Ariane 5

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Ariane 5
Ariane 5ES with ATV 4 on its way to ELA-3.jpg
Ariane 5 ES with ATV-4 on board on its way to the launch pad on June 2013
FunctionHeavy launch vehicle
ManufacturerAirbus Defence and Space for
ESA, Arianespace and CNES
Country of origin
Cost per launch$165–220M[1]
Size
Height46–52 m (151–171 ft)
Diameter5.4 m (18 ft)
Mass777,000 kg (1,713,000 lb)
Stages2
Capacity
Payload to LEO (260 km (162 mi) circular, 51.6°)G: 16,000 kg (35,000 lb)
ES: over 20,000 kg (44,000 lb)[2]
Payload to GTO
  • G: 6,950 kg (15,320 lb)
  • G+: 6,950 kg (15,320 lb)
  • GS: 6,100 kg (13,400 lb)
  • ECA: 11,115 kg (24,504 lb)[3]
Associated rockets
FamilyAriane
Comparable
Launch history
Status
  • G: Retired
  • G+: Retired
  • GS: Retired
  • ECA: Active
  • ES: Retired
Launch sitesGuiana Space Centre ELA-3
Total launches101
  • G: 16
  • G+: 3
  • GS: 6
  • ECA: 68
  • ES: 8
Successes96
  • G: 13
  • G+: 3
  • GS: 6
  • ECA: 66
  • ES: 8
Failures2 (G: 1, ECA: 1)
Partial failures3 (G: 2, ECA: 1)
First flight
  • G: 4 June 1996
  • G+: 2 March 2004
  • GS: 11 August 2005
  • ECA: 11 December 2002
  • ES: 9 March 2008
Last flight
  • G: 27 September 2003
  • G+: 18 December 2004
  • GS: 18 December 2009
  • ES: 25 July 2018
Notable payloads
Boosters (G, G+) – EAP P238
No. boosters2
Length31.6 m (104 ft)
Diameter3.06 m (10.0 ft)
Gross mass270 tonnes (300 tons)
EnginesP238
Thrust6,650 kN (1,490,000 lbf)
Total thrust13,300 kN (3,000,000 lbf)
Burn time130 s
FuelAP, Al, HTPB
Boosters (GS, ECA, ES) – EAP P241
No. boosters2
Length31.6 m (104 ft)
Diameter3.06 m (10.0 ft)
Empty mass33 tonnes (36 tons)
Gross mass273 tonnes (301 tons)
EnginesP241
Thrust7,080 kN (1,590,000 lbf)
Total thrust14,160 kN (3,180,000 lbf)
Burn time140 s
FuelAP, Al, HTPB
Core stage (G, G+, GS) – EPC H158
Length23.8 m (78 ft)
Diameter5.4 m (18 ft)
Empty mass12,200 kg (26,900 lb)
Gross mass170,500 kg (375,900 lb)
EnginesG, G+: Vulcain 1
GS: Vulcain 1B
Thrust1,015 kN (228,000 lbf) (vacuum)
Specific impulse440 s (vacuum)
Burn time605 s
FuelLH2 / LOX
Core stage (ECA, ES) – EPC H173
Length23.8 m (78 ft)
Diameter5.4 m (18 ft)
Empty mass14,700 kg (32,400 lb)
Gross mass184,700 kg (407,200 lb)
EnginesVulcain 2
Thrust960 kN (220,000 lbf) (sea level)
1,390 kN (310,000 lbf) (vacuum)
Specific impulse310 s (sea level)
432 s (vacuum)
Burn time540 s
FuelLH2 / LOX
Second stage (G) – EPS L9.7
Length3.4 m (11 ft)
Diameter5.4 m (18 ft)
Empty mass1,200 kg (2,600 lb)
Gross mass10,900 kg (24,000 lb)
EnginesAestus
Thrust27 kN (6,100 lbf)
Burn time1100 s
FuelMMH / N2O4
Second stage (G+, GS, ES) – EPS L10
Length3.4 m (11 ft)
Diameter5.4 m (18 ft)
Empty mass1,200 kg (2,600 lb)
Gross mass11,200 kg (24,700 lb)
EnginesAestus
Thrust27 kN (6,100 lbf)
Burn time1170 s
FuelMMH / N2O4
Second stage (ECA) – ESC-A
Length4.711 m (15.46 ft)
Diameter5.4 m (18 ft)
Empty mass4,540 kg (10,010 lb)
Gross mass19,440 kg (42,860 lb)
EnginesHM7B
Thrust67 kN (15,000 lbf)
Specific impulse446 s
Burn time945 s
FuelLH2 / LOX

