Argyrodes

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Argyrodes, also called dewdrop spiders, is a genus of comb-footed spiders that was first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1864.[1] They occur worldwide, and are best known for their kleptoparasitism. They can spin their own webs, but tend to invade and reside in their hosts' webs.[2] This relationship can be commensal or even mutual if the dewdrop spider feeds on small trapped insects that are not eaten by the host.[3] Some species can even prey upon the host.[2]

Dewdrop spiders
Temporal range: Neogene– Present
Argyrodes Kaldari 01.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Infraorder: Araneomorphae
Family: Theridiidae
Genus: Argyrodes
Simon, 1864[4]
Type species
A. argyrodes
(Walckenaer, 1841)
Species

93, see text

Synonyms[4]

The genus name is a combination of the Ancient Greek "argyros" (άργυρος), meaning "silver", and the suffix "-odes", meaning "like".[1]

Description[edit]

Most species are relatively small, and many are black with silvery markings. A. incursus has a body length of 3 to 4.5 millimetres (0.12 to 0.18 in),[7] while A. fissifrons has a body length of about 12 millimetres (0.47 in).[3] The body has a characteristic conical or triangle shape with a shorter third pair of legs, common in web dwelling spiders.[8] The silver coloration of Argyrodes may be able to attract moths and other insects as it stimulates their photoreceptors and may resemble starlight.[9]

Distribution[edit]

Most Argyrodes are found in the tropics, though fifteen species are found in the United States.[2] The species found in the United States include elevatus, which are found in the southern parts of the US, nephilae, found in Florida, and pluto, found in Maryland, Virginia, and Missouri. Pluto species have been found as far south as Chihuahua and Jamaica as well.[10]

Behavior[edit]

Argyrodes are kleptoparasitic spiders that live on the webs created by orb-weaver spiders. These spiders feed on the small prey items caught in the host webs that they parasitize. In some instances, Argyrodes may even feed on previously digested carcasses that remain on the web.[11] While these spiders are well known for being kleptoparasitic, they are also arachnophagous, meaning they prey on other spiders. Argyrodes will wait for a time when the host spider is vulnerable, such as during molting, and will attack and feed on it. This is true for the host spider's offspring as well, however Agyrodes will only feed on other spiders in some instances.[12]

It has been suggested that Argyrodes may have a mutualistic relationship with the host. The silver coloration of Argyrodes was found to attract more prey, particularly moths, to the host's web. This allows for larger prey items to be attracted for the host spider while Argyrodes is able to consume the smaller unwanted prey.[9] A common misconception about Argyrodes is that it steals prey from the host spider, but recent research has showed that Argyrodes rarely steals large prey items from the host, and only eats when the host spider typically does not want.[9]

Kleptoparasitic spiders such as Argyrodes tend to prefer larger host webs over small ones, and multiple spiders often inhabit the same host web. Clustered webs were found to be preferred by Arygrodes, but only because these webs are generally larger than isolated ones.[13] There does not appear to be any preference for clustered webs over isolated webs when comparing the number of spiders per web area.[13] Kleptoparasitic spiders tend to spend much of their time on the outskirts of the host web, using this area as a safe place outside of the host spiders typical monitoring range. In addition to stealing food from the host web, dewdrop spiders are also known to use the host web as a location for mating as well as a place to hang their egg sacs.[13]

Species[edit]

As of May 2020 it contains ninety-three species and five subspecies, found in Asia, South America, North America, Oceania, Africa, the Caribbean, on the Canary Islands, and Saint Helena:[4]

Formerly included:

