism and the left can be traced back even further to the Bombing of Plaza de Mayo in 1955. The Trelew massacre of 1972, the actions of the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance commencing in 1973, and Isabel Martínez de Perón's "annihilation decrees" against left-wing guerrillas during Operativo Independencia (Operation Independence) in 1975, are also possible events signaling the beginning of the Dirty War.
Onganía shut down Congress, banned all political parties, and dismantled student and worker unions. In 1969, popular discontent led to two massive protests: the Cordobazo and the Rosariazo. The terrorist guerrilla organization Montoneros kidnapped and executed Aramburu. The newly chosen head of government, Alejandro Agustín Lanusse, seeking to ease the growing political pressure, allowed Héctor José Cámpora to become the Peronist candidate instead of Perón. Cámpora won the March 1973 election, issued pardons for condemned guerrilla members, and then secured Perón's return from his exile in Spain.
On the day Perón returned to Argentina, the clash between Peronist internal factions—right-wing union leaders and left-wing youth from the Montoneros—resulted in the Ezeiza Massacre. Overwhelmed by political violence, Cámpora resigned and Perón won the following September 1973 election with his third wife Isabel as vice-president. He expelled Montoneros from the party and they became once again a clandestine organization. José López Rega organized the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance (AAA) to fight against them and the People's Revolutionary Army (ERP). Perón died in July 1974 and was succeeded by his wife, who signed a secret decree empowering the military and the police to "annihilate" the left-wing subversion, stopping ERP's attempt to start a rural insurgence in Tucumán province. Isabel Perón was ousted one year later by a junta of the combined armed forces, led by army general Jorge Rafael Videla. They initiated the National Reorganization Process, often shortened to Proceso.
The Proceso shut down Congress, removed the judges on the Supreme Court, banned political parties and unions, and resorted to employing the forced disappearance of suspected guerrilla members including individuals suspected to be associated with the left-wing. By the end of 1976, the Montoneros had lost nearly 2,000 members and by 1977, the ERP was completely subdued. Nevertheless, the severely weakened Montoneros launched a counterattack in 1979, which was quickly put down, effectively ending the guerrilla threat and securing the junta's position in power.
In 1982, the head of state, General Leopoldo Galtieri, authorised the invasion of the British territories of South Georgia and, on 2 April, of the Falkland Islands. The occupation provoked a military response from the United Kingdom leading to the Falklands War. Argentine forces were defeated and surrendered to British troops on 14 June. Street riots in Buenos Aires followed the defeat and the military leadership responsible for the humiliation withdrew. Reynaldo Bignone replaced Galtieri and began to organize the transition to democratic governance.
Return to democracy
Raúl Alfonsín won the 1983 elections campaigning for the prosecution of those responsible for human rights violations during the Proceso: the Trial of the Juntas and other martial courts sentenced all the coup's leaders but, under military pressure, he also enacted the Full Stop and Due Obedience laws, which halted prosecutions further down the chain of command. The worsening economic crisis and hyperinflation reduced his popular support and the Peronist Carlos Menem won the 1989 election. Soon after, riots forced Alfonsín to an early resignation.
Menem embraced and enacted neoliberal policies: a fixed exchange rate, business deregulation, privatizations, and the dismantling of protectionist barriers normalized the economy in the short term. He pardoned the officers who had been sentenced during Alfonsín's government. The 1994 Constitutional Amendment allowed Menem to be elected for a second term. With the economy beginning to decline in 1995, and with increasing unemployment and recession, the UCR, led by Fernando de la Rúa, returned to the presidency in the 1999 elections.
De la Rúa left in effect Menem's economic plan despite the worsening crisis, which led to growing social discontent. Massive capital flight from the country was responded to with a freezing of bank accounts, generating further turmoil. The December 2001 riots forced him to resign. Congress appointed Eduardo Duhalde as acting president, who revoked the fixed exchange rate established by Menem, causing many working- and middle-class Argentines to lose a significant portion of their savings. By late 2002, the economic crisis began to recede, but the assassination of two piqueteros by the police caused political unrest, prompting Duhalde to move elections forward. Néstor Kirchner was elected as the new president.
Boosting the neo-Keynesian economic policies laid by Duhalde, Kirchner ended the economic crisis attaining significant fiscal and trade surpluses, and rapid GDP growth. Under his administration, Argentina restructured its defaulted debt with an unprecedented discount of about 70% on most bonds, paid off debts with the International Monetary Fund, purged the military of officers with dubious human rights records, nullified and voided the Full Stop and Due Obedience laws,[F] ruled them as unconstitutional, and resumed legal prosecution of the Junta's crimes. He did not run for reelection, promoting instead the candidacy of his wife, senator Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who was elected in 2007 and subsequently reelected in 2011. Fernández de Kirchner's administration established positive foreign relations with countries with questionable human rights records, including Venezuela, Iran, and Cuba, while at the same time relations with the United States and United Kingdom became increasingly strained. By 2015, the Argentine GDP grew by 2.7% and real incomes had risen over 50% since the post-Menem era. Despite these economic gains and increased renewable energy production and subsidies, the overall economy had been sluggish since 2011.
On 22 November 2015, after a tie in the first round of presidential elections on 25 October, center-right coalition candidate Mauricio Macri won the first ballotage in Argentina's history, beating Front for Victory candidate Daniel Scioli and becoming president-elect. Macri was the first democratically elected non-peronist president since 1916 that managed to complete his term in office without being overthrown. He took office on 10 December 2015 and inherited an economy with a high inflation rate and in a poor shape. In April 2016, the Macri Government introduced neoliberal austerity measures intended to tackle inflation and overblown public deficits. Under Macri's administration, economic recovery remained elusive with GDP shrinking 3.4%, inflation totaling 240%, billions of US dollars issued in sovereign debt, and mass poverty increasing by the end of his term. He ran for re-election in 2019 but lost by nearly eight percentage points to Alberto Fernández, the Justicialist Party candidate.
President Alberto Fernández and Vice President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner took office in December 2019, just months before the COVID-19 pandemic hit Argentina and among accusations of corruption, bribery and misuse of public funds during Nestor and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner's presidencies. On 14 November 2021, the center-left coalition of Argentina's ruling Peronist party, Frente de Todos (Front for Everyone), lost its majority in Congress, for the first time in almost 40 years, in midterm legislative elections. The election victory of the center-right coalition, Juntos por el Cambio (Together for Change), meant a tough final two years in office for President Alberto Fernandez. Losing control of the Senate made it difficult for him to make key appointments, including to the judiciary. It also forced him to negotiate with the opposition every initiative he sends to the legislature. 
With a mainland surface area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,518 sq mi),[B] Argentina is located in southern South America, sharing land borders with Chile across the Andes to the west; Bolivia and Paraguay to the north; Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east; and the Drake Passage to the south; for an overall land border length of 9,376 km (5,826 mi). Its coastal border over the Río de la Plata and South Atlantic Ocean is 5,117 km (3,180 mi) long.
Argentina's highest point is Aconcagua in the Mendoza province (6,959 m (22,831 ft) above sea level), also the highest point in the Southern and Western Hemispheres. The lowest point is Laguna del Carbón in the San Julián Great Depression Santa Cruz province (−105 m (−344 ft) below sea level, also the lowest point in the Southern and Western Hemispheres, and the seventh lowest point on Earth)
The northernmost point is at the confluence of the Grande de San Juan and Río Mojinete rivers in Jujuy province; the southernmost is Cape San Pío in Tierra del Fuego province; the easternmost is northeast of Bernardo de Irigoyen, Misiones and the westernmost is within Los Glaciares National Park in Santa Cruz province. The maximum north–south distance is 3,694 km (2,295 mi), while the maximum east–west one is 1,423 km (884 mi).
Some of the major rivers are the Paraná, Uruguay—which join to form the Río de la Plata, Paraguay, Salado, Negro, Santa Cruz, Pilcomayo, Bermejo and Colorado. These rivers are discharged into the Argentine Sea, the shallow area of the Atlantic Ocean over the Argentine Shelf, an unusually wide continental platform. Its waters are influenced by two major ocean currents: the warm Brazil Current and the cold Falklands Current.
Argentina is one of the most biodiverse countries in the world hosting one of the greatest ecosystem varieties in the world: 15 continental zones, 2 marine zones, and the Antarctic region are all represented in its territory. This huge ecosystem variety has led to a biological diversity that is among the world's largest:
- 9,372 cataloged vascular plant species (ranked 24th)[G]
- 1,038 cataloged bird species (ranked 14th)[H]
- 375 cataloged mammal species (ranked 12th)[I]
- 338 cataloged reptilian species (ranked 16th)
- 162 cataloged amphibian species (ranked 19th)
The original pampa had virtually no trees; some imported species like the American sycamore or eucalyptus are present along roads or in towns and country estates (estancias). The only tree-like plant native to the pampa is the evergreen Ombú. The surface soils of the pampa are a deep black color, primarily mollisols, known commonly as humus. This makes the region one of the most agriculturally productive on Earth; however, this is also responsible for decimating much of the original ecosystem, to make way for commercial agriculture. The western pampas receive less rainfall, this dry pampa is a plain of short grasses or steppe.
The National Parks of Argentina make up a network of 35 national parks in Argentina. The parks cover a very varied set of terrains and biotopes, from Baritú National Park on the northern border with Bolivia to Tierra del Fuego National Park in the far south of the continent. The Administración de Parques Nacionales (National Parks Administration) is the agency that preserves and manages these national parks along with Natural monuments and National Reserves within the country.
In general, Argentina has four main climate types: warm, moderate, arid, and cold, all determined by the expanse across latitude, range in altitude, and relief features. Although the most populated areas are generally temperate, Argentina has an exceptional amount of climate diversity, ranging from subtropical in the north to polar in the far south. Consequently, there is a wide variety of biomes in the country, including subtropical rain forests, semi-arid and arid regions, temperate plains in the Pampas, and cold subantarctic in the south. The average annual precipitation ranges from 150 millimetres (6 in) in the driest parts of Patagonia to over 2,000 millimetres (79 in) in the westernmost parts of Patagonia and the northeastern parts of the country. Mean annual temperatures range from 5 °C (41 °F) in the far south to 25 °C (77 °F) in the north.
Major wind currents include the cool Pampero Winds blowing on the flat plains of Patagonia and the Pampas; following the cold front, warm currents blow from the north in middle and late winter, creating mild conditions. The Sudestada usually moderates cold temperatures but brings very heavy rains, rough seas and coastal flooding. It is most common in late autumn and winter along the central coast and in the Río de la Plata estuary. The Zonda, a hot dry wind, affects Cuyo and the central Pampas. Squeezed of all moisture during the 6,000 m (19,685 ft) descent from the Andes, Zonda winds can blow for hours with gusts up to 120 km/h (75 mph), fueling wildfires and causing damage; between June and November, when the Zonda blows, snowstorms and blizzard (viento blanco) conditions usually affect higher elevations.
Climate change in Argentina is predicted to have significant effects on the living conditions in Argentina.: 30 The climate of Argentina is changing with regards to precipitation patterns and temperatures. The highest increases in the precipitation (from the period 1960–2010) have occurred in the eastern parts of the country. The increase in precipitation has led to more variability in precipitation from year to year in the northern parts of the country, with a higher risk of prolonged droughts, disfavoring agriculture in these regions.
In the 20th century, Argentina experienced significant political turmoil and democratic reversals. Between 1930 and 1976, the armed forces overthrew six governments in Argentina; and the country alternated periods of democracy (1912–1930, 1946–1955, and 1973–1976) with periods of restricted democracy and military rule. Following a transition that began in 1983, full-scale democracy in Argentina was reestablished. Argentina's democracy endured through the 2001–02 crisis and to the present day; it is regarded as more robust than both its pre-1983 predecessors and other democracies in Latin America.
Argentina is a federal constitutional republic and representative democracy. The government is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the Constitution of Argentina, the country's supreme legal document. The seat of government is the city of Buenos Aires, as designated by Congress. Suffrage is universal, equal, secret and mandatory.[J]
The federal government is composed of three branches:
The Legislative branch consists of the bicameral Congress, made up of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The Congress makes federal law, declares war, approves treaties and has the power of the purse and of impeachment, by which it can remove sitting members of the government. The Chamber of Deputies represents the people and has 257 voting members elected to a four-year term. Seats are apportioned among the provinces by population every tenth year. As of 2014[update] ten provinces have just five deputies while the Buenos Aires Province, being the most populous one, has 70. The Chamber of Senators represents the provinces, has 72 members elected at-large to six-year terms, with each province having three seats; one third of Senate seats are up for election every other year. At least one-third of the candidates presented by the parties must be women.
In the Executive branch, the President is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become law—subject to Congressional override—and appoints the members of the Cabinet and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies. The President is elected directly by the vote of the people, serves a four-year term and may be elected to office no more than twice in a row.
The Judicial branch includes the Supreme Court and lower federal courts interpret laws and overturn those they find unconstitutional. The Judicial is independent of the Executive and the Legislative. The Supreme Court has seven members appointed by the President—subject to Senate approval—who serve for life. The lower courts' judges are proposed by the Council of Magistracy (a secretariat composed of representatives of judges, lawyers, researchers, the Executive and the Legislative), and appointed by the President on Senate approval.
Argentina is a federation of twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires. Provinces are divided for administration purposes into departments and municipalities, except for Buenos Aires Province, which is divided into partidos. The City of Buenos Aires is divided into communes.
Provinces hold all the power that they chose not to delegate to the federal government; they must be representative republics and must not contradict the Constitution. Beyond this they are fully autonomous: they enact their own constitutions, freely organize their local governments, and own and manage their natural and financial resources. Some provinces have bicameral legislatures, while others have unicameral ones.[K]
During the War of Independence the main cities and their surrounding countrysides became provinces though the intervention of their cabildos. The Anarchy of the Year XX completed this process, shaping the original thirteen provinces. Jujuy seceded from Salta in 1834, and the thirteen provinces became fourteen. After seceding for a decade, Buenos Aires accepted the 1853 Constitution of Argentina in 1861, and was made a federal territory in 1880.
