Argynnis pandora, the cardinal, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae. It is common throughout southern Europe and is also found in northern Africa and the Middle east and then east across the Palearctic to northwestern India.
Description in Seitz
The wingspan is 64–80 mm. A. pandora Schiff. (= cinara F., maja Cr.) (71c). The largest European Argynnis. Above strongly recalling valesina, but brighter greenish, densely spotted with black. Beneath quite different, the apex of the forewing and the hindwing bright green, the disc of the forewing fleshy red and spotted with deep black, the hindwing with a few narrow bands, which are more white than silvery and vary strongly in number and development.
The butterfly flies from April to September (in Europe typically May to August) depending on the location. In Switzerland , the species is found at altitudes of up to 2600 meters. Among other habiats, it favours deciduous and open pine forests, in which there is a large supply of nectar-rich plants from the genera Cirsium , Carduus or Centaurea.
The larvae feed on Viola species.
- "Argynnis pandora (Bahadır)". Kelebek Türk. Retrieved 1 January 2013.
- Rowlings, Matt. http://www.eurobutterflies.com/species_pages/pandora.htm. Accessed 1 January 2013.
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