Argentina–Chile relations refers to interstate relations between the Republic of Chile and the Argentine Republic. Argentina and Chile share the world's third-longest international border, which is 5,300 km (3,300 mi) long and runs from north to the south along the Andes mountains. Although gaining their independence during the South American wars of liberation, during much of the 19th and the 20th century relations between the countries were chilled as a result of disputes over the border in Patagonia. In recent years relations have improved dramatically. Despite increased trade between the two countries, Argentina and Chile have followed quite different economic policies. Chile has signed free trade agreements with countries such as China, the USA, Canada, South Korea and the EU and is an active member of the APEC, while Argentina belongs to the Mercosur regional free trade area. Both countries are members of the Union of South American Nations.
- 1 Historical relations (1550–1989)
- 1.1 Rule under Spain and Independence
- 1.2 War against the Peru–Bolivian Confederation
- 1.3 Chincha's war
- 1.4 War of the Pacific
- 1.5 Claims on Patagonia
- 1.6 Arms race and foreign policy cooperation
- 1.7 Baltimore Crisis
- 1.8 Pactos de Mayo
- 1.9 Snipe incident
- 1.10 Killing of Hernán Merino Correa
- 1.11 Operation Soberanía
- 1.12 Falklands War
- 1.13 Peace and Friendship Treaty
- 2 Recent relations (1990–present)
- 3 See also
- 4 References
- 5 External links
Historical relations (1550–1989)
Rule under Spain and Independence
The relationship between the two countries can be traced back to an alliance during Spanish colonial times. Both colonies were offshoots of the Viceroyalty of Peru, with the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (which Argentina was a part of) being broken off in 1776, and Chile not being broken off until independence. Argentina and Chile were colonized by different processes. Chile was conquered as a southward extension of the original conquest of Peru, while Argentina was colonized from Peru, Chile and from the Atlantic.
Argentina and Chile were close allies during the wars of independence from the Spanish Empire. Chile, like most of the revolting colonies, was defeated at a point by Spanish armies, while Argentina remained independent throughout its war of independence. After the Chilean defeat in the Disaster of Rancagua, the remnants of the Chilean Army led by Bernardo O'Higgins took refuge in Mendoza. Argentine General José de San Martín, by that time governor of the region, included the Chilean exiles in the Army of the Andes, and in 1817 led the crossing of the Andes, defeated the Spaniards, and confirmed the Chilean Independence. While he was in Santiago, Chile a cabildo abierto (open town hall meeting) offered San Martín the governorship of Chile, which he declined, in order to continue the liberating campaign in Peru.
In 1817 Chile began the buildup of its Navy in order to carry the war to the Viceroyalty of Perú. Chile and Argentina signed a treaty in order to finance the enterprise. But Argentina, fallen in a Civil war, was unable to contribute. The naval fleet, after being built, launched a sea campaign to fight the Spanish fleet in the Pacific to liberate Peru. After a successful land and sea campaign, San Martín proclaimed the Independence of Peru in 1821.
War against the Peru–Bolivian Confederation
From 1836 to 1839, Chile and Argentina united in a war against the confederation of Peru and Bolivia. The underlying cause was the apprehension of Chile and Argentina against potential power of Peru-Bolivia block. This resulted from concern over the large territory of Peru-Bolivia as well as the perceived threat that such a rich state would represent to their southern neighbors. Chile declared the war on 11 November 1836 and Argentina on 19 May 1837.(p263ff)
In 1837 Felipe Braun, one of Santa Cruz's most capable generals and highly decorated veteran of the war of independence, defeated an Argentine army sent to topple Santa Cruz. On 12 November 1838 Argentine representatives signed an agreement with the Bolivian troops.(p271) However, on 20 January 1839 the Chilean force obtained a decisive victory against Peru-Bolivia at the Battle of Yungay and the short-lived Peru-Bolivian Confederation came to an end.
A series of coastal and high-seas naval battles between Spain and its former colonies of Peru and Chile occurred between 1864 to 1866. These actions began with Spain's seizure of the guano-rich Chincha Islands, part of a strategy by Isabel II of Spain to reassert her country's lost influence in Spain's former South American empire. These actions prompted an alliance between Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and Chile against Spain. As a result, all Pacific coast ports of South America situated south of Colombia were closed to the Spanish fleet. Argentina, however, refused to join the alliance and maintained amicable relations with Spain and delivered coal to the Spanish fleet.