An 1862 law designated as national territories those under federal control but outside the frontiers of the provinces. In 1884 they served as bases for the establishment of the governorates of Misiones, Formosa, Chaco, La Pampa, Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego. The agreement about a frontier dispute with Chile in 1900 created the National Territory of Los Andes; its lands were incorporated into Jujuy, Salta and Catamarca in 1943. La Pampa and Chaco became provinces in 1951. Misiones did so in 1953, and Formosa, Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut and Santa Cruz, in 1955. The last national territory, Tierra del Fuego, became the Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur Province in 1990. It has three components, although two are nominal because they are not under Argentine sovereignty. The first is the Argentine part of Tierra del Fuego; the second is an area of Antarctica claimed by Argentina that overlaps with similar areas claimed by the UK and Chile; the third comprises the two disputed British Overseas Territories of the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
Foreign policy is handled by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, International Trade and Worship, which answers to the President.
The country is one of the G-15 and G-20 major economies of the world, and a founding member of the UN, WBG, WTO and OAS. In 2012 Argentina was elected again to a two-year non-permanent position on the United Nations Security Council and is participating in major peacekeeping operations in Haiti, Cyprus, Western Sahara and the Middle East. Argentina is described as a middle power.
A prominent Latin American and Southern Cone regional power, Argentina co-founded OEI and CELAC. It is also a founding member of the Mercosur block, having Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela as partners. Since 2002 the country has emphasized its key role in Latin American integration, and the block—which has some supranational legislative functions—is its first international priority.
Argentina claims 965,597 km2 (372,819 sq mi) in Antarctica, where it has the world's oldest continuous state presence, since 1904. This overlaps claims by Chile and the United Kingdom, though all such claims fall under the provisions of the 1961 Antarctic Treaty, of which Argentina is a founding signatory and permanent consulting member, with the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat being based in Buenos Aires.
Argentina disputes sovereignty over the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas), and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, which are administered by the United Kingdom as Overseas Territories.
The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the Argentine Armed Forces, as part of a legal framework that imposes a strict separation between national defense and internal security systems:
The National Defense System, an exclusive responsibility of the federal government, coordinated by the Ministry of Defense, and comprising the Army, the Navy and the Air Force. Ruled and monitored by Congress through the Houses' Defense Committees, it is organized on the essential principle of legitimate self-defense: the repelling of any external military aggression in order to guarantee freedom of the people, national sovereignty, and territorial integrity. Its secondary missions include committing to multinational operations within the framework of the United Nations, participating in internal support missions, assisting friendly countries, and establishing a sub-regional defense system.
Military service is voluntary, with enlistment age between 18 and 24 years old and no conscription. Argentina's defense has historically been one of the best equipped in the region, even managing its own weapon research facilities, shipyards, ordnance, tank and plane factories. However, real military expenditures declined steadily after the defeat in the Falklands/Malvinas War and the defense budget in 2011 was only about 0.74% of GDP, a historical minimum, below the Latin American average. Within the defence budget itself funding for training and even basic maintenance has been significantly cut, a factor contributing to the accidental loss of the Argentine submarine San Juan in 2017. With the United Kingdom also actively acting to restrict even modest Argentinian military modernization efforts, the result has been a steady erosion of Argentine military capabilities, with some arguing that Argentina had, by the end of the 2010s, ceased to be a capable military power.
The Interior Security System, jointly administered by the federal and subscribing provincial governments. At the federal level it is coordinated by the Interior, Security and Justice ministries, and monitored by Congress. It is enforced by the Federal Police; the Prefecture, which fulfills coast guard duties; the Gendarmerie, which serves border guard tasks; and the Airport Security Police. At the provincial level it is coordinated by the respective internal security ministries and enforced by local police agencies.
Argentina was the only South American country to send warships and cargo planes in 1991 to the Gulf War under UN mandate and has remained involved in peacekeeping efforts in multiple locations like UNPROFOR in Croatia/Bosnia, Gulf of Fonseca, UNFICYP in Cyprus (where among Army and Marines troops the Air Force provided the UN Air contingent since 1994) and MINUSTAH in Haiti. Argentina is the only Latin American country to maintain troops in Kosovo during SFOR (and later EUFOR) operations where combat engineers of the Argentine Armed Forces are embedded in an Italian brigade.
In 2007, an Argentine contingent including helicopters, boats and water purification plants was sent to help Bolivia against their worst floods in decades. In 2010 the Armed Forces were also involved in Haiti and Chile humanitarian responses after their respective earthquakes.
Benefiting from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, a diversified industrial base, and an export-oriented agricultural sector, the economy of Argentina is Latin America's third-largest, and the second largest in South America. It has a "very high" rating on the Human Development Index and a relatively high GDP per capita, with a considerable internal market size and a growing share of the high-tech sector.
Access to biocapacity in Argentina is much higher than world average. In 2016, Argentina had 6.8 global hectares of biocapacity per person within its territory, much more than the world average of 1.6 global hectares per person. In 2016 Argentina used 3.4 global hectares of biocapacity per person – their ecological footprint of consumption. This means they use half as much biocapacity as Argentina contains. As a result, Argentina is running a biocapacity reserve.
A middle emerging economy and one of the world's top developing nations,[L] Argentina is a member of the G-20 major economies. Historically, however, its economic performance has been very uneven, with high economic growth alternating with severe recessions, income maldistribution and—in the recent decades—increasing poverty. Early in the 20th century Argentina achieved development, and became the world's seventh richest country. Although managing to keep a place among the top fifteen economies until mid-century, it suffered a long and steady decline, but it is still a high income country.
High inflation—a weakness of the Argentine economy for decades—has become a trouble once again, with an annual rate of 24.8% in 2017. To deter it and support the peso, the government imposed foreign currency control. Income distribution, having improved since 2002, is classified as "medium", although it is still considerably unequal.
Argentina ranks 85th out of 180 countries in the Transparency International's 2017 Corruption Perceptions Index, an improvement of 22 positions over its 2014 rankings. Argentina settled its long-standing debt default crisis in 2016 with the so-called vulture funds after the election of Mauricio Macri, allowing Argentina to enter capital markets for the first time in a decade.
The government of Argentina defaulted on 22 May 2020 by failing to pay a $500 million due date to its creditors. Negotiations for the restructuring of $66 billion of its debt continue.
In 2012[update] manufacturing accounted for 20.3% of GDP—the largest sector in the nation's economy. Well-integrated into Argentine agriculture, half of the industrial exports have rural origin.
In 2012[update] the leading sectors by volume were: food processing, beverages and tobacco products; motor vehicles and auto parts; textiles and leather; refinery products and biodiesel; chemicals and pharmaceuticals; steel, aluminum and iron; industrial and farm machinery; home appliances and furniture; plastics and tires; glass and cement; and recording and print media. In addition, Argentina has since long been one of the top five wine-producing countries in the world. However, it has also been classified as one of the 74 countries where instances of child labour and forced labour have been observed and mentioned in a 2014 report published by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs. The ILAB's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor shows that many of the goods produced by child labour or forced labour comes from the agricultural sector.
Córdoba is Argentina's major industrial centre, hosting metalworking, motor vehicle and auto parts manufactures. Next in importance are the Greater Buenos Aires area (food processing, metallurgy, motor vehicles and auto parts, chemicals and petrochemicals, consumer durables, textiles and printing); Rosario (food processing, metallurgy, farm machinery, oil refining, chemicals, and tanning); San Miguel de Tucumán (sugar refining); San Lorenzo (chemicals and pharmaceuticals); San Nicolás de los Arroyos (steel milling and metallurgy); and Ushuaia and Bahía Blanca (oil refining).[unreliable source?] Other manufacturing enterprises are located in the provinces of Santa Fe (zinc and copper smelting, and flour milling); Mendoza and Neuquén (wineries and fruit processing); Chaco (textiles and sawmills); and Santa Cruz, Salta and Chubut (oil refining).[unreliable source?]
Argentina has the largest railway system in Latin America, with 36,966 km (22,970 mi) of operating lines in 2008[update], out of a full network of almost 48,000 km (29,826 mi). This system links all 23 provinces plus Buenos Aires City, and connects with all neighbouring countries. There are four incompatible gauges in use; this forces virtually all interregional freight traffic to pass through Buenos Aires. The system has been in decline since the 1940s: regularly running up large budgetary deficits, by 1991 it was transporting 1,400 times less goods than it did in 1973. However, in recent years the system has experienced a greater degree of investment from the state, in both commuter rail lines and long-distance lines, renewing rolling stock and infrastructure. In April 2015, by overwhelming majority the Argentine Senate passed a law which re-created Ferrocarriles Argentinos (2015), effectively re-nationalising the country's railways, a move which saw support from all major political parties on both sides of the political spectrum.
By 2004[update] Buenos Aires, all provincial capitals except Ushuaia, and all medium-sized towns were interconnected by 69,412 km (43,131 mi) of paved roads, out of a total road network of 231,374 km (143,769 mi). Most important cities are linked by a growing number of expressways, including Buenos Aires–La Plata, Rosario–Córdoba, Córdoba–Villa Carlos Paz, Villa Mercedes–Mendoza, National Route 14 General José Gervasio Artigas and Provincial Route 2 Juan Manuel Fangio, among others. Nevertheless, this road infrastructure is still inadequate and cannot handle the sharply growing demand caused by deterioration of the railway system.
In 2012[update] there were about 11,000 km (6,835 mi) of waterways, mostly comprising the La Plata, Paraná, Paraguay and Uruguay rivers, with Buenos Aires, Zárate, Campana, Rosario, San Lorenzo, Santa Fe, Barranqueras and San Nicolas de los Arroyos as the main fluvial ports. Some of the largest sea ports are La Plata–Ensenada, Bahía Blanca, Mar del Plata, Quequén–Necochea, Comodoro Rivadavia, Puerto Deseado, Puerto Madryn, Ushuaia and San Antonio Oeste. Buenos Aires has historically been the most important port; however since the 1990s the Up-River port region has become dominant: stretching along 67 km (42 mi) of the Paraná river shore in Santa Fe province, it includes 17 ports and in 2013[update] accounted for 50% of all exports.
In 2013[update] there were 161 airports with paved runways out of more than a thousand. The Ezeiza International Airport, about 35 km (22 mi) from downtown Buenos Aires, is the largest in the country, followed by Cataratas del Iguazú in Misiones, and El Plumerillo in Mendoza. Aeroparque, in the city of Buenos Aires, is the most important domestic airport.
Media and communications
Print media industry is highly developed in Argentina, with more than two hundred newspapers. The major national ones include Clarín (centrist, Latin America's best-seller and the second most widely circulated in the Spanish-speaking world), La Nación (centre-right, published since 1870), Página/12 (leftist, founded in 1987), the Buenos Aires Herald (Latin America's most prestigious English language daily, liberal, dating back to 1876), La Voz del Interior (centre, founded in 1904), and the Argentinisches Tageblatt (German weekly, liberal, published since 1878)
Argentina began the world's first regular radio broadcasting on 27 August 1920, when Richard Wagner's Parsifal was aired by a team of medical students led by Enrique Telémaco Susini in Buenos Aires' Teatro Coliseo. By 2002[update] there were 260 AM and 1150 FM registered radio stations in the country.
The Argentine television industry is large, diverse and popular across Latin America, with many productions and TV formats having been exported abroad. Since 1999 Argentines enjoy the highest availability of cable and satellite television in Latin America, as of 2014[update] totaling 87.4% of the country's households, a rate similar to those in the United States, Canada and Europe.
By 2011[update] Argentina also had the highest coverage of networked telecommunications among Latin American powers: about 67% of its population had internet access and 137.2%, mobile phone subscriptions.
Science and technology
Argentines have received three Nobel Prizes in the Sciences. Bernardo Houssay, the first Latin American recipient, discovered the role of pituitary hormones in regulating glucose in animals, and shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1947. Luis Leloir discovered how organisms store energy converting glucose into glycogen and the compounds which are fundamental in metabolizing carbohydrates, receiving the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1970. César Milstein did extensive research in antibodies, sharing the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1984. Argentine research has led to treatments for heart diseases and several forms of cancer. Domingo Liotta designed and developed the first artificial heart that was successfully implanted in a human being in 1969. René Favaloro developed the techniques and performed the world's first coronary bypass surgery.
Argentina's nuclear programme has been highly successful. In 1957 Argentina was the first country in Latin America to design and build a research reactor with homegrown technology, the RA-1 Enrico Fermi. This reliance in the development of own nuclear related technologies, instead of simply buying them abroad, was a constant of Argentina's nuclear programme conducted by the civilian National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). Nuclear facilities with Argentine technology have been built in Peru, Algeria, Australia and Egypt. In 1983, the country admitted having the capability of producing weapon-grade uranium, a major step needed to assemble nuclear weapons; since then, however, Argentina has pledged to use nuclear power only for peaceful purposes. As a member of the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Argentina has been a strong voice in support of nuclear non-proliferation efforts and is highly committed to global nuclear security. In 1974 it was the first country in Latin America to put in-line a commercial nuclear power plant, Atucha I. Although the Argentine built parts for that station amounted to 10% of the total, the nuclear fuel it uses are since entirely built in the country. Later nuclear power stations employed a higher percentage of Argentine built components; Embalse, finished in 1983, a 30% and the 2011 Atucha II reactor a 40%.
Despite its modest budget and numerous setbacks, academics and the sciences in Argentina have enjoyed an international respect since the turn of the 1900s, when Luis Agote devised the first safe and effective means of blood transfusion as well as René Favaloro, who was a pioneer in the improvement of the coronary artery bypass surgery. Argentine scientists are still on the cutting edge in fields such as nanotechnology, physics, computer sciences, molecular biology, oncology, ecology and cardiology. Juan Maldacena, an Argentine-American scientist, is a leading figure in string theory.
Space research has also become increasingly active in Argentina. Argentine built satellites include LUSAT-1 (1990), Víctor-1 (1996), PEHUENSAT-1 (2007), and those developed by CONAE, the Argentine space agency, of the SAC series. Argentina has its own satellite programme, nuclear power station designs (4th generation) and public nuclear energy company INVAP, which provides several countries with nuclear reactors. Established in 1991, the CONAE has since launched two satellites successfully and, in June 2009, secured an agreement with the European Space Agency for the installation of a 35-m diameter antenna and other mission support facilities at the Pierre Auger Observatory, the world's foremost cosmic ray observatory. The facility will contribute to numerous ESA space probes, as well as CONAE's own, domestic research projects. Chosen from 20 potential sites and one of only three such ESA installations in the world, the new antenna will create a triangulation which will allow the ESA to ensure mission coverage around the clock Argentina was ranked 80th in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, down from 73rd in 2019.