Ariane 5 is a European heavy-lift launch vehicle that is part of the Ariane rocket family, an expendable launch system used to deliver payloads into geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) or low Earth orbit (LEO).

Ariane 5 rockets are manufactured under the authority of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the French spatial agency Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales. Airbus Defence and Space is the prime contractor for the vehicles, leading a consortium of other European contractors.

Ariane 5 is operated and marketed by Arianespace as part of the Ariane programme. The rockets are launched by Arianespace from the Guiana Space Centre in French Guiana.

Ariane 5 succeeded Ariane 4, but was not derived from it directly as Ariane 5 was developed from scratch. Ariane 5 has been refined since the first launch in successive versions, "G", "G+", "GS", "ECA", and most recently, "ES". ESA originally designed Ariane 5 to launch the Hermes spaceplane, and thus intended it to be human rated from the beginning.

Two satellites can be mounted using a SYLDA carrier (SYstème de Lancement Double Ariane, "Ariane Double-Launch System"). Three main satellites are possible depending on size using SPELTRA (Structure Porteuse Externe Lancement TRiple Ariane, "Ariane Triple-Launch External Carrier Structure"). Up to eight secondary payloads, usually small experiment packages or minisatellites, can be carried with an ASAP (Ariane Structure for Auxiliary Payloads) platform.

As of January 2018 Arianespace has signed contracts for Ariane 5 ECA launches up till 2022, after planned introduction of Ariane 6 in 2020.[4]

Vehicle description[edit]

Cut drawing of an Ariane 5 ECA

Cryogenic main stage[edit]

Ariane 5’s cryogenic H173 main stage (H158 for Ariane 5 G, G+, and GS) is called the EPC (Étage Principal Cryotechnique—Cryotechnic Main Stage). It consists of a large tank 30.5 metres high with two compartments, one for liquid oxygen and one for liquid hydrogen, and a Vulcain 2 engine at the base with a vacuum thrust of 1,390 kilonewtons (310,000 pounds-force). The H173 EPC weighs about 189 tonnes, including 175 tonnes of propellant.[5] After the main cryogenic stage runs out of fuel, it re-enters the atmosphere for an ocean splashdown.

Solid boosters[edit]

Attached to the sides are two P241 (P238 for Ariane 5 G and G+) solid rocket boosters (SRBs or EAPs from the French Étages d’Accélération à Poudre), each weighing about 277 tonnes full and delivering a thrust of about 7,080 kilonewtons (1,590,000 pounds-force). They are fueled by a mix of ammonium perchlorate (68%) and aluminum fuel (18%) and HTPB (14%). They each burn for 130 seconds before being dropped into the ocean. The SRBs are usually allowed to sink to the bottom of the ocean, but, like the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters, they can be recovered with parachutes, and this has occasionally been done for post-flight analysis. (Unlike Space Shuttle SRBs, Ariane 5 boosters are not reused.) The most recent attempt was for the first Ariane 5 ECA mission. One of the two boosters was successfully recovered and returned to the Guiana Space Center for analysis.[6] Prior to that mission, the last such recovery and testing was done in 2003.

The French M51 SLBM shares a substantial amount of technology with these boosters.

