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Argument technology is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. A few decades ago, philosophical theories of arguments were leveraged to handle key computational challenges, such as modeling non-monotonic reasoning and designing robust coordination protocols for multi-agent systems. This soon led to several theoretical breakthroughs, which, in turn, fostered the development of argument-based applications in a variety of domains, e.g., education, healthcare, policy making, and risk management. As a result, argument technology is a thriving interdisciplinary enterprise with its own variety of sub-fields and methodologies.
- 1 Technologies
- 1.1 Argument assistant
- 1.2 Argument blogging
- 1.3 Argument mapping
- 1.4 Argument mining
- 1.5 Argument search
- 1.6 Artificial debater
- 1.7 Automated argumentative essay scoring
- 1.8 Decision support system
- 1.9 Explainable artificial intelligence
- 1.10 Intelligent tutoring system
- 1.11 Legal expert system
- 1.12 Machine ethics
- 1.13 Proof assistant
- 2 References
An argument assistant is a software which conveniences users when writing arguments. Argument assistants can convenience users as they compose content and as they review content from one other, including in dialogical contexts. In addition to Web services, such functionalities can be provided through the plugin architectures of word processor software or those of Web browsers. Internet forums, for instance, can be greatly enhanced by such software tools and services.
ArguBlogging is software which allows its users to select portions of hypertext on webpages in their Web browsers and to agree or disagree with the selected content, posting their arguments to their blogs with linked argument data. It is implemented as a bookmarklet, adding functionality to Web browsers and interoperating with blogging platforms such as Blogger and Tumblr.
Argument maps are visual, diagrammatic representations of arguments. Such visual diagrams facilitate diagrammatic reasoning and promote one's ability to grasp and to make sense of information rapidly and readily. Argument maps can provide structured, semi-formal frameworks for representing arguments using interactive visual language.
Argument mining, or argumentation mining, is a research area within the natural language processing field. The goal of argument mining is the automatic extraction and identification of argumentative structures from natural language text with the aid of computer programs.
An argument search engine is a search engine that is given a topic as a user query and returns a list of arguments for and against the topic. Such engines could be used to support informed decision-making or to help debaters prepare for debates.
An artificial debater is an artificial intelligence system which can debate with human users.
Automated argumentative essay scoring
Decision support system
Ethical decision support system
Legal decision support system
Explainable artificial intelligence
Intelligent tutoring system
An intelligent tutoring system is a computer system that aims to provide immediate and customized instruction or feedback to learners, usually without requiring intervention from a human teacher. The intersection of argument technology and intelligent tutoring systems includes computer systems which aim to provide instruction in: critical thinking, argumentation, ethics, law, mathematics, and philosophy.
Legal expert system
Machine ethics is a part of the ethics of artificial intelligence concerned with the moral behavior of artificially intelligent beings. As humans argue with respect to morality and moral behavior, argument can be envisioned as a component of machine ethics systems and moral reasoning components.
In computer science and mathematical logic, a proof assistant or interactive theorem prover is a software tool to assist with the development of formal proofs by human-machine collaboration. This involves some sort of interactive proof editor, or other interface, with which a human can guide the search for proofs, the details of which are stored in, and some steps provided by, a computer.
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