The country had 5.57 million visitors in 2013, ranking in terms of the international tourist arrivals as the top destination in South America, and second in Latin America after Mexico. Revenues from international tourists reached US$4.41 billion in 2013, down from US$4.89 billion in 2012. The country's capital city, Buenos Aires, is the most visited city in South America. There are 30 National Parks of Argentina including many World Heritage Sites.
The 2010 census counted 40,117,096 inhabitants, up from 36,260,130 in 2001. Argentina ranks third in South America in total population, fourth in Latin America and 33rd globally. Its population density of 15 persons per square kilometer of land area is well below the world average of 50 persons. The population growth rate in 2010 was an estimated 1.03% annually, with a birth rate of 17.7 live births per 1,000 inhabitants and a mortality rate of 7.4 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants. Since 2010, the crude net migration rate has ranged from below zero to up to four immigrants per 1,000 inhabitants per year.
Argentina is in the midst of a demographic transition to an older and slower-growing population. The proportion of people under 15 is 25.6%, a little below the world average of 28%, and the proportion of people 65 and older is relatively high at 10.8%. In Latin America this is second only to Uruguay and well above the world average, which is currently 7%. Argentina has one of Latin America's lowest population growth rates as well as a comparatively low infant mortality rate. Its birth rate of 2.3 children per woman is considerably below the high of 7.0 children born per woman in 1895, though still nearly twice as high as in Spain or Italy, which are culturally and demographically similar. The median age is 31.9 years and life expectancy at birth is 77.14 years.
In colonial times, the ethnic composition of Argentina was the result of the interaction of the pre-Columbian indigenous population with a colonizing population of Spanish origin and with sub-Saharan African slaves. Before the middle 19th century, the ethnic make up of Argentina was very similar to that of other countries of Latin America.
Between 1857 and 1950 Argentina was the country with the second biggest immigration wave in the world, at 6.6 million, second only to the United States in the numbers of immigrants received (27 million) and ahead of other areas of new settlement like Canada, Brazil and Australia. However, mass European immigration did not have the same impact in the whole country. According to the 1914 national census, 30% of Argentina's population was foreign-born, including 50% of the people in the city of Buenos Aires, but foreigners were only 2% in the provinces of Catamarca and La Rioja (North West region).
Strikingly, at those times, the national population doubled every two decades. This belief is endured in the popular saying "los argentinos descienden de los barcos" (Argentines descend from the ships). Therefore, most Argentines are descended from the 19th- and 20th-century immigrants of the great immigration wave to Argentina (1850–1955), with a great majority of these immigrants coming from diverse European countries, particularly Italy and Spain. The majority of Argentines descend from multiple European ethnic groups, primarily of Italian and Spanish descent, with over 25 million Argentines (almost 60% of the population) having some partial Italian origins.
Argentina is home to a significant Arab population; including those with partial descent, Arab Argentines number 1.3 to 3.5 million, mostly of Syrian and Lebanese origin. As in the United States, they are considered white. The majority of Arab Argentines are Christians belonging to the Catholic Church (the Latin Rite church and Eastern Rite churches), and Eastern Orthodox churches. A minority are Muslims, albeit the largest Muslim community in the Americas. The East Asian population in the country numbers around 180,000 individuals, most of whom are of Chinese and Korean descent, although an older Japanese community originating from the early 20th century still exists.
A 2010 study conducted on 218 individuals by the Argentine geneticist Daniel Corach established that the genetic map of Argentina is composed of 79% from different European ethnicities (mainly Italian and Spanish), 18% of different indigenous ethnicities, and 4.3% of African ethnic groups; 63.6% of the tested group had at least one ancestor who was Indigenous.
From the 1970s, immigration has mostly been coming from Bolivia, Paraguay and Peru, with smaller numbers from the Dominican Republic, Ecuador and Romania. The Argentine government estimates that 750,000 inhabitants lack official documents and has launched a program to encourage illegal immigrants to declare their status in return for two-year residence visas—so far over 670,000 applications have been processed under the program.
- Homburguer et al., 2015, PLOS One Genetics: 67% European, 28% Amerindian, 4% African and 1,4% Asian.
- Avena et al., 2012, PLOS One Genetics: 65% European, 31% Amerindian, and 4% African.
- Buenos Aires Province: 76% European and 24% others.
- South Zone (Chubut Province): 54% European and 46% others.
- Northeast Zone (Misiones, Corrientes, Chaco & Formosa provinces): 54% European and 46% others.
- Northwest Zone (Salta Province): 33% European and 67% others.
- Oliveira, 2008, on Universidade de Brasília: 60% European, 31% Amerindian and 9% African.
- National Geographic: 52% European, 27% Amerindian ancestry, 9% African and 9% others.
- Corach, Daniel (2010): 78.5% European, 17.3% Amerindian, and 4.2% Black African ancestry.
The de facto[M] official language is Spanish, spoken by almost all Argentines. The country is the largest Spanish-speaking society that universally employs voseo, the use of the pronoun vos instead of tú ("you"), which imposes the use of alternative verb forms as well. Owing to the extensive Argentine geography, Spanish has a strong variation among regions, although the prevalent dialect is Rioplatense, primarily spoken in the Pampean and Patagonian regions and accented similarly to the Neapolitan language. Italian and other European immigrants influenced Lunfardo—the regional slang—permeating the vernacular vocabulary of other Latin American countries as well.
There are several second-languages in widespread use among the Argentine population:
- English,[N] taught since elementary school. 42.3% of Argentines claim to speak it, with 15.4% of them claiming to have a high level of language comprehension.
- Italian, by 1.5 million people.[O]
- Arabic, specially its Northern Levantine dialect, by one million people.
- Standard German, by 400,000 people.[P]
- Yiddish, by 200,000 people, the largest Jewish population in Latin America and 7th in the world.
- Guaraní, by 200,000 people, mostly in Corrientes (where it is official de jure) and Misiones.
- Catalan, by 174,000 people.
- Quechua, by 65,000 people, mostly in the Northwest.
- Wichí, by 53,700 people, mainly in Chaco where, along with Kom and Moqoit, it is official de jure.
- Vlax Romani, by 52,000 people.
- Albanian, by 40,000 people.
- Japanese, by 32,000 people.
- Aymara, by 30,000 people, mostly in the Northwest.
- Ukrainian, by 27,000 people.
- Welsh, 5,000 people in Patagonia. Some districts have incorporated it as an educational language.
According to a 2008 CONICET poll, Argentines were 76.5% Catholic, 11.3% Agnostics and Atheists, 9% Evangelical Protestants, 1.2% Jehovah's Witnesses, and 0.9% Mormons, while 1.2% followed other religions, including Islam, Judaism and Buddhism. These figures appear to have changed quite significantly in recent years: data recorded in 2017 indicated that Catholics made up 66% of the population, indicating a drop of 10.5% in nine years, and the nonreligious in the country standing at 21% of the population, indicating an almost doubling over the same period.
The country is home to both the largest Muslim and largest Jewish communities in Latin America, the latter being the seventh most populous in the world. Argentina is a member of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance.
On 13 March 2013, Argentine Jorge Mario Bergoglio, the Cardinal Archbishop of Buenos Aires, was elected Bishop of Rome and Supreme Pontiff of the Catholic Church. He took the name "Francis", and he became the first Pope from either the Americas or from the Southern Hemisphere; he is the first Pope born outside of Europe since the election of Pope Gregory III (who was Syrian) in 741.
Argentina is highly urbanized, with 92% of its population living in cities: the ten largest metropolitan areas account for half of the population. About 3 million people live in the city of Buenos Aires, and including the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area it totals around 13 million, making it one of the largest urban areas in the world.
The metropolitan areas of Córdoba and Rosario have around 1.3 million inhabitants each. Mendoza, San Miguel de Tucumán, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Salta and Santa Fe have at least half a million people each.
The population is unequally distributed: about 60% live in the Pampas region (21% of the total area), including 15 million people in Buenos Aires province. The provinces of Córdoba and Santa Fe, and the city of Buenos Aires have 3 million each. Seven other provinces have over one million people each: Mendoza, Tucumán, Entre Ríos, Salta, Chaco, Corrientes and Misiones. With 64.3 inhabitants per square kilometre (167/sq mi), Tucumán is the only Argentine province more densely populated than the world average; by contrast, the southern province of Santa Cruz has around 1.1/km2 (2.8/sq mi).
|1||Buenos Aires||(Autonomous city)||3,054,000||11||Resistencia||Chaco||409,000|
|2||Córdoba||Córdoba||1,519,000||12||Santiago del Estero||Santiago del Estero||406,000|
|5||San Miguel de Tucumán||Tucumán||868,000||15||San Salvador de Jujuy||Jujuy||338,000|
|6||La Plata||Buenos Aires||836,000||16||Neuquén||Neuquén||309,000|
|7||Mar del Plata||Buenos Aires||633,000||17||Bahía Blanca||Buenos Aires||307,000|
|9||Santa Fe||Santa Fe||530,000||19||Formosa||Formosa||258,000|
|10||San Juan||San Juan||513,000||20||San Luis||San Luis||218,000|
The Argentine education system consists of four levels:
- An initial level for children between 45 days to 5 years old, with the last two years being compulsory.
- An elementary or lower school mandatory level lasting 6 or 7 years.[R] In 2010[update] the literacy rate was 98.07%.
- A secondary or high school mandatory level lasting 5 or 6 years.[R] In 2010[update] 38.5% of people over age 20 had completed secondary school.
- A higher level, divided in tertiary, university and post-graduate sub-levels. in 2013[update] there were 47 national public universities across the country, as well as 46 private ones. In 2010[update] 7.1% of people over age 20 had graduated from university. The public universities of Buenos Aires, Córdoba, La Plata, Rosario, and the National Technological University are some of the most important.
The Argentine state guarantees universal, secular and free-of-charge public education for all levels.[S] Responsibility for educational supervision is organized at the federal and individual provincial states. In the last decades the role of the private sector has grown across all educational stages.
Health care is provided through a combination of employer and labour union-sponsored plans (Obras Sociales), government insurance plans, public hospitals and clinics and through private health insurance plans. Health care cooperatives number over 300 (of which 200 are related to labour unions) and provide health care for half the population; the national INSSJP (popularly known as PAMI) covers nearly all of the five million senior citizens.
There are more than 153,000 hospital beds, 121,000 physicians and 37,000 dentists (ratios comparable to developed nations). The relatively high access to medical care has historically resulted in mortality patterns and trends similar to developed nations': from 1953 to 2005, deaths from cardiovascular disease increased from 20% to 23% of the total, those from tumors from 14% to 20%, respiratory problems from 7% to 14%, digestive maladies (non-infectious) from 7% to 11%, strokes a steady 7%, injuries, 6%, and infectious diseases, 4%. Causes related to senility led to many of the rest. Infant deaths have fallen from 19% of all deaths in 1953 to 3% in 2005.
The availability of health care has also reduced infant mortality from 70 per 1000 live births in 1948 to 12.1 in 2009 and raised life expectancy at birth from 60 years to 76. Though these figures compare favorably with global averages, they fall short of levels in developed nations and in 2006, Argentina ranked fourth in Latin America.
Argentina is a multicultural country with significant European influences. Modern Argentine culture has been largely influenced by Italian, Spanish and other European immigration from France, United Kingdom, and Germany among others. Its cities are largely characterized by both the prevalence of people of European descent, and of conscious imitation of American and European styles in fashion, architecture and design. Museums, cinemas, and galleries are abundant in all the large urban centres, as well as traditional establishments such as literary bars, or bars offering live music of a variety of genres although there are lesser elements of Amerindian and African influences, particularly in the fields of music and art.  The other big influence is the gauchos and their traditional country lifestyle of self-reliance. Finally, indigenous American traditions have been absorbed into the general cultural milieu. Argentine writer Ernesto Sabato has reflected on the nature of the culture of Argentina as follows:
With the primitive Hispanic American reality fractured in La Plata Basin due to immigration, its inhabitants have come to be somewhat dual with all the dangers but also with all the advantages of that condition: because of our European roots, we deeply link the nation with the enduring values of the Old World; because of our condition of Americans we link ourselves to the rest of the continent, through the folklore of the interior and the old Castilian that unifies us, feeling somehow the vocation of the Patria Grande San Martín and Bolívar once imagined.
Although Argentina's rich literary history began around 1550, it reached full independence with Esteban Echeverría's El Matadero, a romantic landmark that played a significant role in the development of 19th century's Argentine narrative, split by the ideological divide between the popular, federalist epic of José Hernández' Martín Fierro and the elitist and cultured discourse of Sarmiento's masterpiece, Facundo.
The Modernist movement advanced into the 20th century including exponents such as Leopoldo Lugones and poet Alfonsina Storni; it was followed by Vanguardism, with Ricardo Güiraldes's Don Segundo Sombra as an important reference.
Jorge Luis Borges, Argentina's most acclaimed writer and one of the foremost figures in the history of literature, found new ways of looking at the modern world in metaphor and philosophical debate and his influence has extended to authors all over the globe. Short stories such as Ficciones and The Aleph are among his most famous works. He was a friend and collaborator of Adolfo Bioy Casares, who wrote one of the most praised science fiction novels, The Invention of Morel. Julio Cortázar, one of the leading members of the Latin American Boom and a major name in 20th century literature, influenced an entire generation of writers in the Americas and Europe.
A remarkable episode in the Argentine literature's history is the social and literarial dialectica between the so-called Florida Group named this way because its members used to meet together at the Richmond Cafeteria at Florida street and published in the Martin Fierro magazine, like Jorge Luis Borges, Leopoldo Marechal, Antonio Berni (artist), among others, versus the Boedo Group of Roberto Arlt, Cesar Tiempo, Homero Manzi (tango composer), that used to meet at the Japanese Cafe and published their works with the Editorial Claridad, with both the cafe and the publisher located at the Boedo Avenue.