In February 2000 the suspected nose cone of an Ariane 5 booster washed ashore on the South Texas coast, and was recovered by beachcombers before the government could get to it.[7]

Second stage[edit]

The second stage is on top of the main stage and below the payload. The Ariane 5 G used the EPS (Étage à Propergols Stockables—Storable Propellant Stage), which is fueled by monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide. It also has 10 tonnes of storable propellants. The EPS was improved for use on the Ariane 5 G+, GS, and ES. Ariane 5 ECA uses the ESC (Étage Supérieur Cryotechnique—Cryogenic Upper Stage), which is fueled by liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen.

The EPS upper stage is capable of multiple ignitions, first demonstrated during flight V26 which was launched on 5 October 2007. This was purely to test the engine, and occurred after the payloads had been deployed. The first operational use of restart capability as part of a mission came on 9 March 2008, when two burns were made to deploy the first Automated Transfer Vehicle into a circular parking orbit, followed by a third burn after ATV deployment to de-orbit the stage. This procedure was repeated for all subsequent ATV flights.

Fairing[edit]

The payload and all upper stages are covered at launch by a fairing, which is jettisoned once sufficient altitude has been reached (typically above 100 km). The fairing is also used for aerodynamic stability and protection from heating during supersonic flight and acoustic loads.

Variants[edit]

Variant Description
G The original version is dubbed Ariane 5 G (Generic) and had a launch mass of 737 tonnes. Its payload capability to geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) was 6,900 kg (15,200 lb) for a single satellite or 6,100 kg (13,400 lb) for dual launches. It flew 17 times with one failure and two partial failures.[8]
G+ The Ariane 5 G+ had an improved EPS second stage, with a GTO capacity of 7,100 kg (15,700 lb) for a single payload or 6,300 kg (13,900 lb) for two. It flew three times in 2004, with no failures.[9]
GS At the time of the failure of the first Ariane 5 ECA flight in 2002, all Ariane 5 launchers in production were ECA versions. Some of the ECA cores were modified to use the original Vulcain engine and tank volumes while the failure was investigated; these vehicles were designated Ariane 5 GS. The GS used the improved EAP boosters of the ECA variant and the improved EPS of the G+ variant, but the increased mass of the modified ECA core compared to the G and G+ core resulted in slightly reduced payload capacity.[10] Ariane 5 GS could carry a single payload of 6,600 kg (14,600 lb) or a dual payload of 5,800 kg (12,800 lb) to GTO. The Ariane 5 GS flew 6 times from 2005 to 2009 with no failures.[11]
ECA The Ariane 5 ECA (Evolution Cryotechnique type A), first successfully flown in 2005, uses an improved Vulcain 2 first-stage engine with a longer, more efficient nozzle with a more efficient flow cycle and denser propellant ratio. The new ratio required length modifications to the first-stage tanks. The EPS second stage was replaced by the ESC-A (Etage Supérieur Cryogénique-A), which has a dry weight of 2,100 kg (4,600 lb) and is powered by an HM-7B engine burning 14,000 kg (31,000 lb) of cryogenic propellant. The ESC-A uses the liquid oxygen tank and lower structure from the Ariane 4's H10 third stage, mated to a new liquid hydrogen tank. Additionally, the EAP booster casings were lightened with new welds and carry more propellant. The Ariane 5 ECA has a GTO launch capacity of 9,100 kg (20,100 lb) for dual payloads or 9,600 kg (21,200 lb) for a single payload.[12]
ES The Ariane 5 ES (Evolution Storable) has an estimated LEO launch capacity of 21,000 kg (46,000 lb). It includes all the performance improvements of Ariane 5 ECA core and boosters but replaces the ESC-A second stage with the restartable EPS used on Ariane 5 GS variants. It was used to launch the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) into a 260 km circular low Earth orbit inclined at 51.6° and has been used to launch four Galileo navigation satellites at a time directly into their operational orbit.[2] The Ariane 5 ES flew 8 times from 2008 to 2018 with no failures.
ME (cancelled) The Ariane 5 ME (Mid-life Evolution) was under development until the end of 2014. The last ESA ministerial council of December 2014 has cut further funding for Ariane 5 ME in favour of developing Ariane 6. Last activities for Ariane 5 ME were completed at the end of 2015. Activities on development of the VINCI upper stage were transferred to Ariane 6.

