Ariane (rocket family)
Ariane is a series of a European civilian expendable launch vehicles for space launch use. The name comes from the French spelling of the mythological character Ariadne. France first proposed the Ariane project and it was officially agreed upon at the end of 1973 after discussions between France, Germany and the UK. The project was Western Europe's second attempt to develop its own launcher following the unsuccessful Europa project. The Ariane project was code-named L3S (the French abbreviation for third-generation substitution launcher).
The European Space Agency (ESA) charged the EADS subsidiary Astrium, presently Airbus Defence and Space, with the development of all Ariane launchers and of the testing facilities, while Arianespace, a 32.5% CNES (French government space agency) commercial subsidiary created in 1980, handles production, operations and marketing. Arianespace launches Ariane rockets from the Guiana Space Centre at Kourou in French Guiana.
|Launch vehicle||Launches: successes / total||Variants||Payload to GTO||Payload to LEO||Height||Mass||Stages|
|Ariane 1||9 / 11||-||1,850 kg (4,080 lb)||-||47.46 m (155.7 ft)||211,500 kg (466,300 lb)||3|
|Ariane 2||5 / 6||-||2,180 kg (4,810 lb)||-||49.13 m (161.2 ft)||220,950 kg (487,110 lb)||3|
|Ariane 3||10 / 11||-||2,700 kg (6,000 lb)||-||49.13 m (161.2 ft)||234,000 kg (516,000 lb)||3|
|Ariane 4||113 / 116||40, 42P, 42L, 44P, 44LP, 44L||2,000–4,300 kg (4,400–9,500 lb)||5,000–7,600 kg (11,000–16,800 lb)||58.72 m (192.7 ft)||240,000–470,000 kg (530,000–1,040,000 lb)||3|
|Ariane 5||98 / 103
(as of February 2019[update])
|G, G+, GS, ECA||6,950–10,500 kg (15,320–23,150 lb)||16,000–21,000 kg (35,000–46,000 lb)||46–52 m (151–171 ft)||720,000–780,000 kg (1,590,000–1,720,000 lb)||2|
|Ariane 6||In development,
due for launch in 2020
|62, 64||5,000–10,500 kg (11,000–23,100 lb)||7,000–20,000 kg (15,000–44,000 lb)||~63 m (207 ft)||500,000–900,000 kg (1,100,000–2,000,000 lb)||2|
Ariane 1 was a three-stage launcher, derived from missile technology. The first two stages used hypergolic propellants and the third stage used cryogenic liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen (LH2/LOX). Ariane 2–4 were enhancements of the basic vehicle. The major differences are improved versions of the engines, allowing stretched first- and third-stage tanks and greater payloads. The largest versions can launch two satellites, mounted in the SPELDA (Structure Porteuse Externe pour Lancements Doubles Ariane) adapter.
Such later versions are often seen with strap-on boosters. These layouts are designated by suffixes after the generation number. First is the total number of boosters, then letters designating liquid- or solid-fueled stages. For example, an Ariane 42P is an Ariane 4 with two solid-fuel boosters. An Ariane 44LP has two solid, two liquid boosters, and a 44L has four liquid-fuel boosters.
Ariane 5 is a nearly complete redesign. The two hypergolic lower stages are replaced with a single LH2/LOX core stage. This simplifies the stack, along with the use of a single core engine (Vulcain). Because the core cannot lift its own weight, two solid-fuel boosters are strapped to the sides. The boosters can be recovered for examination, but are not reused. There are two versions of the upper stage, one hypergolic and restartable with a single Aestus engine  and the other with a HM7B cryogenic engine burning LH2/LOX.
On 4 May 2007, an Ariane 5-ECA rocket set a new commercial payload record, lifting two satellites with a combined mass of 9.4 tonnes.
By January 2006, 169 Ariane flights had boosted 290 satellites, successfully placing 271 of them on orbit (223 main passengers and 48 auxiliary passengers) for a total mass of 575,000 kg successfully delivered on orbit. Attesting to the ubiquity of Ariane launch vehicles, France's Cerise satellite, which was orbited by an Ariane in 1995, struck a discarded Ariane rocket stage in 1996. The incident marked the first verified case of a collision with a piece of catalogued space debris.
- Cluster launch failure — Ariane 5 Flight 501
- Liquid fly-back booster
- Comparison of orbital launchers families
- Europa (rocket)
- French space program
- Amos, Jonathan (22 June 2017). "Full thrust on Europe's new Ariane 6 rocket". BBC News.
- Aestus Rocket Engine Archived 2014-02-02 at the Wayback Machine Astrium (European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company)
- European rocket powers to record BBC news
- "SPACEWARN Bulletin Number 501". NASA. Archived from the original on 14 August 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- "Space Junk". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 8 October 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- "CO2 prolongs life of 'space junk'". BBC News. May 5, 2005. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- European Space Agency
- Downloadable paper models of various ESA spacecraft (Ariane at the bottom)