Argippo is an opera libretto by Domenico Lalli, which in Giovanni Porta's setting premiered in Venice in 1717. Claudio Nicola Stampa's reworked version of the libretto was set as L'Argippo by Andrea Stefano Fiorè. This opera was performed in Milan in 1722.
Antonio Vivaldi's Argippo, RV 697, based on Stampa's version of the libretto, was staged in two different versions in 1730, first in Vienna (RV 697-A), and later in Prague (RV 697-B). The music of both of these versions is lost. Vivaldi's setting of the Argippo libretto partially survives in a pasticcio, RV Anh. 137, which, in the 21st century, was the basis for a reconstruction of the Prague version of Vivaldi's opera.
Domenico Lalli's Il gran Mogol libretto was set by Francesco Mancini, and performed in the Teatro San Bartolomeo, Naples, in December 1713. In the next two decades this libretto was set as Argippo by several composers:
- Setting by Giovanni Porta, performed in 1717 in Venice.
- L'Argippo, a setting by Andrea Stefano Fiorè of Claudio Nicola Stampa's reworked version of the libretto, was staged in Milan in 1722.
- Antonio Vivaldi based his Argippo, RV 697-A, which premiered in Vienna in 1730, on Stampa's adaptation of Lalli's libretto (music lost).
- Vivaldi used a variant of this libretto for his Argippo, RV 697-B, staged in Prague in the autumn of 1730 (music lost).
- Vivaldi's setting of the text based on Lalli's libretto was partially preserved in a pasticcio, Argippo, RV Anh. 137.
- Another Argippo pasticcio, credited to Antonio Costantini, and based on Lalli's libretto, was performed in the 1733 carnival season in Brno.
|Role||Porta 1717||Fiorè 1722||Vivaldi 2008 (rec.)|
|Voice t.||Cast||Cast||Voice t.||Cast|
|Argippo, king||soprano||Valentino Urbani||Giuliano Albertini||mezzo||Veronika Mráčková Fučíková|
|Tisifaro, mogol||tenor||Gaetano Borghi||Gio. Battista Pinacci||baritone||Zdeněk Kapl|
|Zanaida, daughter of Tisifaro||alto||Diana Vico||Vittoria Tesi||mezzo||Pavla Štěpničková|
|Osira, wife of Argippo||soprano||Antonia Gavazzi||Anna Guglielmina||soprano||Jana Bínová-Koucká|
|Silvero, secretly married to Zanaida||alto||Gio. Battista Minelli||Carlo Scalzi||soprano||Barbora Sojková|
|Mesio, in love with Osira||bass||Antinoro Claudii||Maria Antonina Tozzi||—|
Porta's Argippo was first performed on 31 October 1717 in Venice, in the Teatro San Cassiano. Both the printed libretto (titled L'Argippo: Drama per musica) and the manuscript score (titled Argippo) of this performance survive. A four-page dedication by Lalli precedes the text of his libretto. There is no sinfonia (overture) in the score. There are fifteen scenes in the first act, fourteen in the second act, and nine in the last act. The text in the score closely follows the original libretto. The printed libretto contains text variants for nine arias, but it is not known whether these alternative texts were set by Porta.
L'Argippo was staged in the Regio Ducal Teatro in Milan in honour of the 31st birthday of Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Holy Roman Empress, which fell on 28 August 1722. The dedication, dated 27 August 1722 in the extant libretto, was written by Giuseppe Ferdinando Brivio and addressed at Girolamo di Colloredo-Waldsee, who was the then-time Austrian governor of the Duchy of Milan. Stampa added an introduction to this revised version of Lalli's libretto, which was set by Fiorè.
The libretto describes three stage settings for the fourteen scenes of the first act, while the second act (twelve scenes) and the third act (eleven scenes) each have two different stage settings. A reprint of the libretto was published in 2018.
Vivaldi's RV 697, pasticcios and a reconstruction
In a letter he wrote in 1737, Vivaldi mentions he had been called to Vienna: according to Michael Talbot, this was likely on invitation by the Theater am Kärntnertor where the first version of his Argippo, RV 697, was presented as an intermezzo in 1730. Later that year, a somewhat more extended version of this opera was performed by a company of mostly Italian performers in Franz Anton von Sporck's private theatre in Prague. A few years later, this Italian ensemble performed in Regensburg, where a score with at least six arias from Vivaldi's Argippo was recovered.
- one for a performance in the Theater am Kärntnertor in Vienna, translated by Heinrich Rademin;
- a more extended one for the Sporck Theater in Prague.
Both contain an aria titled "Gelido in ogni vena", on a text extracted from Metastasio's Siroe, re di Persia libretto, and which Vivaldi had for instance also inserted in his Farnace opera, there based on music from his L'Inverno concerto. The libretto variants were based on Stampa's adaptation of Lalli's text, but were transmitted without their respective settings. Only the Prague libretto names Vivaldi as composer: because of the similarities between both texts Vivaldi is however considered the composer in both cases. The Vienna version, which was probably performed before the Prague version, received the RV 697-A number, and RV 697-B was assigned to the opera performed in the Sporck Theater.
