Argentina–Spain relations refers to the bilateral relationship between the Argentine Republic and the Kingdom of Spain. Both nations are members of the G-20, Organization of Ibero-American States and the United Nations.
In 1516, the first Spanish expedition to visit what is now Argentina was led by the explorer Juan Díaz de Solís. In 1536, the first Spanish settlement was created in the Río de la Plata basin. Since then, Argentina was formally incorporated into the Viceroyalty of Peru governed from Lima under the Spanish crown. In 1776, the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata was created with the head of government placed in Buenos Aires.
In May 1810, the May Revolution where Argentina declared its independence from Spain. For the next eight years, Argentina, led by José de San Martín, fought Spanish troops for independence. in 1824, Argentina obtained its independence in 1824. In 1863, a Treaty of Peace and Amity was signed and thus established diplomatic relations between the two nations.
Since obtaining independence from Spain, diplomatic relations between the two nations have been stable. During the Spanish civil war, Argentina remained neutral and gave asylum to any Spanish citizen requesting it without regards to whether they were Republicans or Franquistas. At the end of the war, Argentina maintained diplomatic relations with the government of General Francisco Franco. Maintaining diplomatic relations allowed for the first lady of Argentina Eva Perón to visit Spain in 1947 and donate five million tons of food to the Spanish people.
After the death of General Franco in Spain in 1975, Argentina entered a period of military dictatorship between 1976–1983. In 1982, Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands, also known as the Malvinas in Spanish. Spain recognized and supported the claims of Argentine territorial rights over the islands. In 2012, British documents were made declassified and stated that Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher feared that during the Falkland war, Spain would join Argentina by invading Gibraltar.
A dispute arose in 2012, when Argentina sought to nationalize the energy company YPF, owned by the Spanish multinational company Repsol. Spain warned against such a move stating that it would harm bilateral relations if such a move were to happen. On 16 April, Argentina's President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner announced the nationalization of YPF, to which Spain warned of a "clear and decisive" response. Since then, Argentina has recompensed the Spanish government and Repsol over the take over of YPF.
Over the years, both nations have signed numerous bilateral agreements such as an Air Transportation Agreement (1947); Agreement on the Elimination of Visas (1947); Agreement on Migration (1960; Agreement on Cultural Cooperation (1971); Agreement on Scientific and Technical Cooperation (1972); Agreement on Economic Cooperation (1974); Extradition Treaty (1987); Agreement on the Promotion and Protection of Investments (1991); Agreement on mutual recognition of Drivers License (2002) and an Agreement on the Avoidance of Double-Taxation (2013).
In 2015, trade between Argentina and Spain totaled €2.6 billion Euros. Argentina's main exports to Spain include: animal based products, frozen fish, crustaceans and sea mussels, copper and organic chemicals. Spain's exports to Argentina include: automobile components and equipment, electrical material and pharmachemicals. Spanish multinational companies such Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria, Banco Santander, Mapfre, Telefónica and Zara operate in Argentina.
Resident diplomatic relations
- Argentina has an embassy in Madrid and consulates-general in Barcelona, and Vigo and consulates in Cádiz, Palma, and Santa Cruz de Tenerife.
- Spain has an embassy in Buenos Aires and consulates-general in Bahía Blanca, Córdoba, Mendoza, and Rosario.
- Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs on Argentina (in Spanish)
- La guerra civil española y la sociedad argentina (in Spanish)
- 16 días con Evita Perón en España (in Spanish)
- El País: ¿Puede España atacar Gibraltar? (in Spanish)
- Spain Cautions Argentina on Takeover of Energy Firm
- Spain Pledges Action Against Argentina Over YPF Seizure
- Spain's Repsol agrees to $5 billion settlement with Argentina over YPF
- Relaciones Bilaterales: Argentina (in Spanish)
- Embassy of Argentina in Madrid (in Spanish)
- Consulate-General of Argentina in Barcelona (in Spanish)
- Consulate-General of Argentina in Vigo (in Spanish)
- Consulate of Argentina in Cádiz (in Spanish)
- Consulate of Argentina in Palma (in Spanish)
- Consulate of Argentina in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (in Spanish)
- Embassy of Spain in Buenos Aires (in Spanish)
- Consulate-General of Spain in Bahía Blanca (in Spanish)
- Consulate-General of Spain in Córdoba (in Spanish)
- Consulate-General of Spain in Mendoza (in Spanish)
- Consulate-General of Spain in Rosario (in Spanish)