War of the Pacific
On 6 February 1873, Peru and Bolivia signed a secret Treaty of alliance against Chile. On 24 September, Argentine president Domingo Faustino Sarmiento asked the Argentine Chamber of Deputies to join Argentina with the alliance. The Argentine chamber assented by a vote of 48-18. The treaty made available a credit of six million pesos for military expenditures. However, in 1874, after the delivery of the Chilean ironclad Almirante Cochrane and the ironclad Blanco Encalada, the Argentine Senate postponed the matter until late 1874, and Sarmiento was prevented signing the treaty. Consequently, Argentina remained neutral during the war; and the Argentinians signed a Border Treaty with Chile in 1881.
Claims on Patagonia
Border disputes continued between Chile and Argentina, as Patagonia was then a largely unexplored area. The Border Treaty of 1881 established the line of highest mountains dividing the Atlantic and Pacific watersheds as the border between Argentina and Chile. This principle was easily applied in northern Andean border region; but in Patagonia drainage basins crossed the Andes. This led to further disputes over whether the Andean peaks would constitute the frontier (favoring Argentina) or the drainage basins (favoring Chile). Argentina argued that previous documents referring to the boundary always mentioned the Snowy Cordillera as the frontier and not the continental divide. The Argentine explorer Francisco Perito Moreno suggested that many Patagonian lakes draining to the Pacific were in fact part of the Atlantic basin but had been moraine-dammed during the quaternary glaciations changing their outlets to the west. In 1902, war was again avoided when British King Edward VII agreed to mediate between the two nations. He cleverly established the current Argentina-Chile border in Patagonia by dividing many disputed lakes into two equal parts. It is interesting that most of these lakes still have different names on each side of the frontier. A dispute that arose in the northern Puna de Atacama was resolved with the Puna de Atacama Lawsuit of 1899.
Arms race and foreign policy cooperation
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During the Baltimore Crisis which brought Chile and the United States to the brink of war in 1891 (at the end of the 1891 Chilean Civil War), the Argentine foreign minister Estanislao Zeballos offered the US-minister in Buenos Aires the Argentine province of Salta as base of operations from which to attack Chile overland.(p65) In return, Argentina asked the U.S. for the cession of southern Chile to Argentina. Later, Chile and the United States averted the war.
Pactos de Mayo
The Pactos de Mayo are four protocols signed in Santiago de Chile by Chile and Argentina on 28 May 1902 in order to extend their relations and resolve its territorial disputes. The disputes had led both countries to increase their military budgets and run an arms race in the 1890s. More significantly the two countries divided their influence in South America into two spheres: Argentina would not threaten Chile's Pacific Coast hegemony, and Santiago promised not to intrude east of the Andes.:page 71
In 1958 the Argentine Navy shelled a Chilean lighthouse and disembarked infantry in the uninhabitable islet Snipe, at the east entrance of the Beagle Channel.
Killing of Hernán Merino Correa
The Laguna del Desierto incident, in Argentina called also Battle of Laguna del Desierto occurred between 4 members of Carabineros de Chile and 90 members of the Argentine Gendarmerie and took place in zone south of O'Higgins/San Martín Lake on 6 November 1965, resulting in one Lieutenant killed and a Sergeant injured, both members of Carabineros, creating a tense atmosphere between Chile and Argentina.
Trouble once again began to brew in the 1960s, when Argentina began to claim that the Picton, Lennox and Nueva islands in the Beagle Channel were rightfully theirs, although this was in direct contradiction of the 1881 treaty, as the Beagle Channel Arbitration, and the initial Beagle Channel cartography since 1881 stated.
Both countries submitted the controversy to binding arbitration by the international tribunal. The decision (see Beagle Channel Arbitration between the Republic of Argentina and the Republic of Chile, Report and Decision of the Court of Arbitration) recognized all the islands to be Chilean territory. Argentina unilaterally repudiated the decision of the tribunal and planned a war of aggression against Chile.
In 1978 Direct negotiations between Chile and Argentina in 1977-78 failed and relations became extremely tense. Argentina sent troops to the border in Patagonia and in Chile large areas were mined. On 22 December, Argentina started Operation Soberanía in order to invade the islands and continental Chile, but after a few hours stopped the operation when the Pope John Paul II sent a personal message to both presidents urging a peaceful solution. Both countries agreed that the Pope would mediate the dispute through the offices of Cardinal Antonio Samoré his special envoy (See Papal mediation in the Beagle conflict).