RV Anh. 137 is an Argippo pasticcio that survives in two manuscripts:
- A complete score, Mus.ms 245 of the Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Darmstadt.
- An extract of 19 arias of this pasticcio, the score of which is preserved at the Fürst Thurn und Taxis Hofbibliothek und Zentralarchiv in Regensburg (D-Rtt Prota 4).
This pasticcio contains at least six arias by Vivaldi.
|RV Anh. 137||RV 697||Other|
|I sc1||Se lento ancora il fulmine||Vivaldi||I, 1||Se lento ancora il fulmine|
|I sc2||Rege son che combattuto||?||—|
|I sc3||Del fallire il rimorso||Vivaldi||I, 2||Del fallire il rimorso|
|I sc4||Anche in mezzo a perigliosa||Vivaldi?||I, 3||Tuona spesso all'aer cieco|
|I sc5||Qual disarmata nave||Pescetti||I, 4||Vidi appena un sol baleno|
|I sc6||Dov'è la morte per me||Pescetti||I, 5||Non v'è perdono|
|II sc1||Che gran pena trafigge||Hasse||II, 1||Del giusto mio dolore|
|II sc2||Non temer e dati pace||?||II, 2||Chi quel timor condanna|
|II sc3||Bell'idolo amato||Porpora||—|
|II sc4||Un certo non so che||Vivaldi||II, 3||Un certo non so che|
|II sc5,6||—||II, 4||Io vorrei col sangue, e vita|
|II sc7||Io son rea dell'onor mio||Vivaldi||II, 5||Io son rea dell'onor mio|
|II sc8||A piedi miei svenato||?||II, 6||Suole ancora lamentarsi|
|II sc||Da più venti combattuta||?||—|
|III sc1||Mi sento nel core un raggio||Pescetti||III, 1||Mi sento nel core|
|III sc2||Vado a morir per te||Vivaldi||III, 2||Vado a morir per te|
|III sc3||Vi sarà stella clemente||Pescetti||III, 3||Gelido in ogni vena||RV 711-D/II:6|
|III sc4||Se d'un amor tiranno||Vinci||III, 4||L'incerto tuo pensiere|
|III sc5||Se la bella tortorella||?||III, 5||Un pensiero|
|III sc6||—||III, 6||In bosco romito||RV 702-B/III:7|
|III sc7||Che farai perdonerai||Vivaldi||III, 7||Che farai? Perdonerai|
Recovering Argippo music
In 2008 Ondřej Macek presented his reconstruction of Vivaldi's Argippo, which he had based on extant librettos, on the Vivaldi arias in the Regensburg pasticcio score—which he had recovered two years earlier—, and on other music the Venetian composer had written around 1730. Macek performed this opera with the Hofmusici Baroque Ensemble, first in Prague, and later in Venice. A live recording of the Venice performance, which with inclusion of sinfonias derived from Vivaldi concertos lasts around two hours, was issued on CD in 2009. Argippo Resurrected is a 2009 Czech documentary about Macek's recovery, reconstruction and performance of Vivaldi's Argippo music.
The full version of the RV Anh. 137 pasticcio was recovered in Darmstadt, where it had previously been classified under an erroneous title, and misattributed to Ernst Christian Hesse. A digitized facsimile of this score was made available on the website of the Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Darmstadt.
- Pegah, Rashid-S. (2011). "Ein Argippo-Pasticcio". Studi Vivaldiani. 11: 63–76.
- Strohm, Reinhard (2008). "Argippo in 'Germania'". Studi Vivaldiani. 8: 111–127.
- Il gran Mogol : drama per musica / di Domenico Lalli ; da rappresentarsi nel Teatro di S. Bartolomeo nel giorno 26. di decembre 1713 ; dedicato alla grandezza impareggiabile dell'Eccellentiss. signor conte VVirrico di Daun, vicerè, e capitan generale in questo regno di Napoli, &c. at Trove website.
- Carlo Antonio de Rosa marchese di Villarosa (1840). Memorie dei compositori di musica del regno di Napoli: raccolte dal marchese di Villarosa. Naples: Stamperia reale, p. 110.
- Freeman, Daniel E. (1992). The Opera Theater of Count Franz Anton Von Sporck in Prague. Stuyvesant, N.Y.: Pendragon Press. ISBN 0945193173, p. 166
- Talbot 2011, p. 92.
- LCCN 2010-665737 – Lalli's 1717 libretto: digitized version at LoC website
- L'Argippo – Porta, Giovanni ; Lalli, Domenico – 1717 at Munich Digitization Center website
- RISM No. 212008590
- Mus.2444-F-1 at Saxon State and University Library Dresden website
- Spáčilová 2013, p. 9.