Launch system status:   Retired ·   Cancelled ·   Operational ·   Under development

Launch pricing and market competition[edit]

As of November 2014, the Ariane 5 commercial launch price for launching a "midsize satellite in the lower position" is approximately US$60 million,[13] competing for commercial launches in an increasingly competitive market.

The heavier satellite launched in the upper position on a typical dual-satellite Ariane 5 launch is priced higher,[14][clarification needed] on the order of €90 million.[15][16]

Total launch price of an Ariane 5—which can transport up to two satellites to space, one in the "upper" and one in the "lower" positions—is around 150 million Euro as of January 2015.[16]

Future developments[edit]

Ariane 5 ME[edit]

The Ariane 5 ME (Mid-life Evolution) was in development until 2015 and seen as a stopgap between Ariane 5 ECA/Ariane 5 ES and the new Ariane 6. With first flight planned for 2018, it would have become ESA's principal launcher until the arrival of the new Ariane 6 version.

The Ariane 5 ME uses a new upper stage, with increased propellant volume, powered by the new Vinci engine. Unlike the HM-7B engine, it can restart several times, allowing for complex orbital maneuvers such as insertion of two satellites into different orbits, direct insertion into geosynchronous orbit, planetary exploration missions, and guaranteed upper stage deorbiting or insertion into graveyard orbit.[17][18]

The new launcher also includes a lengthened fairing up to 20m and a new dual launch system to accommodate larger satellites. Compared to an Ariane 5 ECA model, the payload to GTO increases by 15% to 11.5 tonnes and the cost-per-kilogram of each launch is projected to decline by 20%.[17]

Development[edit]

Originally known as the Ariane 5 ECB, Ariane 5 ME was to have its first flight in 2006. However, the failure of the first ECA flight in 2002, combined with a deteriorating satellite industry, caused ESA to cancel development in 2003.[19] Development of the Vinci engine continued, though at a lower pace. The ESA Council of Ministers agreed to fund development of the new upper stage in November 2008.[20] In 2009, EADS Astrium was awarded a €200 million contract,[21] and on April 10, 2012 received another €112 million contract to continue development of the Ariane 5 ME[22] with total development effort expected to cost €1 billion.[23]

On 21 November 2012, ESA agreed to continue with the Ariane 5 ME to meet the challenge of lower priced competitors. It was agreed the Vinci upper stage would also be used as the second stage of a new Ariane 6, and further commonality would be sought.[18] Ariane 5 ME qualification flight is scheduled for mid-2018, followed by gradual introduction into service.[17]

On 2 December 2014, ESA decided to stop funding the development of Ariane 5 ME and instead focus on Ariane 6 which should have a lower cost per launch and allow more flexibility in the payloads (using two or four P120C solid boosters depending on total payload mass).[24]

Solid propellant stage[edit]

Work on the Ariane 5 EAP motors has been continued in the Vega programme. The Vega 1st stage engine—the P80 engine—is a shorter derivation of the EAP.[25] The P80 booster casing is made of filament wound graphite epoxy, much lighter than the current stainless steel casing. A new composite steerable nozzle has been developed while new thermal insulation material and a narrower throat improve the expansion ratio and subsequently the overall performance. Additionally, the nozzle now has electromechanical actuators which have replaced the heavier hydraulic ones used for thrust vector control.

These developments will probably later make their way back into the Ariane programme.[18][26] The incorporation of the ESC-B with the improvements to the solid motor casing and an uprated Vulcain engine would deliver 27,000 kilograms (60,000 lb) to LEO. This would be developed for any lunar missions but the performance of such a design may not be possible if the higher Max-Q for the launch of this rocket poses a constraint on the mass delivered to orbit.[27]

Ariane 6[edit]

The design brief of the next generation rocket Ariane 6 called for a lower-cost and smaller rocket capable of launching a single satellite of up to 6.5 tonnes to GTO.[28] However, after several permutations the finalized design was nearly identical in performance to the Ariane 5,[citation needed] focusing instead on lowering fabrication costs and launch prices.