On 9 January 1979 the Act of Montevideo was signed in Uruguay pledging both sides to a peaceful solution and a return to the military situation of early 1977. The conflict was still latent during the Falklands war and was resolved only after the fall of the Argentine military junta.
During the Falklands War in 1982, with the still pending Beagle conflict, Chile and Colombia were the only South American countries to abstain from voting in the TIAR (as did also USA and Trinidad and Tobago).
The Argentine government planned to seize the disputed Beagle Channel islands after the occupation of the Falkland Islands. Basilio Lami Dozo former Chief of the Argentine Air Force during the Falklands war disclosed that Leopoldo Galtieri told him that:
- "[Chile] have to know what we are doing now, because they will be the next in turn.
Óscar Camilión, the last Argentine Foreign Minister before the war (29 March 1981 to 11 December 1981) has stated that:
- "The military planning was, after the solution of the Falklands case, to invade the disputed islands in the Beagle. That was the determination of the Argentine Navy."
These preparations were public. On 2 June 1982 the newspaper La Prensa published an article by Manfred Schönfeld explaining what would follow Argentina's expected victory in the Falkland Islands:
- "The war will not be finished for us, because after the defeat of our enemies in the Falklands, they must be blown away from South Georgia, the South Sandwich Islands, and all Argentine Austral archipelagos."
Argentine General Osiris Villegas demanded (in April 1982) after the successful Argentine landing in the Falklands that his government stop negotiations with Chile and seize the islands south of the Beagle. In his book La propuesta pontificia y el espacio nacional comprometido, (p. 2), he asked:
- no persistir en una diplomacia bilateral que durante años la ha inhibido para efectuar actos de posesión efectiva en las islas en litigio que son los hechos reales que garantizan el establecimiento de una soberanía usurpada y la preservación de la integridad del territorio nacional.
This intention was probably known to the Chilean government, as the Chileans provided the United Kingdom with 'limited, but significant information' during the conflict. The Chilean Connection is described in detail by Sir Lawrence Freedman in his book The Official History of the Falklands Campaign.
On June 2010 (as in 2009 and years before ) Chile has supported the Argentine position at the United Nations Special Committee on Decolonization calling for direct negotiations between Argentina and the United Kingdom concerning the Falkland Islands dispute.
Peace and Friendship Treaty
The Peace and Amity Treaty of 1984 was an agreement signed in 1984 between Argentina and Chile establishing the friendship relation between the two countries. Particularly, the treaty also defines limitation of the Strait of Magellan and over the possession of the Picton, Lennox and Nueva islands and sea located south of Tierra del Fuego, granting the islands to Chile, navigation rights to both countries and the most part of the Exclusive Economic Zone eastwards of the Cape Horn-Meridian to Argentina. After that, other border disputes were resolved by peaceful means.
The 1984 treaty was succeeded by the Maipu Treaty of Integration and Cooperation (Tratado de Maipú de Integración y Cooperación) signed on 30 October 2009 
Recent relations (1990–present)
Argentine support for Bolivia
Despite the Pactos de Mayo agreement, in 2004 Argentina proposed a to establish a "corridor" through Chilean territory under partial Argentine administration as a Bolivian outlet to sea. After talks with Chilean ambassador to Argentina, the Kirchner government pulled out of the proposal and declared the issue as "concerning Chile and Bolivia" only.
In the 1990s relations improved dramatically. The dictator and last president of the Argentine Military Junta General Reynaldo Bignone called for democratic elections in 1983 and Augusto Pinochet of Chile in 1989. As a consequence militaristic tendencies faded in Argentina. The Argentine presidents Carlos Menem and Fernando de la Rúa had particularly good relations with Chile. In bilateral manner, both countries settled all the remaining disputes except Laguna del Desierto, which was decided by International Arbitration in 1994. The decision favoured Argentine claims.
According to a 1998 negotiation held in Buenos Aires, a 50 km (31 mi) section of the boundary in the Southern Patagonian Ice Field is still pending of mapping and demarcation according to the limits already settled by the 1881 treaty. In 2006 president Néstor Kirchner invited Chile to define the border, but Michelle Bachelet's government left the invitation unanswered. The same year, the Chilean government sent a note to Argentina complaining about Argentine tourism maps that showed a normal boundary in the Southern Patagonian Icefield with most of the area belonging to Argentina.