Other highly regarded Argentine writers, poets and essayists include Estanislao del Campo, Eugenio Cambaceres, Pedro Bonifacio Palacios, Hugo Wast, Benito Lynch, Enrique Banchs, Oliverio Girondo, Ezequiel Martínez Estrada, Victoria Ocampo, Leopoldo Marechal, Silvina Ocampo, Roberto Arlt, Eduardo Mallea, Manuel Mujica Láinez, Ernesto Sábato, Silvina Bullrich, Rodolfo Walsh, María Elena Walsh, Tomás Eloy Martínez, Manuel Puig, Alejandra Pizarnik, and Osvaldo Soriano. 
Tango, a Rioplatense musical genre with European and African influences, is one of Argentina's international cultural symbols. The golden age of tango (1930 to mid-1950s) mirrored that of jazz and swing in the United States, featuring large orchestras like those of Osvaldo Pugliese, Aníbal Troilo, Francisco Canaro, Julio de Caro and Juan d'Arienzo. After 1955, virtuoso Astor Piazzolla popularized Nuevo tango, a subtler and more intellectual trend for the genre. Tango enjoys worldwide popularity nowadays with groups like Gotan Project, Bajofondo and Tanghetto.
Argentina developed strong classical music and dance scenes that gave rise to renowned artists such as Alberto Ginastera, composer; Alberto Lysy, violinist; Martha Argerich and Eduardo Delgado, pianists; Daniel Barenboim, pianist and symphonic orchestra director; José Cura and Marcelo Álvarez, tenors; and to ballet dancers Jorge Donn, José Neglia, Norma Fontenla, Maximiliano Guerra, Paloma Herrera, Marianela Núñez, Iñaki Urlezaga and Julio Bocca.
A national Argentine folk style emerged in the 1930s from dozens of regional musical genres and went to influence the entirety of Latin American music. Some of its interpreters, like Atahualpa Yupanqui and Mercedes Sosa, achieved worldwide acclaim.
Argentine rock developed as a distinct musical style in the mid-1960s, when Buenos Aires and Rosario became cradles of aspiring musicians. Founding bands like Los Gatos, Sui Generis, Almendra and Manal were followed by Seru Giran, Los Abuelos de la Nada, Soda Stereo and Patricio Rey y sus Redonditos de Ricota, with prominent artists including Gustavo Cerati, Litto Nebbia, Andrés Calamaro, Luis Alberto Spinetta, Charly García, Fito Páez and León Gieco.
A dance and a musical genre popular at the present is Cachengue a subgenre of Argentine cumbia and reggaeton spreading in popularity in nearby countries such as Uruguay, Chile, Paraguay, and Bolivia.
Buenos Aires is one of the great theatre capitals of the world, with a scene of international caliber centered on Corrientes Avenue, "the street that never sleeps", sometimes referred to as an intellectual Broadway in Buenos Aires. Teatro Colón is a global landmark for opera and classical performances; its acoustics are considered among the world's top five.[T] Other important theatrical venues include Teatro General San Martín, Cervantes, both in Buenos Aires City; Argentino in La Plata, El Círculo in Rosario, Independencia in Mendoza, and Libertador in Córdoba. Griselda Gambaro, Copi, Roberto Cossa, Marco Denevi, Carlos Gorostiza, and Alberto Vaccarezza are a few of the most prominent Argentine playwrights.
Argentine theatre traces its origins to Viceroy Juan José de Vértiz y Salcedo's creation of the colony's first theatre, La Ranchería, in 1783. In this stage, in 1786, a tragedy entitled Siripo had its premiere. Siripo is now a lost work (only the second act is conserved), and can be considered the first Argentine stage play, because it was written by Buenos Aires poet Manuel José de Lavardén, it was premiered in Buenos Aires, and its plot was inspired by an historical episode of the early colonization of the Río de la Plata Basin: the destruction of Sancti Spiritu colony by aboriginals in 1529. La Ranchería theatre operated until its destruction in a fire in 1792. The second theatre stage in Buenos Aires was Teatro Coliseo, opened in 1804 during the term of Viceroy Rafael de Sobremonte. It was the nation's longest-continuously operating stage. The musical creator of the Argentine National Anthem, Blas Parera, earned fame as a theatre score writer during the early 19th century. The genre suffered during the regime of Juan Manuel de Rosas, though it flourished alongside the economy later in the century. The national government gave Argentine theatre its initial impulse with the establishment of the Colón Theatre, in 1857, which hosted classical and operatic, as well as stage performances. Antonio Petalardo's successful 1871 gambit on the opening of the Teatro Opera, inspired others to fund the growing art in Argentina.
The Argentine film industry has historically been one of the three most developed in Latin American cinema, along with those produced in Mexico and Brazil. Started in 1896; by the early 1930s it had already become Latin America's leading film producer, a place it kept until the early 1950s. The world's first animated feature films were made and released in Argentina, by cartoonist Quirino Cristiani, in 1917 and 1918.
Argentine films have achieved worldwide recognition: the country has won two Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film, for The Official Story (1985) and The Secret in Their Eyes (2009), from seven nominations:
- The Truce (La tregua) in 1974
- Camila in 1984
- The Official Story (La historia oficial) in 1985
- Tango in 1998
- Son of the Bride (El hijo de la novia) in 2001
- The Secret in Their Eyes (El secreto de sus ojos) in 2009
- Wild Tales (Relatos salvajes) in 2015
In addition, Argentine composers Luis Enrique Bacalov and Gustavo Santaolalla have been honored with Academy Awards for Best Original Score, and Armando Bó and Nicolás Giacobone shared in the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay for 2014. Also, the Argentine French actress Bérénice Bejo received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress in 2011 and won the César Award for Best Actress and won the Best Actress award in the Cannes Film Festival for her role in the film The Past.
Argentina also has won seventeen Goya Awards for Best Spanish Language Foreign Film with A King and His Movie (1986), A Place in the World (1992), Gatica, el mono (1993), Autumn Sun (1996), Ashes of Paradise (1997), The Lighthouse (1998), Burnt Money (2000), The Escape (2001), Intimate Stories (2003), Blessed by Fire (2005), The Hands (2006), XXY (2007), The Secret in Their Eyes (2009), Chinese Take-Away (2011), Wild Tales (2014), The Clan (2015) and The Distinguished Citizen (2016), being by far the most awarded country in Latin America with twenty-four nominations.
Many other Argentine films have been acclaimed by the international critique: Camila (1984), Man Facing Southeast (1986), A Place in the World (1992), Pizza, Beer, and Cigarettes (1997), Nine Queens (2000), A Red Bear (2002), The Motorcycle Diaries (2004), The Aura (2005), Chinese Take-Away (2011) and Wild Tales (2014) being some of them.
Some of the best-known Argentine painters are Cándido López and Florencio Molina Campos (Naïve style); Ernesto de la Cárcova and Eduardo Sívori (Realism); Fernando Fader (Impressionism); Pío Collivadino, Atilio Malinverno and Cesáreo Bernaldo de Quirós (Postimpressionism); Emilio Pettoruti (Cubism); Julio Barragán (Concretism and Cubism) Antonio Berni (Neofigurativism); Roberto Aizenberg and Xul Solar (Surrealism); Gyula Košice (Constructivism); Eduardo Mac Entyre (Generative art); Luis Seoane, Carlos Torrallardona, Luis Aquino, Alfredo Gramajo Gutiérrez (Modernism); Lucio Fontana (Spatialism); Tomás Maldonado, Guillermo Kuitca (Abstract art); León Ferrari, Marta Minujín (Conceptual art); Gustavo Cabral (Fantasy art), and Fabián Pérez (Neoemotionalism).
In 1946 Gyula Košice and others created The Madí Movement in Argentina, which then spread to Europe and United States, where it had a significant impact. Tomás Maldonado was one of the main theorists of the Ulm Model of design education, still highly influential globally.
Other Argentine artists of worldwide fame include Adolfo Bellocq, whose lithographs have been influential since the 1920s, and Benito Quinquela Martín, the quintessential port painter, inspired by the immigrant-bound La Boca neighbourhood.
The colonization brought the Spanish Baroque architecture, which can still be appreciated in its simpler Rioplatense style in the reduction of San Ignacio Miní, the Cathedral of Córdoba, and the Cabildo of Luján. Italian and French influences increased at the beginning of the 19th century with strong eclectic overtones that gave the local architecture a unique feeling.
Numerous Argentine architects have enriched their own country's cityscape and those around the world: Juan Antonio Buschiazzo helped popularize Beaux-Arts architecture and Francisco Gianotti combined Art Nouveau with Italianate styles, each adding flair to Argentine cities during the early 20th century. Francisco Salamone and Viktor Sulčič left an Art Deco legacy, and Alejandro Bustillo created a prolific body of Neoclassical and Rationalist architecture. Alberto Prebisch and Amancio Williams were highly influenced by Le Corbusier, while Clorindo Testa introduced Brutalist architecture locally. César Pelli's and Patricio Pouchulu's Futurist creations have graced cities worldwide: Pelli's 1980s throwbacks to the Art Deco glory of the 1920s made him one of the world's most prestigious architects, with the Norwest Center and the Petronas Towers among his most celebrated creations.
Pato is the national sport, an ancient horseback game locally originated in the early 1600s and predecessor of horseball. The most popular sport is football. Along with Brazil and France, the men's national team is the only one to have won the most important international triplet: World Cup, Confederations Cup, and the Olympic Gold Medal. It has also won 15 Copas América, 7 Pan American Gold Medals and many other trophies. Alfredo Di Stéfano, Diego Maradona and Lionel Messi are among the best players in the game's history.
The country's women's field hockey team Las Leonas, is one of the world's most successful with four Olympic medals, two World Cups, a World League and seven Champions Trophy. Luciana Aymar is recognized as the best female player in the history of the sport, being the only player to have received the FIH Player of the Year Award eight times.
Basketball is a very popular sport. The men's national team is the only one in the FIBA Americas zone that has won the quintuplet crown: World Championship, Olympic Gold Medal, Diamond Ball, Americas Championship, and Pan American Gold Medal. It has also conquered 13 South American Championships, and many other tournaments. Emanuel Ginóbili, Luis Scola, Andrés Nocioni, Fabricio Oberto, Pablo Prigioni, Carlos Delfino and Juan Ignacio Sánchez are a few of the country's most acclaimed players, all of them part of the NBA. Argentina hosted the Basketball World Cup in 1950 and 1990.
Rugby is another popular sport in Argentina. As of 2017[update] the men's national team, known as 'Los Pumas' has competed at the Rugby World Cup each time it has been held, achieving their highest ever result in 2007 when they came third. Since 2012 the Los Pumas have competed against Australia, New Zealand & South Africa in The Rugby Championship, the premier international Rugby competition in the Southern Hemisphere. Since 2009 the secondary men's national team known as the 'Jaguares' has competed against the US, Canada, and Uruguay first teams in the Americas Rugby Championship, which Los Jaguares have won six out of eight times it has taken place.
Argentina has produced some of the most formidable champions for Boxing, including Carlos Monzón, the best middleweight in history; Pascual Pérez, one of the most decorated flyweight boxers of all times; Horacio Accavallo, the former WBA and WBC world flyweight champion; Víctor Galíndez, as of 2009[update] record holder for consecutive world light heavyweight title defenses and Nicolino Locche, nicknamed "The Untouchable" for his masterful defense; they are all inductees into the International Boxing Hall of Fame.
Tennis has been quite popular among people of all ages. Guillermo Vilas is the greatest Latin American player of the Open Era, while Gabriela Sabatini is the most accomplished Argentine female player of all time—having reached #3 in the WTA Ranking, are both inductees into the International Tennis Hall of Fame.
Argentina reigns undisputed in Polo, having won more international championships than any other country and been seldom beaten since the 1930s. The Argentine Polo Championship is the sport's most important international team trophy. The country is home to most of the world's top players, among them Adolfo Cambiaso, the best in Polo history.
Historically, Argentina has had a strong showing within Auto racing. Juan Manuel Fangio was five times Formula One world champion under four different teams, winning 102 of his 184 international races, and is widely ranked as the greatest driver of all time. Other distinguished racers were Oscar Alfredo Gálvez, Juan Gálvez, José Froilán González and Carlos Reutemann.
Besides many of the pasta, sausage and dessert dishes common to continental Europe, Argentines enjoy a wide variety of Indigenous and Criollo creations, including empanadas (a small stuffed pastry), locro (a mixture of corn, beans, meat, bacon, onion, and gourd), humita and mate.
The country has the highest consumption of red meat in the world, traditionally prepared as asado, the Argentine barbecue. It is made with various types of meats, often including chorizo, sweetbread, chitterlings, and blood sausage.
Common desserts include facturas (Viennese-style pastry), cakes and pancakes filled with dulce de leche (a sort of milk caramel jam), alfajores (shortbread cookies sandwiched together with chocolate, dulce de leche or a fruit paste), and tortas fritas (fried cakes)
Some of Argentina's national symbols are defined by law, while others are traditions lacking formal designation. The Flag of Argentina consists of three horizontal stripes equal in width and colored light blue, white and light blue, with the Sun of May in the centre of the middle white stripe. The flag was designed by Manuel Belgrano in 1812; it was adopted as a national symbol on 20 July 1816. The Coat of Arms, which represents the union of the provinces, came into use in 1813 as the seal for official documents. The Argentine National Anthem was written by Vicente López y Planes with music by Blas Parera, and was adopted in 1813. The National Cockade was first used during the May Revolution of 1810 and was made official two years later. The Virgin of Luján is Argentina's patron saint.
The hornero, living across most of the national territory, was chosen as the national bird in 1928 after a lower school survey. The ceibo is the national floral emblem and national tree, while the quebracho colorado is the national forest tree. Rhodochrosite is known as the national gemstone. The national sport is pato, an equestrian game that was popular among gauchos.
- Article 35 of the Argentine Constitution gives equal recognition to the names "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation" and using "Argentine Nation" in the making and enactment of laws.
- Area does not include territorial claims in Antarctica (965,597 km2, including the South Orkney Islands), the Falkland Islands (11,410 km2), the South Georgia (3,560 km2) and the South Sandwich Islands (307 km2).
- The poem's full name is La Argentina y conquista del Río de la Plata, con otros acaecimientos de los reinos del Perú, Tucumán y estado del Brasil.