Development is projected to cost €4 billion. Its first test launch is set for not earlier than 16 July 2020.[29] As of March 2014, Ariane 6 is projected to be launched for about €70 million per flight or about half of the Ariane 5 current price.[28]

Notable launches[edit]

Launch of the 34th Ariane 5 at Kourou

Ariane 5's first test flight (Ariane 5 Flight 501) on 4 June 1996 failed, with the rocket self-destructing 37 seconds after launch because of a malfunction in the control software.[30] A data conversion from 64-bit floating point value to 16-bit signed integer value to be stored in a variable representing horizontal bias caused a processor trap (operand error)[31] because the floating point value was too large to be represented by a 16-bit signed integer. The software was originally written for the Ariane 4 where efficiency considerations (the computer running the software had an 80% maximum workload requirement[31]) led to four variables being protected with a handler while three others, including the horizontal bias variable, were left unprotected because it was thought that they were "physically limited or that there was a large margin of safety".[31] The software, written in Ada, was included in the Ariane 5 through the reuse of an entire Ariane 4 subsystem despite the fact that the particular software containing the bug, which was just a part of the subsystem, was not required by the Ariane 5 because it has a different preparation sequence[31] than the Ariane 4.

The second test flight (L502, on 30 October 1997) was a partial failure. The Vulcain nozzle caused a roll problem, leading to premature shutdown of the core stage. The upper stage operated successfully, but it could not reach the intended orbit.

A subsequent test flight (L503, on 21 October 1998) proved successful and the first commercial launch (L504) occurred on 10 December 1999 with the launch of the XMM-Newton X-ray observatory satellite.

Another partial failure occurred on 12 July 2001, with the delivery of two satellites into an incorrect orbit, at only half the height of the intended GTO. The ESA Artemis telecommunications satellite was able to reach its intended orbit on 31 January 2003, through the use of its experimental ion propulsion system.

The next launch did not occur until 1 March 2002, when the Envisat environmental satellite successfully reached an orbit 800 km above the Earth in the 11th launch. At 8111 kg, it was the heaviest single payload until the launch of the first ATV on 9 March 2008 (19,360 kg).

The first launch of the ECA variant on 11 December 2002 ended in failure when a main booster problem caused the rocket to veer off-course, forcing its self-destruction three minutes into the flight. Its payload of two communications satellites (Stentor and Hot Bird 7), valued at about EUR 630 million, was lost in the ocean. The fault was determined to have been caused by a leak in coolant pipes allowing the nozzle to overheat. After this failure, Arianespace SA delayed the expected January 2003 launch for the Rosetta mission to 26 February 2004, but this was again delayed to early March 2004 due to a minor fault in the foam that protects the cryogenic tanks on the Ariane 5. As of June 2017, the failure of the first ECA launch was the last failure of an Ariane 5; since then, all subsequent launches have been successful, with 82 consecutive successes that stretch back to 9 April 2003 with the launch of INSAT-3A and Galaxy 12 satellites.[32]

On 27 September 2003 the last Ariane 5 G boosted three satellites (including the first European lunar probe, SMART-1), in Flight 162. On 18 July 2004 an Ariane 5 G+ boosted what was at the time the heaviest telecommunication satellite ever, Anik F2, weighing almost 6,000 kg.

The first successful launch of the Ariane 5 ECA took place on 12 February 2005. The payload consisted of the XTAR-EUR military communications satellite, a 'SLOSHSAT' small scientific satellite and a MaqSat B2 payload simulator. The launch had been originally scheduled for October 2004, but additional testing and the military requiring a launch at that time (of a Helios 2A observation satellite) delayed the attempt.