Geopolitics over Antarctica and the control of the passages between the south Atlantic and the south Pacific have led to the founding of cities and towns such as Ushuaia and Puerto Williams both claiming to be the southernmost cities in world. Actually both countries, along with the United Kingdom, have research stations in Antarctica. The three nations claim the totality of Antarctic Peninsula.
Economy and energy
Trade between the two countries is made mostly over the mountain passes (see list) that have enough infrastructure for large scale trade. The trade balance shows a great deal of asymmetry. As of 2005 Chile is the 3rd export trading partner for Argentina, behind Brazil and the United States. Significant import products from Argentina to Chile include cereal grains and meat. Recently significant Chilean capital has been invested in Argentina, especially in the retail market sector.
In 1996 Chile became an associate member of Mercosur, a regional trade agreement that Argentina and Brazil created in the 1990s. This associate membership does not convey full membership to Chile, however.
Argentine president Carlos Menem signed a natural gas exportation treaty with Chilean president Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle in 1996. In 2005, President Néstor Kirchner broke the treaty due to a supply shortage experienced by Argentina. The situation in Argentina was partly resolved when Argentina increased its own imports from Bolivia, a country with no diplomatic relations with Chile since 1978. In the import contract signed with Bolivia it was specified that not even a drop of Bolivian gas could be sold to Chile from Argentina.
In 2003, Argentine AFA's president suggested that both countries launch a joint bid for the 2014 FIFA World Cup but was abandoned in favor of a CONMEBOL unified posture to allow the tournament be hosted in Brazil.
Beginning in 2009, the Dakar Rally began to be held in South America, and both Argentina and Chile have collaborated in organizing the annual cross-border event multiple times.
Since the 1990s, both militaries began a close defense cooperation and friendship policy. On September 1991 they signed together with Brazil, the Mendoza Declaration, which commits signatories not to use, develop, produce, acquire, stock, or transfer —directly or indirectly— chemical or biological weapons.
Joint exercises were established on an annual basis in the three armed forces alternately in Argentina and Chile territory. An example of such maneuvers is the Patrulla Antártica Naval Combinada (English: Joint Antarctic Naval Patrol) performed by both Navies to guarantee safety to all touristic and scientific ships that are in transit within the Antarctic Peninsula.
Both nations are highly involved in UN peacekeeping missions. UNFICYP in Cyprus was a precedent where Chilean troops are embedded in the Argentine contingent. They played a key role together at MINUSTAH in Haiti(Video Haiti) and in 2005 they began the formation of a joint force for future United Nations mandates. Named Cruz del Sur (English: Crux), the new force began assembly in 2008 with headquarters alternately on each country every year.
In 2005, while the Argentine Navy school ship ARA Libertad was under overhaul, Argentine cadets were invited to complete their graduation on the Chilean Navy school ship Esmeralda and in another gesture of confidence, on 24 June 2007, a Gendarmeria Nacional Argentina (Border Guard) patrol was given permission to enter Chile to rescue tourists after their bus became trapped in snow.
On 13 March 2010, following the Chilean earthquake the benefit concert Argentina Abraza Chile (English: Argentina Hugs Chile) was hosted in Buenos Aires, and an Argentine Air Force Mobile Field Hospital was deployed to Curicó.
On 8 April 2010 the newly elected Chilean president Sebastián Piñera made his first trip abroad a visit to Buenos Aires where he thanked president Cristina Fernández for the help received. He also stated his commitment to an increased cooperation between the two countries
Argentina protects fugitive of Chilean justice
In September 2010, CONARE (the Argentine National Refugee Commission, a department of the Argentine Interior Ministry) granted asylum to Chilean citizen Galvarino Apablaza. Apablaza now lives in Argentina where he is married to journalist Paula Chain, and is father to three Argentine-born children. Chain has worked for the Argentine Government press office since 2009. Apablaza is accused by Chile of being involved in the murder of Chilean Senator Jaime Guzmán in 1991, during the government of Patricio Aylwin, as well as the kidnapping of the son of one of the owners of the El Mercurio newspaper. The asylum status has been universally rejected by the Chilean government, as well as by the Argentine political opposition. Some Argentine media and journalists have pointed out that the Argentine government ignored a ruling of the Argentine Supreme Court of Justice allowing the extradition of Apablaza. Chilean state attorney Gustavo Gené has pointed out that there was no question of the Chilean legal system's authority or grounds by the Argentine Commission, and that the reasons for granting political asylum were based exclusively on "humanitarian grounds".