- Also stated in article 35 of all subsequent amendments: 1866, 1898, 1949, 1957, 1972 and 1994 (current)
- San Martín's military campaigns, together with those of Simón Bolívar in Gran Colombia are collectively known as the Spanish American wars of independence.
- The Full Stop and Due Obedience laws had been abrogated by Congress in 1998.
- Includes higher plants only: ferns and fern allies, conifers and cycads, and flowering plants.
- Includes only birds that breed in Argentina, not those that migrate or winter there.
- Excludes marine mammals.
- Since 2012 suffrage is optional for ages 16 and 17.
- Although not a province, the City of Buenos Aires is a federally autonomous city, and as such its local organization has similarities with provinces: it has its own constitution, an elected mayor and representatives to the Senate and Deputy chambers. As federal capital of the nation it holds the status of federal district.
- The other top developing nations being Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa and Turkey.
- Though not declared official de jure, the Spanish language is the only one used in the wording of laws, decrees, resolutions, official documents and public acts.
- English is also the primary language of the disputed Falkland Islands.
- Many elder people also speak a macaronic language of Italian and Spanish called cocoliche, which was originated by the Italian immigrants in the late 19th century.
- It gave origin to a mixture of Spanish and German called Belgranodeutsch.
- In practice this privileged status amounts to tax-exempt school subsidies and licensing preferences for radio broadcasting frequencies.
- Level duration depends on jurisdiction.
- The post-graduate sub-level of higher education is usually paid.
- The other top venues being Berlin's Konzerthaus, Vienna's Musikverein, Amsterdam's Concertgebouw and Boston's Symphony Hall.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 35.
- Crow 1992, p. 457: "In the meantime, while the crowd assembled in the plaza continued to shout its demands at the cabildo, the sun suddenly broke through the overhanging clouds and clothed the scene in brilliant light. The people looked upward with one accord and took it as a favorable omen for their cause. This was the origin of the "sun of May" which has appeared in the centre of the Argentine flag and on the Argentine coat of arms ever since."; Kopka 2011, p. 5: "The sun's features are those of Inti, the Incan sun god. The sun commemorates the appearance of the sun through cloudy skies on 25 May 1810, during the first mass demonstration in favor of independence."
- Ley No. 5598 de la Provincia de Corrientes, 22 October 2004 (in Spanish)
- La educación intercultural bilingüe en Santiago del Estero, ¿mito o realidad? [La cámara de diputados de la provincia sanciona con fuerza de ley.] (in Spanish). Cámara de Diputados de la Nación. p. 1.
Declárase de interés oficial la preservación, difusión, estímulo, estudio y práctica de la lengua Quíchua en todo el territorio de la provincia [..]
- Ley No. 6604 de la Provincia de Chaco, 28 July 2010, B.O., (9092)
- Enseñanza y desarrollo continuo del idioma galés en la provincia del Chubut. Expresión de beneplácito. Menna, Quetglas y Austin [Teaching and continuous development of the Welsh language in the province of Chubut. Expression of approval. Menna, Quetglas and Austin.] (PDF) (in Spanish). Cámara de Diputados de la Nación. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2020. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
Declarar de interés de la Honorable Cámara de Diputados de la Nación la enseñanza y desarrollo continuo del idioma galés en la provincia del Chubut [..]
- Argentina, World Factbook of CIA.
- "Argentina inicia una nueva etapa en su relación con Japón" [Argentina begins a new stage in its relationship with Japan]. Télam (in Spanish). 21 November 2016. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- "La comunidad china en el país se duplicó en los últimos 5 años" [The Chinese community in the country doubled in the past 5 years]. Clarín (in Spanish). 27 September 2010. Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- "국가지표체계" [National Indicator System] (in Korean). Ministry of Health and Welfare of South Korea. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- "Censo 2010" [2010 Census] (in Spanish). National Institute of Statistics and Census of Argentina (INDEC). Retrieved 10 October 2021.[pages needed]
- Mallimac, Fortunato; Giménez Béliveau, Verónica; Esquivel, Juan Cruz; Irrazábal, Gabriela (2019). "Sociedad y Religión en Movimiento. Segunda Encuesta Nacional sobre Creencias y Actitudes Religiosas en la Argentina" (PDF) (in Spanish). Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Laborales (CEIL). CONICET. ISSN 1515-7466. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
- "Población por sexo e índice de masculinidad. Superficie censada y densidad, según provincia. Total del país. Año 2010". Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas 2010 (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: INDEC – Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos. 2010. Archived from the original (XLS) on 8 June 2014.
- "Argentina Population 2021 (Demographics, Maps, Graphs)".
- "Argentina". World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
- "GINI index (World Bank estimate) – Argentina". World Bank. Archived from the original on 9 November 2016. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- "Índice de Gini | Data".
- "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
- Abad de Santillán 1971, p. 17.
- Crow 1992, p. 128.
- Levene 1948, p. 11: "[After the Viceroyalty became] a new period that commenced with the revolution of 1810, whose plan consisted in declaring the independence of a nation, thus turning the legal bond of vassalage into one of citizenship as a component of sovereignty and, in addition, organizing the democratic republic."; Sánchez Viamonte 1948, pp. 196–97: "The Argentine nation was a unity in colonial times, during the Viceroyalty, and remained so after the revolution of May 1810. [...] The provinces never acted as independent sovereign states, but as entities created within the nation and as integral parts of it, incidentally affected by internal conflicts."; Vanossi 1964, p. 11: "[The Argentine nationality is a] unique national entity, successor to the Viceroyalty, which, after undergoing a long period of anarchy and disorganization, adopted a decentralized form in 1853–1860 under the Constitution."
- Gordon A. Bridger (2013). Britain and the Making of Argentina. p. 101. ISBN 9781845646844.
Some 86% identify themselves as being of European descent, of whom 60% would claim Italian links
- Departamento de Derecho y Ciencias Políticas de la Universidad Nacional de La Matanza (14 November 2011). "Historias de inmigrantes italianos en Argentina" (in Spanish). infouniversidades.siu.edu.ar.
Se estima que en la actualidad, el 90% de la población argentina tiene alguna ascendencia europea y que al menos 25 millones están relacionados con algún inmigrante de Italia.
- "Italiani nel Mondo: diaspora italiana in cifre" [Italians in the World: Italian diaspora in figures] (PDF) (in Italian). Migranti Torino. 30 April 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
- O.N.I. – Department of Education of Argentina Archived 15 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- Bolt & Van Zanden 2013.
- Díaz Alejandro 1970, p. 1.
- Bartenstein, Ben; Maki, Sydney; Gertz, Marisa (11 September 2019). "One Country, Eight Defaults: The Argentine Debacles". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
- Hanke, Steve. "Argentina Should Scrap the Peso and Dollarize". Forbes. Retrieved 9 September 2021.
- Bolt, Jutta; Inklaar, Robert; de Jong, Herman; van Zanden, Jan Luiten (2018). Rebasing 'Maddison': new income comparisons and the shape of long-run economic development (2018 ed.). Maddison Project Database. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
- "The tragedy of Argentina – A century of decline". The Economist. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
- "Becoming a serious country". The Economist. London. 3 June 2004. Archived from the original on 20 March 2014.
Argentina is thus not a "developing country". Uniquely, it achieved development and then lost it again.
- Wood 1988, p. 18; Solomon 1997, p. 3.
- Huntington 2000, p. 6; Nierop 2001, p. 61: "Secondary regional powers in Huntington's view (Huntington, 2000, p. 6) include Great Britain, Ukraine, Japan, South Korea, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Argentina."; Lake 2009, p. 55: "The US has created a foundation upon which the regional powers, especially Argentina and Brazil, can develop their own rules for further managing regional relations."; Papadopoulos 2010, p. 283: "The driving force behind the adoption of the MERCOSUR agreement was similar to that of the establishment of the EU: the hope of limiting the possibilities of traditional military hostility between the major regional powers, Brazil and Argentina."; Malamud 2011, p. 9: "Though not a surprise, the position of Argentina, Brazil's main regional partner, as the staunchest opponent of its main international ambition [to win a permanent seat on the UN Security Council] dealt a heavy blow to Brazil's image as a regional leader."; Boughton 2012, p. 101: "When the U.S. Treasury organized the next round of finance meetings, it included several non-APEC members, including all the European members of the G7, the Latin American powers Argentina and Brazil, and such other emerging markets as India, Poland, and South Africa."
- Morris 1988, p. 63: "Argentina has been the leading military and economic power in the Southern Cone in the Twentieth Century."; Adler & Greve 2009, p. 78: "The southern cone of South America, including Argentina and Brazil, the two regional powers, has recently become a pluralistic security community."; Ruiz-Dana et al. 2009, p. 18: "[...] notably by linking the Southern Cone's rival regional powers, Brazil and Argentina."
- The name Argentine (Spanish) El nombre de Argentina Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- Rock 1987, pp. 6, 8; Edwards 2008, p. 7.
- Traba 1985, pp. 15, 71.
- Constitution of Argentina, 1826, art. 1.
- Constitution of Argentina, 1853, Preamble.
- Rosenblat 1964, p. 78.
- Constitution of Argentina, 1860 amd., art. 35.
- "Definition of Argentina in Oxford Dictionaries (British & World English)". Oxford, UK: Oxford Dictionaries. 6 May 2013. Archived from the original on 5 March 2014.
- "The Definite Article: Part II" Archived 15 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Study Spanish
- Edwards 2008, p. 12.
- Abad de Santillán 1971, pp. 18–19.
- Edwards 2008, p. 13.
- Crow 1992, pp. 129–32.
- Abad de Santillán 1971, pp. 96–140.
- Crow 1992, p. 353.
- Crow 1992, p. 134.
- Crow 1992, p. 135.
- Crow 1992, p. 347.
- Crow 1992, p. 421.
- Abad de Santillán 1971, pp. 194ff.
- Rock 1987, p. 81.
- Rock 1987, pp. 82–83.
- Delgado de Cantú, Gloria M. (2006). Historia de México. México, D. F.: Pearson Educación.
- Mercene, Manila men, p. 52.
- O'Donnell 1998. sfn error: no target: CITEREFO'Donnell1998 (help)
- Lewis 2003, pp. 39–40.
- Rock 1987, p. 92; Lewis 2003, p. 41.
- "Feriados nacionales 2018" [National Holidays 2018] (in Spanish). Argentina Ministry of the Interior. Archived from the original on 9 July 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 349–53, vol. I.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 185–252, vol. I.
- Lewis 2003, p. 41.
- "Juan Bautista Túpac Amaru: el rey que Argentina pudo tener". 13 July 2016.
- "El 'plan del Inca' de Belgrano". 15 November 2013.
- "Plan del Inca". 15 November 2013.
- Lewis 2003, p. 43.
- Lewis 2003, p. 45.
- Lewis 2003, pp. 46–47.
- Lewis 2003, pp. 48–50.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 363–541, vol. I.
- Lewis 1990, pp. 18–30.
- Mosk 1990, pp. 88–89.
- Cruz 1990, p. 10.
- Díaz Alejandro 1970, pp. 2–3.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 567–625, vol. I.
- Lewis 1990, pp. 37–38.
- Douglas A. Richmond, "Julio Argentino Roca" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. 4 p. 583. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996.
- Barros, Álvaro (1872). Fronteras y territorios federales de las pampas del Sud (in Spanish). tipos á vapor. pp. 155–57.
- Ras, Norberto (2006). La guerra por las vacas (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Galerna. ISBN 978-987-05-0539-6.
- Bayer, Osvaldo (4 December 2004). "Pulgas y garrapatas" (in Spanish). Página/12. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
- Maeder, Ernesto J. A. (1997). "VIII". Historia del Chaco (in Spanish). Editorial Plus Ultra. p. 105. ISBN 978-950-21-1256-5.
- Iñigo Carrera, Nicolás (1983). La colonización del Chaco (in Spanish). Centro Editor de América Latina. pp. 16–23. ISBN 978-950-25-0123-9.
- "Breve historia de los pueblos aborígenes en Argentina" (in Spanish). Ministerio de Educación de Argentina. Archived from the original on 21 February 2018. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 7–178, vol. II.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 181–302, vol. II.
- Alexander, Robert Jackson. A History of Organized Labor in Argentina. Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 2003.
- Barnes 1978, p. 3.
- Barnes 1978, pp. 113ff.
- Rock, David (1993). Authoritarian Argentina. University of California Press.
- "Clarín". Clarin.com. 2 August 2001. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 303–51, vol. II.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 353–379, vol. II.
- Robben 2011, p. 34.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 381–422, vol. II.
- Moreno, Hugo (2005). Le désastre argentin. Péronisme, politique et violence sociale (1930–2001) (in French). Paris: Editions Syllepses. p. 109.
- Manuel Justo Gaggero, “El general en su laberinto”, Pagina/12, 19 February 2007
- Buckman, Robert T. (2007). The World Today Series: Latin America 2007. Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications. ISBN 978-1-887985-84-0.
- Political Violence and Trauma in Argentina, Antonius C. G. M. Robben, p. 145, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007
- Revolutionizing Motherhood: The Mothers of the Plaza De Mayo, Marguerite Guzmán Bouvard, p. 22, Rowman & Littlefield, 1994
- "Argentina's Guerrillas Still Intent On Socialism", Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 7 March 1976
- "Argentina's Dirty War". Archived from the original on 29 January 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
- "Militares Muertos Durante la Guerra Sucia". Archived from the original on 27 August 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
- Gambini, Hugo (2008). Historia del peronismo. La violencia (1956–1983). Buenos Aires: Javier Vergara Editor. pp. 198/208.
- Robben 2011, p. 127.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 423–65, vol. II.
- Robben 2011, pp. 76–77.
- Robben 2011, p. 145.
- Robben 2011, p. 148.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 467–504, vol. II.
- Meislin, Richard J. (16 June 1982). "THOUSANDS IN BUENOS AIRES ASSAIL JUNTA FOR SURRENDERING TO BRITAIN". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 November 2021.
- "CBS News releases video of the Falklands War riots". Fox News. 24 February 2015. Archived from the original on 7 November 2018. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 505–32, vol. II.
- Ley No. 23492, 29 December 1986, B.O., (26058) (in Spanish)
- Ley No. 23521, 9 June 1987, B.O., (26155) (in Spanish)
- Galasso 2011, pp. 533–49, vol. II.
- Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 6.
- Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 9.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 551–573, vol. II.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 575–87, vol. II.
- Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 12.
- Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 13.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 587–95, vol. II.
- Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 16.
- Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 15.
- Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 14.
- Ley No. 25779, 3 September 2003, B.O., (30226), 1 (in Spanish)
- Ley No. 24952, 17 April 1998, B.O., (28879), 1 (in Spanish)
- Galasso 2011, pp. 597–626, vol. II.
- "GDP growth (annual %) – Argentina". The World Bank. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
- "GDP per capita (constant 2010 US$) – Argentina". The World Bank. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
- Bouchier, Dewitt (22 January 2019). "Ruin redux: Argentina's Economy under Mauricio Macri". The Political Military Club. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
- "Mauricio Macri, el primer presidente desde 1916 que no es peronista ni radical" (in Spanish). Los Andes. 22 November 2015. Archived from the original on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- Carrelli Lynch, Guido. "Macri anunció medidas para amortiguar la inflación". Clarín (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 16 June 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
- Alcalá Kovalski, Manuel (5 September 2019). "Lessons learned from the Argentine economy under Macri". Brookings Institution. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
- Rabouin, Dion (3 September 2019). "Argentine president leads economy to debt, inflation and mass poverty". Axios. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
- "Argentina election: Centre-left Alberto Fernández wins presidency". BBC News. 28 October 2019.
- "Administracion Federal". AFIP. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- "Allegations of a network of corruption money involves former president Kirchner". Merco Press. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- "Peronists may lose Argentina Congress for first time in 40 years". www.aljazeera.com.
- Bronstein, Hugh; Misculin, Nicolás (15 November 2021). "Argentina's Peronists on the ropes after bruising midterm defeat". Reuters.
- "Informe científico que estudia el Aconcagua, el Coloso de América mide 6960,8 metros" [Scientific Report on Aconcagua, the Colossus of America measures 6960,8 m] (in Spanish). Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. 2012. Archived from the original on 8 September 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Young 2005, p. 52: "The Andes Mountains form the "backbone" of Argentina along the western border with Chile."
- Albanese, Rubén (2009). "Información geográfica de la República Argentina" [Geographic information of the Argentine Republic] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Instituto Geográfico Nacional. Archived from the original on 31 October 2013.
- McKinney 1993, p. 6; Fearns & Fearns 2005, p. 31.
- Albanese, Rubén (2009). "Alturas y Depresiones Máximas en la República Argentina" [Maximum peaks and lows in the Argentine Republic] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Instituto Geográfico Nacional. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013.
- Young 2005, p. 52.
- Lynch, David K. "Land Below Sea Level". Geology – Geoscience News and Information. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, pp. 5, 7–8, 51, 175.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 8.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 18.
- "Argentina – Main Details". Montreal, Canada: Convention on Biological Diversity. 2013. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013.
- "Biodiversity 2005. Cambridge, UK: UNEP–WCMC – World Conservation Monitoring Centre of the United Nations Environment Programme. 2005" (PDF). www.bipindicators.net. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
- "Objetivos de la Administración" (in Spanish). Administración de Parques Nacionales. Archived from the original on 29 October 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
- Grantham, H. S.; Duncan, A.; Evans, T. D.; Jones, K. R.; Beyer, H. L.; Schuster, R.; Walston, J.; Ray, J. C.; Robinson, J. G.; Callow, M.; Clements, T.; Costa, H. M.; DeGemmis, A.; Elsen, P. R.; Ervin, J.; Franco, P.; Goldman, E.; Goetz, S.; Hansen, A.; Hofsvang, E.; Jantz, P.; Jupiter, S.; Kang, A.; Langhammer, P.; Laurance, W. F.; Lieberman, S.; Linkie, M.; Malhi, Y.; Maxwell, S.; Mendez, M.; Mittermeier, R.; Murray, N. J.; Possingham, H.; Radachowsky, J.; Saatchi, S.; Samper, C.; Silverman, J.; Shapiro, A.; Strassburg, B.; Stevens, T.; Stokes, E.; Taylor, R.; Tear, T.; Tizard, R.; Venter, O.; Visconti, P.; Wang, S.; Watson, J. E. M. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity – Supplementary Material". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 5978. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7723057. PMID 33293507.
- Beck, Hylke E.; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; McVicar, Tim R.; Vergopolan, Noemi; Berg, Alexis; Wood, Eric F. (30 October 2018). "Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution". Scientific Data. 5: 180214. Bibcode:2018NatSD...580214B. doi:10.1038/sdata.2018.214. ISSN 2052-4463. PMC 6207062. PMID 30375988.
- "Geography and Climate of Argentina". Government of Argentina. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- Beck, Hylke E.; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; McVicar, Tim R.; Vergopolan, Noemi; Berg, Alexis; Wood, Eric F. (30 October 2018). "Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution". Scientific Data. 5: 180214. Bibcode:2018NatSD...580214B. doi:10.1038/sdata.2018.214. PMC 6207062. PMID 30375988.
- "Argentina". Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profiles. Food and Agriculture Organization. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- "General Information". Ministerio de Turismo. Archived from the original on 30 August 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
- Fernandez, Osvaldo; Busso, Carlos. "Arid and semi–arid rangelands: two thirds of Argentina" (PDF). The Agricultural University of Iceland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
- Menutti & Menutti 1980, p. 69.
- Menutti & Menutti 1980, p. 53.
- "El Cambio Climatico en Argentina" (PDF) (in Spanish). Secretaría de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sustentable. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- Robinson, James; Acemoglu, Daron (2006). Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 7–8.
- Levitsky, Steven; Murillo, María Victoria (2005). "Introduction". In Steven Levitsky; María Victoria Murillo (eds.). Argentine Democracy: The Politics of Institutional Weakness. Penn State University Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN 0271046341.
- Leslie E. Anderson (2016). Democratization by Institutions: Argentina's Transition Years in Comparative Perspective. University of Michigan Press. p. 15.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 1.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 3.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 37.
- "Argentina lowers its voting age to 16". The Washington Post. Washington, DC. 1 November 2012. Archived from the original on 11 May 2015. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 63.
- Constitution of Argentina, arts. 53, 59, 75.
- Constitution of Argentina, arts. 45, 47, 50.
- Constitution of Argentina, arts. 54, 56.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 99.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 90.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 116.
- Constitution of Argentina, arts. 99, 114.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 121.
- Constitution of Argentina, arts. 5–6.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 123.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 122.
- Constitution of Argentina, arts. 124–125.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 129.
- Rey Balmaceda 1995, p. 19.
- Rock 1987, p. 155.
- Bernado A. Duggan; Colin M. Lewis (2019). Historical Dictionary of Argentina. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 696. ISBN 978-1-5381-1970-9. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
- "Secretary-General Says Joint Peacekeeping Training Centre in Campo de Mayo 'Symbol of Argentina's Commitment to Peace'". New York: United Nations – Secretary General. 14 June 2011. Archived from the original on 5 June 2012.
- Cooper AF (1997) Niche Diplomacy – Middle Powers after the Cold War, palgrave
- Galasso 2011, p. 600, vol. II.
- "Destacamento Naval Orcadas" [Orcadas Naval Base] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Fundación Marambio. 1999. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013.
- "ATS – Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty". Buenos Aires: Antarctic Treaty Secretariat. 2013. Archived from the original on 7 February 2006. Retrieved 8 February 2007.
- Constitution of Argentina, T. P. 1.
- "Latin American and Caribbean State Parties to the Rome Statute, International Criminal Court. Retrieved 10 July 2021".
- Ley No. 23554 – Defensa Nacional, 5 May 1988, B.O., (26375), 4 (in Spanish)
- Ley No. 24059 – Seguridad Interior, 17 January 1992, B.O., (27307), 1 (in Spanish)
- Constitution of Argentina, arts. 125–126.
- "Argentina – Military branches". Index Mundi – CIA World Factbook. 2011. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012.
- Constitution of Argentina, arts. 21, 75, 99.
- "A Comparative Atlas of Defense in Latin America and Caribbean – Argentina" (PDF). Buenos Aires: RESDAL – Red de Seguridad y Defensa de América Latina. 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 May 2014.
- Maritime Archeology and History, Navy of the Argentine Republic, ARA Almirante Brown (D-10). Archived 9 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine URL accessed on 15 October 2006.
- "Argentina – Military service age and obligation". Index Mundi – CIA World Factbook. 2001. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012.
- Maldifassi & Abetti 1994, pp. 65–86.
- "Argentina – Military expenditure". Index Mundi – SIPRI – Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. 2011. Archived from the original on 6 September 2013.
- Venckunas, Valius (11 November 2020). "Curious case of Argentinian fighter jets". Aerotime. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
- Allison, George (16 May 2018). "Argentina has now ceased to be a capable military power". UK Defence Journal. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
- Decreto No. 18711 – Fuerzas de Seguridad, 23 June 1970, B.O., (21955) (in Spanish)
- Argentina, Armada. "Gaceta Marinera – Portal Oficial de Noticias de la Armada Argentina". Gacetamarinera.com.ar. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
- "Ministerio de Hacienda y Finanzas Públicas – Hacienda, Finanzas, Política Económica, Comercio Interior, Comercio Exterior, Ingresos Públicos, Información Económica, Gobierno, Organismos". Archived from the original on 19 October 2013.
- "Exchanges in Argentina Move Toward Greater Integration". The Wall Street Journal. New York. 3 April 2013. Archived from the original on 7 March 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
- Devereux, Charlie (18 September 2015). "Argentina's Economy Expanded 2.3% in Second Quarter". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
- "Argentina". World Economic Outlook Database, October 2014. International Monetary Fund. 2 November 2014. Archived from the original on 5 April 2015. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
- "Country Trends". Global Footprint Network. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
- Lin, David; Hanscom, Laurel; Murthy, Adeline; Galli, Alessandro; Evans, Mikel; Neill, Evan; Mancini, MariaSerena; Martindill, Jon; Medouar, FatimeZahra; Huang, Shiyu; Wackernagel, Mathis (2018). "Ecological Footprint Accounting for Countries: Updates and Results of the National Footprint Accounts, 2012–2018". Resources. 7 (3): 58. doi:10.3390/resources7030058.
- "Human Development Report 2013" (PDF). New York: UNDP – United Nations Development Program. 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 July 2014.
- "High income – Data". data.worldbank.org. Archived from the original on 16 September 2018. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
- Barrionuevo, Alexei (5 February 2011). "Inflation, an Old Scourge, Plagues Argentina Again". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 June 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
- "Indice de precios al consumidor" (PDF) (in Spanish). INDEC. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 January 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
- "Argentina imposes currency controls to support economy". BBC News. 2 September 2019.
- "Corruption Perceptions Index 2017". Transparency International. 2017. Archived from the original on 24 November 2018. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
- "Corruption Perceptions Index 2014". Transparency International. 2014. Archived from the original on 18 April 2018. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
- "Argentina Plans to Offer 100-Year Bonds". Bloomberg.com. 19 June 2017. Archived from the original on 29 September 2017. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
- "Argentina, creditors get ready to resume debt talks after ninth sovereign default". Reuters. 23 May 2020. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
- Brittle Power Archived 2 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, p. 144.
- "Información Económica al Día – Nivel de Actividad" (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Dirección Nacional de Política Macroeconómica – Ministerio de Economía y Finanzas Públicas. 2013. Archived from the original (XLS) on 10 April 2014.
- "Argentina – Industrial production growth rate". Index Mundi – CIA World Factbook. 2011. Archived from the original on 10 March 2013.
- "Argentina – Economy Overview". Index Mundi – CIA World Factbook. 2013. Archived from the original on 3 December 2012.
- "Argentina at TIC 2013: Country pushing CNG, food processing". Digital Guardian. Port of Spain. 2013. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013.
- "List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor". Dol.gov. Archived from the original on 10 June 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
- "Argentina – Industry". Encyclopedia of the Nations. 2002. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013.
- "Electricity/Heat in Argentina in 2009". Paris: IEA – International Energy Agency. 2009. Archived from the original on 3 August 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- "Argentina – Railways". Index Mundi – CIA World Factbook. 2013. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014.
- "Argentina – Transportation". Encyclopedia of the Nations. 2002. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013.
- Desde hoy, toda la línea Mitre tiene trenes 0 km Archived 26 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine – La Nacion, 09, February 2015
- Exitosa prueba en la renovada vía a Rosario Archived 14 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine – EnElSubte, 09, March 2015
- Otro salto en la recuperación de soberanía Archived 20 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine – Pagina/12, 16 April 2015
- Es ley la creación de Ferrocarriles Argentinos Archived 16 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine – EnElSubte, 15 April 2015
- Ferrocarriles Argentinos: Randazzo agradeció a la oposición parlamentaria por acompañar en su recuperación Archived 16 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine – Sala de Prensa de la Republica Argentina, 15 April 2015
- Se cumplieron 100 años del primer viaje en subte Archived 25 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine – Ambito, 1 December 2013.
- "Argentina – Roadways". Index Mundi – CIA World Factbook. 2013. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013.
- "Argentina – Waterways". Index Mundi – CIA World Factbook. 2012. Archived from the original on 1 November 2012.
- "Argentina – Airports with paved runways". Index Mundi – CIA World Factbook. 2013. Archived from the original on 1 November 2012.
- Aeberhard, Benson & Phillips 2000, p. 76.
- Aeberhard, Benson & Phillips 2000, pp. 24–25.
- Aeberhard, Benson & Phillips 2000, p. 45.
- Akstinat 2013, p. 20.
- Moore, Don. "Radio with a past in Argentina". Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. A slightly edited version of this article was originally published as Moore, Don (January 1995). "Argentina: Radio with a Past". Monitoring Times. Brasstown, NC: Grove Enterprises.
- "Argentina–Infraestructura" (in Spanish). Mi Buenos Aires Querido. 2002. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2008.
- "Homes with Cable TV in Latin America". Austin, TX: LANIC – Latin American Network Information Center. 1999. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013.
- "Penetración TV paga en hogares 2014 – Argentina" (in Spanish). Coral Gables, FL: LAMAC – Latin American Multichannel Advertising Council. 2014. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- "South America". IWS–ITU – Internet World Stats. 2011. Archived from the original on 2 April 2014.