  • A. aculeatus (Thorell, 1898) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. acuminatus Keyserling, 1891 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. acuminatus (Schenkel, 1953) (Transferred to Chrysso)
  • A. affinis (Lessert, 1936) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. alticeps Keyserling, 1891 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. altus Keyserling, 1891 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. amates Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. americanus (Taczanowski, 1874) (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. analiae González & Carmen, 1996 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. andamanensis Tikader, 1977 (Transferred to Meotipa)
  • A. angulipalpis (Thorell, 1877) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. anomalus (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936) (Transferred to Synotaxus)
  • A. argenteolus (Simon, 1873) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. argentiopunctatus Rainbow, 1916 (Transferred to Thwaitesia)
  • A. argyrodiformis (Yaginuma, 1952) (Transferred to Meotipa)
  • A. arthuri Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. atopus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. baboquivari Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Neospintharus)
  • A. barycephalus Roberts, 1983 (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. birgitae (Strand, 1917) (Transferred to Ariamnes)
  • A. bryantae Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. campestratus (Simon, 1903) (Transferred to Ariamnes)
  • A. canariensis (Schmidt, 1956) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. cancellatus (Hentz, 1850) (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. carnicobarensis Tikader, 1977 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. caronae González & Carmen, 1996 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. caudatus (Taczanowski, 1874) (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. ceraosus Zhu & Song, 1991 (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. chicaensis González & Carmen, 1996 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. chickeringi Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. cochleaformus (Exline, 1945) (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. colubrinus (Keyserling, 1890) (Transferred to Ariamnes)
  • A. cometes (L. Koch, 1872) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. concisus Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Neospintharus)
  • A. conus González & Carmen, 1996 (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. convolutus Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. cordillera (Exline, 1945) (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. corniger (Simon, 1900) (Transferred to Ariamnes)
  • A. cristinae González & Carmen, 1996 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. crucinotus Bösenberg & Strand, 1906 (Transferred to Leucauge)
  • A. cubensis Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. cylindricus Franganillo, 1936 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. cylindrogaster (Simon, 1889) (Transferred to Ariamnes)
  • A. darlingtoni Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. davisi Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. delicatulus (Simon, 1883) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. dracus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. duckensis González & Carmen, 1996 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. ecaudatus (Keyserling, 1884) (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. exiguus Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. fictilium (Hentz, 1850) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. flagellum (Doleschall, 1857) (Transferred to Ariamnes)
  • A. flagellum (Simon, 1901) (Transferred to Ariamnes)
  • A. flavonotatus (Urquhart, 1890) (Transferred to Tekelloides)
  • A. floridanus Banks, 1900 (Transferred to Coleosoma)
  • A. frontatus Banks, 1908 (Transferred to Neospintharus)
  • A. fulvus Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. fur Bösenberg & Strand, 1906 (Transferred to Neospintharus)
  • A. gansuensis Zhu, 1998 (Transferred to Neospintharus)
  • A. gapensis Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. gertschi Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. globosus Keyserling, 1884 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. godmani Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. haitensis Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Ariamnes)
  • A. helminthoides (Simon, 1907) (Transferred to Ariamnes)
  • A. huangsangensis Yin, Peng & Bao, 2004 (Transferred to Spheropistha)
  • A. hyrcanus Logunov & Marusik, 1990 (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. iguazuensis González & Carmen, 1996 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. indignus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. irroratus (Thorell, 1898) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. jamaicensis Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. jeanneli (Berland, 1920) (Transferred to Ariamnes)
  • A. labiatus Zhu & Song, 1991 (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. lactifer (Simon, 1909) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. laraensis González & Carmen, 1996 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. leonensis Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. levii Zhu & Song, 1991 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. longispinus Saito, 1933 (Transferred to Cyclosa)
  • A. longissimus (Keyserling, 1891) (Transferred to Ariamnes)
  • A. longus (Kulczyński, 1905) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. manta (Exline, 1945) (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. mariae González & Carmen, 1996 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. martinae (Exline, 1950) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. melanosoma (Yaginuma, 1957) (Transferred to Spheropistha)
  • A. metaltissimus (Soares & Camargo, 1948) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. mexicanus Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Ariamnes)
  • A. miyashitai Tanikawa, 1998 (Transferred to Spheropistha)
  • A. monoceros (Caporiacco, 1947) (Transferred to Synotaxus)
  • A. montanus Keyserling, 1884 (Transferred to Neospintharus)
  • A. morretensis González & Carmen, 1996 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. nasicus (Simon, 1873) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. nataliae González & Carmen, 1996 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. nigronodosus Rainbow, 1912 (Transferred to Thwaitesia)
  • A. nigroris Yoshida, Tso & Severinghaus, 2000 (Transferred to Spheropistha)
  • A. nipponicus Kumada, 1990 (Transferred to Neospintharus)
  • A. obscurus Keyserling, 1884 (Transferred to Neospintharus)
  • A. orbitus Zhu, 1998 (Transferred to Spheropistha)
  • A. oris González & Carmen, 1996 (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. ornatissimus (Dyal, 1935) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. pachysomus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. palmarensis González & Carmen, 1996 (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. paradoxus Taczanowski, 1873 (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. parvior Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. parvus (Exline, 1950) (Transferred to Neospintharus)
  • A. patersoniensis (Hickman, 1927) (Transferred to Ariamnes)
  • A. pavesii (Leardi, 1902) (Transferred to Ariamnes)
  • A. peruensis Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. pignalitoensis González & Carmen, 1996 (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. pizai (Soares & Camargo, 1948) (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. plaumanni Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. pozonae (Schenkel, 1953) (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. proboscifer (Exline, 1945) (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. pulcher (Soares & Camargo, 1948) (Transferred to Ariamnes)
  • A. pusillus Saaristo, 1978 (Transferred to Argyrodella)
  • A. quasiobtusus Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. recurvatus Saaristo, 1978 (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. remotus (Bryant, 1940) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. rhomboides Yin, Peng & Bao, 2004 (Transferred to Spheropistha)
  • A. rigidus Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. rioensis Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Neospintharus)
  • A. rorerae (Exline, 1945) (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. rossi Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. rostratus (Simon, 1873) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. rufopictus (Thorell, 1895) (Transferred to Ariamnes)
  • A. russulus (Simon, 1903) (Transferred to Ariamnes)
  • A. saganus (Dönitz & Strand, 1906) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. schlingeri Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Ariamnes)
  • A. setipes (Hasselt, 1882) (Transferred to Ariamnes)
  • A. sicki Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. simoni (Petrunkevitch, 1911) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. sinicus Zhu & Song, 1991 (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. sinuatus (Schenkel, 1953) (Transferred to Ariamnes)
  • A. sjostedti (Tullgren, 1910) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. socius Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. solidao Levi, 1967 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. spinicaudatus (Keyserling, 1884) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. spinosus (Badcock, 1932) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. spinosus Keyserling, 1884 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. striatus Keyserling, 1891 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. subflavus Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. sullana (Exline, 1945) (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. taeter Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. tanikawai (Yoshida, 2001) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. triangularis Taczanowski, 1873 (Transferred to Neospintharus)
  • A. triangulatus (Urquhart, 1887) (Transferred to Ariamnes)
  • A. triangulus (Thorell, 1887) (Transferred to Ariamnes)
  • A. trigonum (Hentz, 1850) (Transferred to Neospintharus)
  • A. trituberculatus Becker, 1879 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. ululabilis Keyserling, 1891 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. urquharti (Bryant, 1933) (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. v-notatus (Petrunkevitch, 1925) (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. vadoensis González & Carmen, 1996 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. velhaensis González & Carmen, 1996 (Transferred to Rhomphaea)
  • A. vexus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. vittatulus (Roewer, 1942) (Transferred to Chrysso)
  • A. woytkowskii Exline & Levi, 1962 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. xiphias Thorell, 1887 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. yacuiensis González & Carmen, 1996 (Transferred to Faiditus)
  • A. yesoensis Saito, 1934 (Transferred to Octonoba)
  • A. yutoensis González & Carmen, 1996 (Transferred to Faiditus)