The Argentine decree 256/2010 about the Strait of Magellan
On 17 February 2010 the Argentine executive issued the decree 256/2010 pertaining to authorisation requirements placed on shipping to and from Argentina but also to ships going through Argentine jurisdictional water heading for ports situated in the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands. This decree was implemented by disposition 14/2010 of the Prefectura Naval Argentina. On 19 May 2010 the United Kingdom presented a note verbale rejecting the Argentine government’s decrees and stipulating that the U.K. considered the decrees “are not compliant with International Law including the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea ”, and with respect to the Straits of Magellan the note recalls that “the rights of international shipping to navigate these waters expeditiously and without obstacle are affirmed in the 1984 Treaty of Peace and Friendship between Chile and Argentina with respect to the Straits of Magellan”.
Article 10 of the 1984 Treaty states “The Argentine Republic undertakes to maintain, at any time and in whatever circumstances, the right of ships of all flags to navigate expeditiously and without obstacles through its jurisdictional waters to and from the Strait of Magellan”.
- (Spanish) Historia de las Relaciones Exteriores Argentinas by Carlos Escudé and Andrés Cisneros
- (Spanish) Combined Military Force Cruz del Sur - official press release
- The annual register, or, A view of the history, politics, and literature for 1819, Volume 61, John Davis Batchelder Collection (Library of Congress) link, page 138
- José María Rosa, Historia argentina: Unitarios y federales (1826–1841) at Google Books
- Spain and the American Civil War: relations at mid-century, 1855–1868, p. 99, at Google Books
- Las relaciones con los demás países americanos durante las presidencias de Mitre y Sarmiento
- William F. Sater, Chile and the United States, Empires in Conflict, University of Georgia Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8203-1249-5
- Arthur Preston Whitaker, The United States and the southern cone: Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay, Harvard University Press, 1976, page 34
- Clarín de Buenos Aires 20 December 1998
- See notes of the Chilean Foreign Minister Jose Miguel Insulza, in La Tercera de Santiago de Chile 13 July 1998 "Enfatizó que, si bien la situación es diferente, lo que hoy está ocurriendo con el Tratado de Campo de Hielo Sur hace recordar a la opinión pública lo sucedido en 1977, durante la disputa territorial por el Canal de Beagle"
- See notes of Senator (not elected but named by the Armed Forces) Jorge Martínez Bush in La Tercera de Santiago de Chile 26 July 1998 "El legislador expuso que los chilenos mantienen "muy fresca" en la memoria la situación creada cuando Argentina declaró nulo el arbitraje sobre el canal del Beagle, en 1978"
- See notes of the Chilean Foreign Minister Ignacio Walker "Y está en la retina de los chilenos el laudo de Su Majestad Británica, en el Beagle, que fue declarado insanablemente nulo por la Argentina. Esa impresión todavía está instalada en la sociedad chilena." Clarin de B.A., 22 July 2005
- See also "Reciprocidad en las Relaciones Chile - Argentina" of Andrés Fabio Oelckers Sainz. "También en Chile, todavía genera un gran rechazo el hecho que Argentina declarase nulo el fallo arbitral británico y además en una primera instancia postergara la firma del laudo papal por el diferendo del Beagle"
- See notes of Director académico de la Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales Flacso, Francisco Rojas, in Santiago de Chile, in "Desde la Argentina, cuesta entender el nivel de desconfianza que hoy existe en Chile a propósito de la decisión que tomó en 1978 de declarar nulo el laudo arbitral" La Nación de Buenos Aires 26 September 1997
- See notes of Chilean Defense Minister Edmundo Pérez Yoma in "Centro Superior de Estudios de la Defensa Nacional del Reino de España" " ... Y que la Argentina estuvo a punto de llevar a cabo una invasión sobre territorio de Chile en 1978 ...", appeared in Argentine newspaperEl Cronista Comercial 5 May 1997. These notes were later relativized by the Chilean Government (See  )
- Argentine newspaper Perfil Después de Malvinas, iban a atacar a Chile on 22. November 2009, retrieved 22. November 2009:
- Para colmo, Galtieri dijo en un discurso: "Que saquen el ejemplo de lo que estamos haciendo ahora porque después les toca a ellos".