- Domenico Pietropaolo, Mary Ann Parker (2011). The Baroque Libretto: Italian Operas and Oratorios in the Thomas Fisher Library at the University of Toronto. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 9781442641631, pp. 186–187
- OCLC 80013708, 224588524, 977629906
- Claudio Nicola Stampa, after Domenico Lalli (1722). L'Argippo; drama per musica, da rappresentarsi nel Regio Ducal Teatro di Milano, in occasione di celebrarsi il giorno natalizio della cesarea cattolica Maestà di Elsabetta Cristina, imperatrice, regina delle Spagne, &c., &c. Milan: Giuseppe Richino Malatesta. (also LCCN 2010-665645 – digitized version at LoC website)
- Talbot 2011, p. 25.
- Freeman, Daniel E. (1995). "Antonio Vivaldi and the Sporck Theater in Prague", pp. 117–140 in Janáček and Czech Music: Proceedings of The International Conference (St. Louis 1988). Pendragon Press. ISBN 094519336X, pp. 122, 129.
- Spáčilová 2013, p. 21.
- Spáčilová 2016, p. 260.
- Argippo: Antonio Costantini at operadata
- Vivaldi: Argippo – English Libretto at Dynamic website.
- Vivaldi: Argippo at www
- Argippo at operabaroque
- RISM No. 900011235
- L'Argippo – Porta, Giovanni ; Lalli, Domenico – 1722 at Munich Digitization Center website
- Andrea Stefano Fiorè (2018). L'Argippo: Drama per Musica, da Rappresentarsi Nel Regio Ducal Teatro di Milano, in Occasione di Celebrarsi IL Giorno Natalizio della Cesarea Cattolica Maestà di Elsabetta Cristina Imperatrice, Regina Delle Spagne, &C., &C. Forgotten Books. ISBN 9780364395523, 9780364868973
- Talbot 2011, pp. 25, 184.
- Spáčilová 2013, pp. 12, 21.
- Rob Cameron (3 May 2008). Vivaldi work revived 278 years on. BBC News
- Musicalisches Zwischen-Spiel, Genannt: Der Argippo – In Welscher Sprach vorzustellen Auf dem Von Ihro Röm. Kayserl. und Königl. Cathol. Majest. Privilegirten Theatro in Wienn, Verteutscht von Rademin at gso
- Spáčilová 2014, p. 143.
- RISM No. 212006277
- RISM No. 450002605
- Mus Ms 245 at Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Darmstadt website
- RISM No. 450010697
- Spáčilová 2013, pp. 15–20.
- Antonio Vivaldi: Argippo at AllMusic website
- RISM No. 450027083
- RISM No. 450027084
- RISM No. 450027085
- RISM No. 450027086
- RISM No. 450027087
- RISM No. 450027088
- RISM No. 450027089
- RISM No. 450027090
- RISM No. 450027091
- RISM No. 450027092
- RISM No. 450027093
- RISM No. 450027094
- RISM No. 450027095
- RISM No. 450027096
- RISM No. 450027097
- RISM No. 450027098
- RISM No. 450027099
- RISM No. 450027100
- RISM No. 212006265
- RISM No. 450027101
- David Randall (4 May 2008). Vivaldi's long-lost opera returns to Prague after 278 years: After hunting the missing manuscript down in a German archive, Czech conductor revives 'Argippo'. The Independent.
- Hofmusici Baroque Ensemble / Ondrej Macek / Barbora Sojková – Antonio Vivaldi: Argippo at AllMusic website
- Argippo Resurrected at dokweb
- Spáčilová, Jana (2013). "Brněnská opera Argippo z roku 1733 ve světle nových výzkumů". opus musicum (in Czech and English). Brno: Opus musicum. 13 (2): 6–21. ISSN 0862-8505.
- Spáčilová, Jana (2014). "Unbekannte Brünner Oratorien Neapolitanischer Komponisten vor 1740". Musicologica Brunensia (in German). Brno: Faculty of Arts of the Masaryk University. 49 (1): 137–161. doi:10.5817/MB2014-1-9. hdl:11222.digilib/130209. ISSN 1212-0391.
- Spáčilová, Jana (2016). "Soloists of the Opera Productions in Brno, Holešov, Kroměříž and Vyškov: Italian Opera Singers in Moravian Sources c. 1720-1740 (Part I)". In Nieden, Gesa zur; Over, Berthold (eds.). Musicians' Mobilities and Music Migrations in Early Modern Europe: Biographical Patterns and Cultural Exchanges. Transcript. pp. 255–273. ISBN 9783839435045. JSTOR j.ctv1wxt49.16.
- Talbot, Michael (2011). "Dictionary". The Vivaldi Compendium. Boydell Press. pp. 17–200. ISBN 9781843836704.
- Vivaldi's Prague opera Argippo revival. Interview with Ondřej Macek (in Czech)
- Argippo, RV Anh.137, Farnace, RV 711, L'Atenaide, RV 702: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)