Argyranthemum frutescens, known as Paris daisy, marguerite or marguerite daisy, is a perennial plant known for its flowers. It is native to the Canary Islands (part of Spain). It is also widely cultivated as an ornamental planted in private gardens and public parks in many countries, and naturalized in Italy and southern California. The most common variety has white petals.
It is a perennial shrub that is about 2–3 feet (61–91 cm) tall and wide, while usually 1–3 feet (30–91 cm) tall. The strongly branched plant often grows globose-bushy with ascending to upright branches. The alternate, more or less fleshy and blue-green leaves are in outline oval to oval-lanceolate, 1–8 cm long and 4–6 cm wide. The foliage is green; the white, yellow or pink daisy-like flower heads with a yellow center are approximately 2.5 inches (6.4 cm) in diameter.
The inflorescences are loose umbrella grapes from four to 30 flowers. The for most subspecies about 8 mm long tongues of the ray florets are pure white, female and form fertile achenes, which are triangular to horn-like winged. The achenes of the yellow tubular flowers are sterile and one-winged. The pappus is always irregularly crown-shaped. The flower is very fragrant. The flower opens its petals in the morning and closes them at night.
Argyranthemum frutescens can be normally found during the summer, since they grow best with full sunlight, although they are at their showiest during the spring. These flowers grow in many different types of habitats. They are also most frequently used for borders of houses since they grow continuously. They can only survive under summer conditions with plenty of sun and cannot survive in areas that are cold and have no sunlight. They are also known for long period of growth ranging from May to November.
Habitat and ecology
Along with full sunlight, this plant needs organic matter in high quantities in order to grow, while it also requires very well drained soil. The plant can die if overwhelmed with water. It is tolerant of low temperatures, although it cannot survive freezing. It requires a lot of sunlight and must be protected from the wind.
Like the other Argyranthemum species, the shrub marguerite originates from the Canary Islands. On El Hierro, La Gomera, Tenerife and Gran Canaria it is common in the coastal regions, on La Palma very rare. Overall, it is the most common species of the genus in the Canary Islands. The plant often grows in succulent shrubbery on well-drained, poor soils in full sun, preferably also near the coast at altitudes up to 700 meters. For this reason, it easily fades in warmer areas of the world.
Flowers and fruit
- Argyranthemum frutescens subsp. canariae (Christ) Humphries
- Argyranthemum frutescens subsp. foeniculaceum (Pit. & Proust) Humphries
- Argyranthemum frutescens subsp. frutescens (Considered a synonym of Argyranthemum frutescens by The Plant List)
- Argyranthemum frutescens subsp. gracilescens (Christ) Humphries
- Argyranthemum frutescens subsp. pumilum Humphries
- Leucanthemum, similar looking plant of different genus
- The Plant List Argyranthemum frutescens (L.) Sch.Bip.
- "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-01-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
- Humphries, C. J. 1976. A revision of the Macaronesian genus Argyranthemum Webb ex Schultz Bip. (Compositae–Anthemideae). Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 5: 147–240.
- Altervista Flora Italiana Margherita delle Canarie, Argyranthemum frutescens (L.) Sch. Bip.
- Biota of North America Program 2014 county distribution map
- Calflora taxon report, University of California, Argyranthemum frutescens (L.) Schultz-Bip. marguerite
- Hohenester, Adalbert and Welß, Walter: excursion flora for the Canary Islands . Publisher Eugen Ulmer 1993, ISBN 3-8001-3466-7 .
- David Bramwell, Zoë Bramwell: Wild Flowers of the Canary Islands. 2nd edition, Editorial Rueda SL, Alorcón, 2001. ISBN 84-7207-129-4 , page 338
- Gordon Cheers (ed.): Botanica . Random House Australia 2003. German edition: Tandem Verlag GmbH 2003, ISBN 3-8331-1600-5 .
- Plants database United States Department of Agriculture plants profile, Argyranthemum frutescens
- Jepson Manual Online, Argyranthemum frutescens
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Gardening Help, Plant Finder
- Royal Horticultural Society, London
- Easy Bloom, Marguerite daisy, Madeira White Improved (Argyranthemum frutescens)
- Sciencedirect, Antonio G. Gonzalez, Rafael Estevez-Reyes, Ana Estevez-Braun, Angel G. Ravelo, Ignacio A. Jimenez, Isabel L. Bazzocchi, Marcelino A. Aguilara, Laila Moujirb. 1997. Biological activities of some Argyranthemum species. Phytochemistry 45:963–967#
- National flower of Denmark