- Óscar Camilión, Memorias Políticas, Editorial Planeta, Buenos Aires, 1999, page 281:
- "Los planes militares eran, en la hipótesis de resolver el caso Malvinas, invadir las islas en disputa en el Beagle. Esa era la decisión de la Armada ..."
- All articles of Manfred Schönfeld published by "La Prensa" from 10 January 1982 to 2 August 1982, are compiled in La Guerra Austral, Manfred Schönfeld, Desafío Editores S.A., 1982, ISBN 950-02-0500-9
- cited in A treinta años de la crisis del Beagle, Desarrollo de un modelo de negociación en la resolución del conflicto by Renato Valenzuela Ugarte and Fernando García Toso, in Chilean Magazine "Política y Estrategia", nr. 115)
- Spanish newspaper El País on 11. April 1982 Chile teme que Argentina pueda repetir una acción de fuerza en el canal de Beagle retrieved on 11. September 2010
- President Bachelet:We not only support our sister republic's claims to the Malvinas islands but every year we present its case to the United Nations' Special Committee on Decolonization
- Chile supported the rights of Argentina in the dispute, believing that the only viable way forward was through bilateral negotiations between Argentina and the United Kingdom
- Chilean Foreign Office: CHILE REAFIRMA SU POSICIÓN SOBRE ISLAS MALVINAS
- Chilean Foreign Minister Soledad Alvear reaffirms support to Argentine claim
- 2009 calling for direct negotiations over falkland Islands (malvinas)
- Resumption of Negotiations over Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
- Tratado de Maipu de Integración y Cooperacion entre Argentina y Chile
- Article Juan Gabriel Valdéz: "Hay resabios de rivalidades anacrónicas" in Argentina newspaper La Nación on 25 January 2004 in Spanish language, retrieved on 10 January 2012
- Abihaggle: “Es un tema bilateral”
- Tras la fricción por los Hielos Continentales, la Argentina llama a Chile a demarcar los límites "lo antes posible"
-  CHILE REAFIRMA SU POSICIÓN SOBRE ISLAS MALVINAS. La Cancillería reafirmó la política del Gobierno de Chile de respaldar los legítimos derechos de soberanía de la República Argentina en la disputa referida a la cuestión de las Islas Malvinas.
- Argentina Exports - partners - Economy
- Argentina celebrates mining day, Pascua Lama go-ahead
- "Argentina: Adopta nueva norma de TV Digital" [Argentina: It adopts new norm of Digital TV] (in Spanish). 2009 CIO América Latina. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
-  Gobierno de Chile adopta norma de Televisión Digital para el País[dead link]
- Argentine Army: UNFICYP
UN: Cyprus - UNFICYP - Facts and Figures
Chilean Army: Misión de la ONU en Chipre desde el año 2003
Brasilian Army: UNFICYP
- Avance para la fuerza combinada con Chile
- Destinan $30 millones para operar con Chile
- Cadetes argentinos navegarán en la fragata chilena Esmeralda
- "Rescatan a 50 pasajeros que quedaron varados por la nieve en el norte chileno" Clarin newspaper: (Spanish)
- Piñera: "Lo mejor de la relación entre la Argentina y Chile está por venir"
- Argentina: se conforma Comisión para determinar la condición de refugiado y facilitar su integración (Spanish)
- Las razones que expondrá Cristina para darle refugio al ex guerrillero
- El Gobierno da refugio al ex terrorista Apablaza
- La UCR pidió la "inmediata" extradición de Apablaza
- Argentine journalist Jorge Lanata video
- Gustavo Gené: "No hay ningún cuestionamiento al sistema jurídico chileno"
- Argentine executive (2010), Decreto 256/2010, Buenos Aires: Argentina, archived from the original on 23 February 2010, retrieved 12 April 2010
- Mercopress (2010), UK rejects Argentine decision regarding Falklands’ shipping, South Atlantic News Agency, archived from the original on 25 August 2010, retrieved 12 April 2013
- (Spanish) Official website of the Argentine Ministry of Foreign Relations, International Trade and Worship
- (Spanish) Official website of the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Relations
- Research Project on the History of the Relations between Argentina and Chile, 1978-2000