- Argüello, Irma (8 January 2009). "Brazil and Argentina's Nuclear Cooperation". Carnegie Endowment for international peace. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- "Background Note: Argentina". State.gov. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
- "Hillary Clinton: Argentina is on the forefront of the fight for nuclear security". State.gov. 13 April 2010. Archived from the original on 16 April 2010.
- Reneau, Leandro (29 September 2012). "Atucha III se construirá con un 60% de componentes nacionales" (in Spanish). Tiempo Argentino. Archived from the original on 5 August 2014.
- "Exitosa Revisión de la Misión SAOCOM" (in Spanish). CONAE. 12 April 2016. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- "PEHUENSAT-1" (in Spanish). Asociación Argentina de Tecnología Espacial. Archived from the original on 17 January 2007. Retrieved 24 January 2007.
- "'Argentine satellite SAC-D' will be presented in Bariloche". Momento 24. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010.
- Science and Education in Argentina. argentina.ar
- "Satellite Missions". CONAE. Archived from the original on 4 February 2009. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- "Scientists celebrate inauguration of Pierre Auger Observatory". Pierre Auger Observatory. Archived from the original on 7 January 2009.
- Interplanetary support station to be installed in Argentina Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Buenos Aires Herald (23 June 2009). Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- "Release of the Global Innovation Index 2020: Who Will Finance Innovation?". www.wipo.int. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
- "Global Innovation Index 2019". www.wipo.int. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
- "RTD - Item". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
- "Global Innovation Index". INSEAD Knowledge. 28 October 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
- "UNWTO Tourism Highlights, 2014 Edition". World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
- "México DF, Buenos Aires y San Pablo, los destinos turísticos favoritos" (in Spanish). Infobae América. June 2011. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- "Proyecciones provinciales de población por sexo y grupos de edad 2001–2015" (PDF). Gustavo Pérez (in Spanish). INDEC. p. 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2011.
- "Censo 2010: Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas" (in Spanish). Censo2010.indec.gov.ar. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011.
- "Argentina – MIGRATION PROFILES, Part II. Population indicators" (PDF). UNCEF.
- Ramiro A. Flores Cruz. "El crecimiento de la población argentina" (PDF). pp. 2, 10.
- "PRB" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 April 2010.
- UN Demographic Yearbook, 2007.
- Nee, Patrick W. (2015). Key Facts on Argentina: Essential Information on Argentina. The Internationalist. p. 10.
- Forero, Juan (15 July 2010). "Argentina becomes second nation in Americas to legalize gay marriage". seattletimes.nwsource.com. Archived from the original on 21 May 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- Fastenberg, Dan (22 July 2010). "International Gay Marriage". Time. Archived from the original on 2 November 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Encuesta Complementaria de Pueblos Indígenas 2004–2005" (in Spanish). National Institute of Statistics and Census of Argentina. Archived from the original on 11 June 2008.
- Cruz-Coke, R.; Moreno, R.S. (1994). "Genetic epidemiology of single gene defects in Chile". Journal of Medical Genetics. 31 (9): 702–06. doi:10.1136/jmg.31.9.702. PMC 1050080. PMID 7815439.
- "About Argentina". Government of Argentina. Archived from the original on 19 September 2009.
- "The genetic composition of Argentina prior to the massive immigration era: Insights from matrilineages of extant criollos in central-western Argentina".
- Muzzio, Marina; Motti, Josefina M. B.; Paz Sepulveda, Paula B.; Yee, Muh-ching; Cooke, Thomas; Santos, María R.; Ramallo, Virginia; Alfaro, Emma L.; Dipierri, Jose E.; Bailliet, Graciela; Bravi, Claudio M.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Kenny, Eimear E. (1 May 2018). "Population structure in Argentina". PLOS ONE. 13 (5): e0196325. Bibcode:2018PLoSO..1396325M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0196325. PMC 5929549. PMID 29715266.
- García, Angelina; Dermarchi, Darío A.; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Pauro, Maia; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Hutz, Mara H.; García, Angelina; Dermarchi, Darío A.; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Pauro, Maia; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Hutz, Mara H. (1 September 2015). "High interpopulation homogeneity in Central Argentina as assessed by Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs)". Genetics and Molecular Biology. 38 (3): 324–331. doi:10.1590/S1415-475738320140260. PMC 4612595. PMID 26500436.
- Seldin, Michael F.; Tian, Chao; Shigeta, Russell; Scherbarth, Hugo R.; Silva, Gabriel; Belmont, John W.; Kittles, Rick; Gamron, Susana; Allevi, Alberto; Palatnik, Simon A.; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Paira, Sergio; Caprarulo, Cesar; Guillerón, Carolina; Catoggio, Luis J.; Prigione, Cristina; Berbotto, Guillermo A.; García, Mercedes A.; Perandones, Carlos E.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E. (1 March 2007). "Argentine Population Genetic Structure: Large Variance in Amerindian Contribution". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 132 (3): 455–462. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20534. PMC 3142769. PMID 17177183.
- "Capítulo VII. Inmigrantes" (PDF). 10 June 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 June 2007. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
- "European immigration into Latin America, 1870–1930" (PDF). 14 August 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 August 2011. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
- Fernández, Francisco Lizcano (2007). Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI. p. 93. ISBN 978-970-757-052-8.
- Craughwell, Thomas J. (2013). Pope Francis: The Pope from the End of the Earth. TAN Books. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-61890-138-5.
- Sánchez, Gonzalo (27 September 2010). "La comunidad china en el país se duplicó en los últimos 5 años". Clarin.com. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- Masterson, Daniel M. and Sayaka Funada-Classen. The Japanese in Latin America. University of Illinois Press, 2004. ISBN 0252071441, 9780252071447. p. 146-147.
- Corach, Daniel; Lao, Oscar; Bobillo, Cecilia; Van Der Gaag, Kristiaan; Zuniga, Sofia; Vermeulen, Mark; Van Duijn, Kate; Goedbloed, Miriam; Vallone, Peter M; Parson, Walther; De Knijff, Peter; Kayser, Manfred (2010). "Inferring Continental Ancestry of Argentineans from Autosomal, Y-Chromosomal and Mitochondrial DNA". Annals of Human Genetics. 74 (1): 65–76. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00556.x. PMID 20059473. S2CID 5908692.
- "Medicina (B. Aires) vol.66 número2; Resumen: S0025-76802006000200004". Archived from the original on 19 July 2011.
- "El varieté de la calle Florida" Archived 15 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine (Editorial) – Clarín (in Spanish)
- "Patria Grande". Patriagrande.gov.ar. Archived from the original on 23 July 2008. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- "Alientan la mudanza de extranjeros hacia el interior – Sociedad –". Perfil.com. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 25 August 2007.
- Homburger; et al. (2015). "Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America". PLOS Genetics. 11 (12): e1005602. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005602. PMC 4670080. PMID 26636962.
- Avena; et al. (2012). "Heterogeneity in Genetic Admixture across Different Regions of Argentina". PLOS ONE. 7 (4): e34695. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...734695A. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034695. PMC 3323559. PMID 22506044.
- "O impacto das migrações na constituição genética de populações latino-americanas" (PDF). Repositorio.unb.br. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 October 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- "Reference Populations – Geno 2.0 Next Generation". Genographic.nationalgeographic.com. Archived from the original on 24 November 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- Corach, Daniel; Lao, Oscar; Bobillo, Cecilia; Gaag, Kristiaan Van Der; Zuniga, Sofia; Vermeulen, Mark; Duijn, Kate Van; Goedbloed, Miriam; Vallone, Peter M.; Parson, Walther; Knijff, Peter De (2010). "Inferring Continental Ancestry of Argentineans from Autosomal, Y-Chromosomal and Mitochondrial DNA". Annals of Human Genetics. 74 (1): 65–76. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00556.x. ISSN 1469-1809. PMID 20059473. S2CID 5908692.
- Lewis, Simons & Fennig 2014.
- Colantoni & Gurlekian 2004, pp. 107–119.
- DellaPergola 2013, pp. 25–26, 49–50.
- "Albanian migration and development: state of the art review" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 September 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- Aeberhard, Benson & Phillips 2000, p. 602.
- Constitution of Argentina, arts. 14, 20.
- Fayt 1985, p. 347; Bidart Campos 2005, p. 53.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 2.
- "International Religious Freedom Report 2012 – Argentina". Washington, DC: US Department of State. 2012.
- Mallimaci, Esquivel & Irrazábal 2008, p. 9.
- "Latinobarómetro 1995–2017: El Papa Francisco y la Religión en Chile y América Latina" (PDF) (in Spanish). January 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 January 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
- DellaPergola 2013, p. 50.
- Mallimaci, Esquivel & Irrazábal 2008, p. 21.
- Mallimaci, Esquivel & Irrazábal 2008, p. 24.
- Donadio, Rachel (13 March 2013). "Cardinals Pick Bergoglio, Who Will Be Pope Francis". The New York Times. New York. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014.
- "Argentina – Urbanization". Index Mundi – CIA World Factbook. 26 July 2012. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012.
- "About Argentina – Major Cities". Buenos Aires: Government of Argentina. 19 September 2009. Archived from the original on 19 September 2009.
- "República Argentina por provincia. Densidad de población. Año 2010" (in Spanish). INDEC. Archived from the original on 1 September 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
- "Encuesta Permanente de Hogares" (PDF). Indec. 23 August 2015. p. 3.
- "El Sistema Educativo – Acerca del Sistema Educativo Argentino" (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Ministerio de Educación – Presidencia de la Nación. 2009. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- "Desde hoy, es obligatorio que todos los niños de cuatro años ingresen al sistema educativo – educación, Escuelas, Sociedad, Docentes bonaerenses". Infobae.com. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
- "Población de 10 años y más por condición de alfabetismo y sexo, según provincia. Año 2010". Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas 2010 (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: INDEC – Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos. 2010. Archived from the original (XLS) on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- "Total del país. Población de 5 años y más que asistió a un establecimiento educativo por nivel de educación alcanzado y completud del nivel, según sexo y grupo de edad. Año 2010". Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas 2010 (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: INDEC – Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos. 2010. Archived from the original (XLS) on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- "Sistema Universitario" (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Ministerio de Educación – Presidencia de la Nación. 2011. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014.
- "AMA". Ama-med.org.ar. Archived from the original on 13 April 2010.
- "IADB" (PDF). IADB. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 September 2008.
- Estadisticas Vitales – Informacionn Basica Año2008 Archived 25 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Ministry of Health (December 2009)
- "UNData". Retrieved 28 August 2016.[permanent dead link]
- UN Demographic Yearbook. 1957.
- UN Demographic Yearbook. Historical Statistics. 1997.
- Dodson, Sean (11 January 2008). "Top shelves". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 8 April 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
2) El Ateneo in Buenos Aires
- Luongo, Michael. Frommer's Argentina. Wiley Publishing, 2007.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 91.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 123.
- Sabato, Ernesto (1976). La cultura en la encrucijada nacional, Buenos Aires: Sudamericana, pp. 17–18.
- Rivas 1989, p. 11.
- Foster, Lockhart & Lockhart 1998, p. 99.
- Foster, Lockhart & Lockhart 1998, pp. 13, 101; Young & Cisneros 2010, p. 51.
- Young & Cisneros 2010, pp. 51–52.
- Foster, Lockhart & Lockhart 1998, pp. 104, 107–09; Young & Cisneros 2010, p. 223.
- Bloom 1994, p. 2.
- Young & Cisneros 2010, pp. 52, 80.
- Young & Cisneros 2010, pp. 79, 144.
- Young & Cisneros 2010, pp. 3, 144.
- Foster, Lockhart & Lockhart 1998, pp. 66, 85, 97–121; McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 43; Díaz Alejandro 1970, pp. 22, 91; Young & Cisneros 2010, pp. 51–54.
- Ross, Alex (12 November 2001). "Madame X". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
- Miller 2004, p. 86. sfn error: no target: CITEREFMiller2004 (help)
- Foster, Lockhart & Lockhart 1998, p. 121.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 43.
- "The "cumbia turra "Has its spokespersons in Paraná:" Los Rompebarrios "is already playing". Retrieved 29 December 2011.
- "Top 10: Opera Houses" Archived 1 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine on travel.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 14 April 2014
- "Buenos Aires – A Passionate City". Radar Magazine. 10 February 2013. Archived from the original on 3 May 2013.
- Foster, Lockhart & Lockhart 1998, p. 48.
- Long 2009, pp. 21–25.
- Mora, Carl J. (1989). Mexican Cinema: Reflections of a Society. University of California Press. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-520-04304-6.
- "Argentina – Cultura – Cine" (in Spanish). 16 October 2011. Archived from the original on 16 December 2008.
- King 2000, p. 36.
- Bendazzi, Giannalberto (1996). "Quirino Cristiani, The Untold Story of Argentina's Pioneer Animator". Animation World Network. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013.
- Mumford, Gwilym (29 September 2017). "Stephen King's It scares off The Exorcist to become highest-grossing horror ever". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
- Tartaglione, Nancy (8 October 2017). "'Blade Runner 2049' Launches With $50M Overseas; 'It' Tops $600M WW; 'Despicable 3' Hops Past 'Zootopia' – Intl Box Office". Deadline. Archived from the original on 8 October 2017. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
- "Cannes Film Festival: Awards 2013". Cannes. 26 May 2013. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
- "Market Study – Argentina" (PDF). Munich, Germany: German Films. August 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2014.
- Stewart, Jennifer (16 July 2006). "Lively, playful geometric works of art for fun". St. Petersburg Times. St. Petersburg, FL.
- Martínez-Carter, Karina (14 March 2013). "Preserving history in Buenos Aires". BBC Travel. Archived from the original on 23 January 2014.
- Decreto No. 17468/1953, 25 September 1953, B.O., (17490) (in Spanish)
- Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 124–25.
- "Pato, Argentina's national sport". Argentina – Portal público de noticias de la República Argentina. Buenos Aires: Secretaría de Medios de Comunicación – Presidencia de la Nación. 18 November 2008. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011.
In 1610, thirty years after Buenos Aires' second foundation and two hundred years before the May Revolution, a document drafted by the military anthropologist Félix de Azara described a pato sport scene taking place in the city.
- Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 14–23.
- Friedman 2007, pp. 56, 127.
- Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 11.