On 11 August 2005, the first Ariane 5 GS (featuring the Ariane 5 ECA's improved solid motors) boosted Thaïcom-4/iPStar-1, the heaviest telecommunications satellite to date at 6,505 kg,[33] into orbit.

On 16 November 2005, the third Ariane 5 ECA launch (the second successful ECA launch) took place. It carried a dual payload consisting of Spaceway-F2 for DirecTV and Telkom-2 for PT Telekomunikasi of Indonesia. This was the rocket's heaviest dual payload to date, at more than 8,000 kg.

On 27 May 2006, an Ariane 5 ECA rocket set a new commercial payload lifting record of 8.2 tonnes. The dual-payload consisted of the Thaicom 5 and Satmex 6 satellites.[34]

On 4 May 2007 the Ariane 5 ECA set another new commercial record, lifting into transfer orbit the Astra 1L and Galaxy 17 communication satellites with a combined weight of 8.6 tonnes, and a total payload weight of 9.4 tonnes.[35] This record was again broken by another Ariane 5 ECA, launching the Skynet 5B and Star One C1 satellites, on 11 November 2007. The total payload weight for this launch was 9,535 kg.[36]

On 9 March 2008, the first Ariane 5 ES-ATV was launched to deliver the first ATV called Jules Verne to the International Space Station. The ATV was the heaviest payload ever launched by a European rocket, providing supplies to the space station with necessary propellant, water, air and dry cargo. This was the first operational Ariane mission which involved an engine restart in the upper stage. (The ES-ATV Aestus EPS upper stage was restartable while the ECA HM7-B engine was not.)

On 1 July 2009, an Ariane 5 ECA launched TerreStar-1 (now EchoStar T1), which was then, at 6,910 kg (15,230 lb), the largest and most massive commercial telecommunication satellite ever built at that time[37] until being overtaken by Telstar 19 Vantage, at 7,080 kg (15,610 lb), launched aboard Falcon 9.[38]

On 28 October 2010, an Ariane 5 ECA launched Eutelsat's W3B (part of its W Series of satellites) and Broadcasting Satellite System Corporation (B-SAT)'s BSAT-3b satellites into orbit. But the W3B satellite failed to operate shortly after the successful launch and was written off as a total loss due to an oxidizer leak in the satellite's main propulsion system.[39] The BSAT-3b satellite, however, is operating normally.[40]

GTO payload weight records[edit]

On 22 April 2011, the Ariane 5 ECA flight VA-201 broke a commercial record, lifting Yahsat 1A and Intelsat New Dawn with a total payload weight of 10,064 kg to transfer orbit.[41] This record was later broken again during the launch of Ariane 5 ECA flight VA-208 on 2 August 2012, lifting a total of 10,182 kg into the planned geosynchronous transfer orbit,[42] which was broken again 6 months later on flight VA-212 with 10,317 kg sent towards geosynchronous transfer orbit.[43] In June 2016 the GTO record was raised to 10,730 kg,[44] on the first rocket in history that carried a satellite dedicated to financial institutions.[45] The payload record was pushed a further 5 kg to 10,735 kg (23,667 lb) on 24 August with the launch of Intelsat 33e and Intelsat 36.[46] On 1 June 2017, the payload record was broken again to 10,865 kg (23,953 lb) carrying ViaSat 2 and Eutelsat 172B.[47]

VA241 anomaly[edit]

