Arginine catabolic mobile element

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The arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is a mobile genetic element of Staphylococcus bacterial species. This genetic element provides for several immune modulating functions, including resistance to polyamines which serve as a non-specific immune response both on intact skin and following the inflammatory response in wound healing.[1][2] Diverse ACME are present in several species of Staphylococcus, including Staphylococcus epidermidis.[3][4]

Association with virulent MRSA[edit]

ACME are not common among antibiotic sensitive S. aureus (MSSA).[5] The elements for the most prominent MRSA ACME appear to have assembled recently in S. epidermidis into the speG-positive ACME which was transferred to virulent S. aureus during the evolution of the epidemic USA300 MRSA strain.[6][7] This broadened the ability of S. aureus to colonize sites other than a specific part of the nose.[8] This strain is able to persist on intact skin and is spread rapidly person-to-person. As a result, the speG-positive ACME is a particularly important element of MRSA pathogenesis.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Otto, Michael (August 2013). "Community-associated MRSA: What makes them special?". International Journal of Medical Microbiology 303 (6-7): 324–330. doi:10.1016/j.ijmm.2013.02.007. PMID 23517691. 
  2. ^ Joshi, Gauri S.; Spontak, Jeffrey S.; Klapper, David G.; Richardson, Anthony R. (October 2011). "Arginine catabolic mobile element encoded speG abrogates the unique hypersensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus to exogenous polyamines". Molecular Microbiology 82 (1): 9–20. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07809.x. PMC 3183340. PMID 21902734. 
  3. ^ Barbier, F.; Lebeaux, D.; Hernandez, D.; Delannoy, A.-S.; Caro, V.; Francois, P.; Schrenzel, J.; Ruppe, E.; Gaillard, K.; Wolff, M.; Brisse, S.; Andremont, A.; Ruimy, R. (9 November 2010). "High prevalence of the arginine catabolic mobile element in carriage isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis". Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 66 (1): 29–36. doi:10.1093/jac/dkq410. PMID 21062794. 
  4. ^ Miragaia, Maria; de Lencastre, Herminia; Perdreau-Remington, Francoise; Chambers, Henry F.; Higashi, Julie; Sullam, Paul M.; Lin, Jessica; Wong, Kester I.; King, Katherine A.; Otto, Michael; Sensabaugh, George F.; Diep, Binh An; DeLeo, Frank R. (6 November 2009). "Genetic Diversity of Arginine Catabolic Mobile Element in Staphylococcus epidermidis". PLoS ONE 4 (11): e7722. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007722. PMC 2768820. PMID 19893740. 
  5. ^ Goering, R. V.; McDougal, L. K.; Fosheim, G. E.; Bonnstetter, K. K.; Wolter, D. J.; Tenover, F. C. (4 April 2007). "Epidemiologic Distribution of the Arginine Catabolic Mobile Element among Selected Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Isolates". Journal of Clinical Microbiology 45 (6): 1981–1984. doi:10.1128/JCM.00273-07. PMC 1933090. PMID 17409207. 
  6. ^ Planet, P. J.; LaRussa, S. J.; Dana, A.; Smith, H.; Xu, A.; Ryan, C.; Uhlemann, A.-C.; Boundy, S.; Goldberg, J.; Narechania, A.; Kulkarni, R.; Ratner, A. J.; Geoghegan, J. A.; Kolokotronis, S.-O.; Prince, A. (17 December 2013). "Emergence of the Epidemic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strain USA300 Coincides with Horizontal Transfer of the Arginine Catabolic Mobile Element and speG-mediated Adaptations for Survival on Skin". mBio 4 (6): e00889–13–e00889–13. doi:10.1128/mBio.00889-13. PMC 3870260. PMID 4345744. 
  7. ^ Diep, Binh An; Stone, Gregory G.; Basuino, Li; Graber, Christopher J.; Miller, Alita; Etages, Shelley‐Ann des; Jones, Alison; Palazzolo‐Ballance, Amy M.; Perdreau‐Remington, Françoise; Sensabaugh, George F.; DeLeo, Frank R.; Chambers, Henry F. (June 2008). "The Arginine Catabolic Mobile Element and Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette Linkage: Convergence of Virulence and Resistance in the USA300 Clone of Methicillin‐Resistant". The Journal of Infectious Diseases 197 (11): 1523–1530. doi:10.1086/587907. PMID 18700257. 
  8. ^ Yan, Miling; Pamp, Sünje J.; Fukuyama, Julia; Hwang, Peter H.; Cho, Do-Yeon; Holmes, Susan; Relman, David A. (December 2013). "Nasal Microenvironments and Interspecific Interactions Influence Nasal Microbiota Complexity and S. aureus Carriage". Cell Host & Microbe 14 (6): 631–640. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2013.11.005. PMC 3902146. PMID 24331461.