Nomina dubia

  • A. meus Strand, 1907
  • A. silvicola Saito, 1934

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Simon, E (1864). Histoire naturelle des araignées (aranéides). Paris: Roret. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.47654.
  2. ^ a b c Guarisco 1999
  3. ^ a b Tso 2000
  4. ^ a b c "Gen. Argyrodes Simon, 1864". World Spider Catalog Version 20.0. Natural History Museum Bern. 2020. doi:10.24436/2. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
  5. ^ a b Levi, H. W.; Levi, L. R. (1962). "The genera of the spider family Theridiidae". Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 127: 16.
  6. ^ Levi, H. W. (1972). "Taxonomic-nomenclatural notes on misplaced theridiid spiders (Araneae: Theridiidae), with observations on Anelosimus". Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 91: 534.
  7. ^ "Red-spotted Argyrodes". Australian Museum. 2003. Archived from the original on 27 May 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-21.
  8. ^ Five species of kleptobiotic Argyrodes Simon (Theridiidae: Araneae) from eastern Australia: descriptions and ecology with special reference to southeast Queensland. 1999.
  9. ^ a b c "A Color-Mediated Mutualism between Two Arthropod Predators". Current Biology. 23 (2): 172–176. 2013-01-21. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.11.057. ISSN 0960-9822.
  10. ^ "Genus Argyrodes - Dewdrop Spiders". bugguide.net. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
  11. ^ Vollrath, Fritz (1979-05-01). "Behaviour of the kleptoparasitic spider Argyrodes elevatus (Araneae, theridiidae)". Animal Behaviour. 27: 515–521. doi:10.1016/0003-3472(79)90186-6. ISSN 0003-3472.
  12. ^ Whitehouse, Mary E. A. (1986-04-01). "The foraging behaviours of Argyrodes antipodiana (Theridiidae), a kleptoparasitic spider from New Zealand". New Zealand Journal of Zoology. 13 (2): 151–168. doi:10.1080/03014223.1986.10422658. ISSN 0301-4223.
  13. ^ a b c Agnarsson, Ingi (December 2003). "SPIDER WEBS AS HABITAT PATCHES—THE DISTRIBUTION OF KLEPTOPARASITES (ARGYRODES, THERIDIIDAE) AMONG HOST WEBS (NEPHILA, TETRAGNATHIDAE)". Journal of Arachnology. 31 (3): 344–349. doi:10.1636/s02-21. ISSN 0161-8202.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]