On 25 January 2018, an Ariane 5 ECA launched SES-14 and Al Yah 3 satellites. About 9 minutes and 28 seconds after launch, a telemetry loss occurred between the rocket and the ground controllers. It was later confirmed, about 1 hour and 20 minutes after launch, that both satellites were successfully separated from the upper stage and were in contact with their respective ground controllers,[48] but that their orbital inclinations were incorrect as the guidance systems might have been compromised. Therefore, both satellites conducted orbital make-up procedure, extending commissioning time.[49] SES-14 needed about 4 weeks longer than planned commissioning time, meaning that entry into service was reported early September instead of July.[50] Nevertheless, SES-14 is still expected to be able to meet the designed life time, since it was originally to be launched on a Falcon 9 rocket and has more propellant reserve as the Falcon 9 usually deploys geostationary satellites into a high inclination orbit that requires more work from the payload to reach their final geostationary orbit.[51] The Al Yah 3 was also confirmed healthy after more than 12 hours without further statement, and like SES-14, Al Yah 3's maneuvering plan was also revised to still fulfill the original mission.[52] As of 16 February 2018, Al Yah 3 was approaching the intended geostationary orbit, after series of recovery maneuvers had been performed.[53] The investigation showed that invalid inertial units' azimuth value had sent the vehicle 17° off course but to the intended altitude, they had been programmed for the standard geostationary transfer orbit of 90° when the payloads were intended to be 70° for this supersynchronous transfer orbit mission, 20° off norm.[54] This mission anomaly marked the end of 82nd consecutive success streak since 2003.[55]

Launch history[edit]

Launch statistics[edit]

Ariane 5 rockets have accumulated 101 launches since 1996, 96 of which were successful, yielding a 95% success rate. Between April 2003 and December 2017, Ariane 5 flew 82 consecutive missions without failure, but suffered a partial failure in January 2018.

Rocket configurations[edit]

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1996
2000
2004
2008
2012
2016
  •   G
  •   G+
  •   GS
  •   ES
  •   ECA

Launch outcomes[edit]

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1996
2000
2004
2008
2012
2016
  •   Failure
  •   Partial failure
  •   Success

Launch history[edit]

All launches are from Kourou ELA-3.