- "Meet Luciana Aymar – Las Leonas (Argentina)". Nieuwegein: Rabobank Hockey World Cup 2014. 2014. Archived from the original on 16 June 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
- "Amazing Aymar lands eighth FIH Player of the Year crown". Lausanne, Switzerland: FIH – Fédération Internationale de Hockey sur Gazon [International Hockey Federation]. 8 December 2013. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013.
- "Argentina – Profile". Mies, Switzerland: FIBA – Fédération Internationale de Basket-ball [International Basketball Federation]. 2014. Archived from the original on 16 June 2014.
- Fischer, Doug (30 September 2011). "10: Best middleweight titleholders of the last 50 years". Blue Bell, PA: The Ring. Archived from the original on 15 June 2014.
- Rodríguez 2009, pp. 164–65.
- Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 144.
- Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 135.
- "Hall of Fame Members". Newport, RI: International Tennis Hall of Fame and Museum. 2014. Archived from the original on 14 February 2014.
- Aeberhard, Benson & Phillips 2000, pp. 50–51.
- Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 128.
- Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 98; Dougall 2013, pp. 170–171.
- Arbena 1999, p. 147 sfnm error: no target: CITEREFArbena1999 (help); Dougall 2013, pp. 170–171, 195.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, pp. 79, 199, 221.
- Steiger, Carlos (2006). "Modern Beef Production in Brazil and Argentina". Choices Magazine. Milwaukee, WI. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 79.
- Aeberhard, Benson & Phillips 2000, p. 31; McCloskey & Burford 2006, pp. 80, 143.
- Cannavan, Tom. "About Argentine wine". Wine Pages. Archived from the original on 11 December 2012.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, pp. 230, 252, 261–62, 265.
- "Datos generales de Argentina" (in Spanish). Folklore del Norte Argentino. 2004. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2011.
- Decreto No. 1650/2010 – Símbolos Nacionales, 23 November 2010, B.O., (32033), 5 (in Spanish)
- Ferro 1991, pp. 234–35.
- Decreto No. 10302/1944 – Símbolos Nacionales, 10 May 1944, B.O., (14894), 4 (in Spanish)
- Calvo 1864, pp. 20ff.
- "Nuestra Señora de Luján" (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Ministerio de Educación de la Nación – Efemérides Culturales Argentinas. Archived from the original on 9 March 2012.
- "El Hornero" (in Spanish). Carlos Casares, Argentina: Red Argentina. 24 September 2009. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013.
- Decreto No. 138974/1942, 25 January 1943, B.O., (14519), 5 (in Spanish)
- Decreto No. 15190/1956, 5 September 1956
- "Piedra nacional: la Rodocrosita" (in Spanish). Bogotá: Embajada de la República Argentina en la República de Colombia. 2013. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013.
- Ley No. 26870 – Declárase al Vino Argentino como bebida nacional, 2 August 2013, B.O., (32693), 1 (in Spanish)
- Ley No. 26871 – Declárase al Mate como infusión nacional, 2 August 2013, B.O., (32693), 1 (in Spanish)
- "El asado". Via Restó (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Grupo Clarín. 28 April 2010. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013.
- "ArgentinaGastronomia" (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Argentina – Portal oficial de promoción de la República Argentina. 6 June 2008. Archived from the original on 27 July 2008.
- Bolt, Jutta; Van Zanden, Jan Luiten (2013). "The First Update of the Maddison Project; Re-estimating Growth Before 1820" (XLS). Maddison Project Working Paper 4.
- Colantoni, Laura; Gurlekian, Jorge (August 2004). "Convergence and intonation. Historical evidence from Buenos Aires Spanish" (PDF). Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. Cambridge, UK. 7 (2): 107–19. doi:10.1017/S1366728904001488. S2CID 56111230. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2020.
- Cruz, Arturo Jr. (6 August 1990). "Glory Past but Not Forgotten". Insight on the News. Vol. 6 no. 32. New York: News World Communications. p. 8.
- DellaPergola, Sergio (2013). "World Jewish Population, 2013". In Dashefsky, Arnold; Sheskin, Ira (eds.). The American Jewish Year Book, 2013. American Jewish Year Book. 113. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 279–358. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-01658-0_6. ISBN 978-3-319-01658-0.
- Long, Marshall (April 2009). "What is So Special About Shoebox Halls? Envelopment, Envelopment, Envelopment" (PDF). Acoustics Today. 5 (2): 21–25. doi:10.1121/1.3182843. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
- Malamud, Andrés (2011). "A Leader Without Followers? The Growing Divergence Between the Regional and Global Performance of Brazilian Foreign Policy". Latin American Politics and Society. Lisbon. 53 (3): 1–24. doi:10.1111/j.1548-2456.2011.00123.x. hdl:10451/15545. S2CID 154469332.
- Mallimaci, Fortunato; Esquivel, Juan Cruz; Irrazábal, Gabriela (26 August 2008). "Primera Encuesta Sobre Creencias y Actitudes Religiosas En Argentina" (PDF) (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: CONICET – Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas.
- Solomon, Hussein (1997). "South African Foreign Policy, Middle Power Leadership and Preventive Diplomacy" (PDF). Pretoria, South Africa: Centre for International Political Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 April 2014.
- Abad de Santillán, Diego (1971). Historia Argentina (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Tipográfica Editora Argentina.
- Adler, Emanuel; Greve, Patricia (2009). "When security community meets balance of power: overlapping regional mechanisms of security governance". In Fawn, Rick (ed.). Globalising the Regional, Regionalising the Global. Review of International Studies. 35. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 59–84. ISBN 978-0-521-75988-5.
- Aeberhard, Danny; Benson, Andrew; Phillips, Lucy (2000). The rough guide to Argentina. London: Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-85828-569-6.
- Akstinat, Björn (2013). Handbuch der deutschsprachigen Presse im Ausland (in German). Berlin: IMH–Verlag. ISBN 978-3-9815158-1-7.
- Arbena, Joseph. "In Search of the Latin American Female Athlete". In Arbena & LaFrance (2002), pp. 219–232.
- Arbena, Joseph; LaFrance, David Gerald, eds. (2002). Sport in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-8420-2821-9.
- Barnes, John (1978). Evita, First Lady: A Biography of Eva Perón. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 978-0-8021-3479-0.
- Bidart Campos, Germán J. (2005). Manual de la Constitución Reformada (in Spanish). I. Buenos Aires: Ediar. ISBN 978-950-574-121-2.
- Bloom, Harold (1994). The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages. New York: Harcourt Brace & Company. ISBN 978-1-57322-514-4.
- Boughton, James M. (2012). Tearing Down Walls. The International Monetary Fund 1990–1999. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund. ISBN 978-1-61635-084-0.
- Calvo, Carlos (1864). Anales históricos de la revolucion de la América latina, acompañados de los documentos en su apoyo. Desde el año 1808 hasta el reconocimiento de la independencia de ese extenso continente (in Spanish). 2. Paris: A. Durand.
- Crooker, Richard A. (2009). Argentina. New York: Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4381-0481-2.
- Crow, John A. (1992). The Epic of Latin America (4th ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-07723-2.
- Díaz Alejandro, Carlos F. (1970). Essays on the Economic History of the Argentine Republic. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-01193-7.
- Dougall, Angus (2013). The Greatest Racing Driver. Bloomington, IN: Balboa Press. ISBN 978-1-4525-1096-5.
- Edwards, Todd L. (2008). Argentina: A Global Studies Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-986-3.
- Epstein, Edward; Pion-Berlin, David (2006). "The Crisis of 2001 and Argentine Democracy". In Epstein, Edward; Pion-Berlin, David (eds.). Broken Promises?: The Argentine Crisis and Argentine Democracy. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. pp. 3–26. ISBN 978-0-7391-0928-1.
- Fayt, Carlos S. (1985). Derecho Político (in Spanish). I (6th ed.). Buenos Aires: Depalma. ISBN 978-950-14-0276-6.
- Fearns, Les; Fearns, Daisy (2005). Argentina. London: Evans Brothers. ISBN 978-0-237-52759-4.
- Ferro, Carlos A. (1991). Historia de la Bandera Argentina (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Ediciones Depalma. ISBN 978-950-14-0610-8.
- Foster, David W.; Lockhart, Melissa F.; Lockhart, Darrell B. (1998). Culture and Customs of Argentina. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-30319-7.
- Friedman, Ian C. (2007). Latino Athletes. New York: Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4381-0784-4.
- Galasso, Norberto (2011). Historia de la Argentina, vol. I&II (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Colihue. ISBN 978-950-563-478-1.
- Huntington, Samuel P. (2000). "Culture, Power, and Democracy". In Plattner, Marc; Smolar, Aleksander (eds.). Globalization, Power, and Democracy. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 3–13. ISBN 978-0-8018-6568-8.
- King, John (2000). Magical Reels: A History of Cinema in Latin America. Critical Studies in Latin American & Iberian Cultures. London: Verso. ISBN 978-1-85984-233-1.
- Kopka, Deborah (2011). Central & South America. Dayton, OH: Lorenz Educational Press. ISBN 978-1-4291-2251-1.
- Lake, David (2009). "Regional Hierarchies: Authority and Local International Order". In Fawn, Rick (ed.). Globalising the Regional, Regionalising the Global. Review of International Studies. 35. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 35–58. ISBN 978-0-521-75988-5.
- Levene, Ricardo (1948). Desde la Revolución de Mayo a la Asamblea de 1813–15. Historia del Derecho Argentino (in Spanish). IV. Buenos Aires: Editorial G. Kraf.
- Lewis, Daniel K. (2003). The History of Argentina. Palgrave Essential Histories Series. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-6254-6.
- Lewis, M. Paul; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D., eds. (2014). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (17th ed.). Dallas, TX: Summer Institute of Linguistics International.
- Lewis, Paul (1990). The Crisis of Argentine Capitalism. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-4356-7.
- Maddison, Angus (1995). Monitoring the World Economy 1820–1992. Paris: OECD Publishing. ISBN 978-92-64-14549-8.
- Maddison, Angus (2001). The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective. OECD Publishing. ISBN 978-92-64-18654-5.
- Maldifassi, José O.; Abetti, Pier A. (1994). Defense industries in Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-94729-3.
- Margheritis, Ana (2010). Argentina's foreign policy: domestic politics and democracy promotion in the Americas. Boulder, CO: FirstForumPress. ISBN 978-1-935049-19-7.
- McCloskey, Erin; Burford, Tim (2006). Argentina. Guilford, CT: Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN 978-1-84162-138-8.
- McKinney, Kevin (1993). Everyday geography. New York: GuildAmerica Books. ISBN 978-1-56865-032-6.
- Menutti, Adela; Menutti, María Mercedes (1980). Geografía Argentina y Universal (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Edil.
- Morris, Michael (1988). Mangone, Gerard (ed.). The Strait of Magellan. International Straits of the World. 11. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishes. ISBN 978-0-7923-0181-3.
- Mosk, Sanford A. (1990). "Latin America and the World Economy, 1850–1914". In Hanke, Lewis; Rausch, Jane M. (eds.). People and Issues in Latin American History. II: From Independence to the Present. New York: Markus Wiener Publishing. pp. 86–96. ISBN 978-1-55876-018-9.
- Nauright, John; Parrish, Charles, eds. (2012). Sports around the World: History, Culture, and Practice. 3. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-301-9.
- Nierop, Tom (2001). "The Clash of Civilisations". In Dijkink, Gertjan; Knippenberg, Hans (eds.). The Territorial Factor. Amsterdam: Vossiuspers UvA – Amsterdam University Press. pp. 51–76. ISBN 978-90-5629-188-4.
- Papadopoulos, Anestis (2010). The International Dimension of EU Competition Law and Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-19646-8.
- Rey Balmaceda, Raúl (1995). Mi país, la Argentina (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Arte Gráfico Editorial Argentino. ISBN 978-84-599-3442-8.
- Rivas, José Andrés (1989). Santiago en sus letras: antología criticotemática de las letras santiagueñas (in Spanish). Santiago del Estero, SE, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Santiago del Estero.
- Robben, Antonius C.G.M. (2011). Political Violence and Trauma in Argentina. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-0331-8.
- Rock, David (1987). Argentina, 1516–1987: From Spanish Colonization to the Falklands War. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-06178-1.
- Rodríguez, Robert G. (2009). The Regulation of Boxing: A History and Comparative Analysis of Policies Among American States. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-5284-2.
- Rosenblat, Ángel (1964). El nombre de la Argentina (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: EUDEBA – Editorial Universitaria de Buenos Aires.
- Ruiz-Dana, Alejandra; Goldschag, Peter; Claro, Edmundo; Blanco, Hernán (2009). "Regional Integration, Trade and Conflicts in Latin America". In Khan, Shaheen Rafi (ed.). Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution. New York: Routledge. pp. 15–44. ISBN 978-0-415-47673-7.
- Sánchez Viamonte, Carlos (1948). Historia Institucional Argentina (in Spanish) (2nd ed.). Mexico D. F.: Fondo de Cultura Económica.
- Traba, Juan (1985). Origen de la palabra "¿¡Argentina!?" (in Spanish). Rosario, SF, Argentina: Escuela de Artes Gráficas del Colegio San José.
- Vanossi, Jorge R. (1964). Situación actual del federalismo: aspectos institucionales y económicos, en particular sobre la realidad argentina. Cuadernos de ciencia política de la Asociación Argentina de Ciencia Política (in Spanish). 2. Buenos Aires: Ediciones Depalma.
- Wood, Bernard (1988). The middle powers and the general interest. Ottawa: North–South Institute. ISBN 978-0-920494-81-3.
- Young, Richard; Cisneros, Odile (2010). Historical Dictionary of Latin American Literature and Theater. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-7498-5.
- Young, Ronald (2005). "Argentina". In McColl, Robert W. (ed.). Encyclopedia of World Geography. I. New York: Golson Books. pp. 51–53. ISBN 978-0-8160-7229-3.
- Official website (in Spanish)
- National Institute of Tourism Promotion
- Argentina. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- Argentina at Curlie
- Argentina at the Latin American Network Information Center
- Argentina at the University Libraries – University of Colorado Boulder
- Key Development Forecasts for Argentina at International Futures
- Geographic data related to Argentina at OpenStreetMap
- Wikimedia Atlas of Argentina