# Flight № Date
Time (UTC)
Rocket type
Serial №
Payload Payload mass Orbit Customers Launch
outcome
01 V-088[56] 4 June 1996
12:34
G
501
Cluster Failure
02 V-101 30 October 1997
13:43
G
502
MaqSat-H, TEAMSAT, MaqSat-B, YES Partial failure[57]
03 V-112 21 October 1998
16:37
G
503
MaqSat 3, ARD Success
04 V-119 10 December 1999
14:32
G
504
XMM-Newton HEO Success
05 V-128 21 March 2000
23:28[58]
G
505
INSAT-3B
AsiaStar
GTO Success
06 V-130 14 September 2000
22:54[58]
G
506
Astra 2B
GE-7
GTO Success
07 V-135 16 November 2000
01:07[58]
G
507
PanAmSat-1R
Amsat-P3D
STRV 1C
STRV 1D
GTO Success
08 V-138 20 December 2000
00:26[58]
G
508
Astra 2D
GE-8
LDREX
GTO Success
09 V-140 8 March 2001
22:51[58]
G
509
Eurobird-1
BSAT-2a
GTO Success
10 V-142 12 July 2001
21:58[58]
G
510
Artemis
BSAT-2b
GTO (planned)
MEO (achieved)
Partial failure
Upper stage underperformed, payloads were placed in a useless orbit. Artemis was raised to its target orbit at the expense of operational fuel; BSat was not recoverable.
11 V-145 1 March 2002
01:07[58]
G
511
Envisat SSO Success
12 V-153 5 July 2002
23:22[58]
G
512
Stellat 5
NStar-C
GTO Success
13 V-155 28 August 2002
22:45[58]
G
513
Atlantic Bird 1
MSG-1
MFD
GTO Success
14 V-157 11 December 2002
22:22[58]
ECA
517
Hot Bird 7
Stentor
MFD-A
MFD-B
GTO (planned) Failure
Maiden flight of Ariane 5ECA, first stage engine failure, rocket destroyed by range safety.
15 V-160 9 April 2003
22:52[58]
G
514
Insat 3A
Galaxy 12
GTO Success
16 V-161 11 June 2003
22:38[58]
G
515
Optus C1
BSat 2c
GTO Success
17 V-162 27 September 2003
23:14[58]
G
516
Insat 3E
eBird-1
SMART-1
GTO Success
Final flight of Ariane 5G
18 V-158 2 March 2004
07:17[58]
G+
518
Rosetta Heliocentric Success
Maiden flight of Ariane 5G+
19 V-163 18 July 2004
00:44[58]
G+
519
Anik F2 GTO Success
20 V-165 18 December 2004
16:26[58]
G+
520
Helios 2A
Essaim-1
Essaim-2
Essaim-3
Essaim-4
PARASOL
Nanosat 01
SSO Success
Final flight of Ariane 5G+
21 V-164 12 February 2005
21:03[58]
ECA
521
XTAR-EUR
Maqsat-B2
Sloshsat-FLEVO
GTO Success
22 V-166 11 August 2005
08:20[58]
GS
523
iPStar-1 GTO Success
Maiden flight of Ariane 5GS
23 V-168 13 October 2005
22:32[58]
GS
524
Syracuse 3A
Galaxy 15
GTO Success
24 V-167 16 November 2005
23:46[58]
ECA
522
Spaceway-2
Telkom-2
GTO Success
25 V-169 21 December 2005
23:33[58]
GS
525
INSAT-4A
MSG-2
GTO Success
26 V-170 11 March 2006
22:33[58]
ECA
527
Spainsat
Hot Bird 7A
GTO Success
27 V-171 27 May 2006
21:09[58]
ECA
529
Satmex-6
Thaicom-5
GTO Success
28 V-172 11 August 2006
22:15[58]
ECA
531
JCSAT-10
Syracuse 3B
GTO Success
29 V-173 13 October 2006
20:56[58]
ECA
533
DirecTV-9S
Optus D1
LDREX-2
GTO Success
30 V-174 8 December 2006
22:08[58]
ECA
534
WildBlue-1
AMC-18
GTO Success
31 V-175 11 March 2007
22:03[58]
ECA
535
Skynet 5A
Insat 4B
GTO Success
32 V-176 4 May 2007
22:29[58]
ECA
536
Astra 1L
Galaxy 17
GTO Success
33 V-177 14 August 2007
23:44[58]
ECA
537
Spaceway-3
BSat-3A
GTO Success
34 V-178 5 October 2007
22:02[58]
GS
526
Intelsat 11
Optus D2
GTO Success
35 V-179 14 November 2007
22:03[58]
ECA
538
Skynet 5B
Star One C1
GTO Success
36 V-180 21 December 2007
21:41[58]
GS
530
Rascom-QAF1
Horizons-2
GTO Success
37 V-181 9 March 2008
04:03[58]
ES
528
Jules Verne ATV LEO (ISS) Success
Maiden flight of Ariane 5ES
38 V-182 18 April 2008
22:17[58]
ECA
539
Star One C2
Vinasat-1
GTO Success
39 V-183 12 June 2008
22:05
ECA
540
Skynet 5C
Turksat 3A
GTO Success
40 V-184 7 July 2008
21:47
ECA
541
ProtoStar-1
Badr-6
GTO Success
41 V-185 14 August 2008
20:44
ECA
542
Superbird-7
AMC-21
GTO Success
42 V-186 20 December 2008
22:35
ECA
543
Hot Bird 9
Eutelsat W2M
GTO Success
43 V-187 12 February 2009
22:09
ECA
545
Hot Bird 10
NSS-9
Spirale-A
Spirale-B
GTO Success
44 V-188 14 May 2009
13:12
ECA
546
Herschel Space Observatory
Planck
Sun-Earth L2 point Success
45 V-189 1 July 2009
19:52
ECA
547
TerreStar-1 GTO Success
46 V-190 21 August 2009
22:09
ECA
548
JCSAT-12
Optus D3
GTO Success
47 V-191 1 October 2009
21:59
ECA
549
Amazonas 2
COMSATBw-1
GTO Success
48 V-192 29 October 2009
20:00
ECA
550
NSS-12
Thor-6
GTO Success
49 V-193 18 December 2009
16:26
GS
532
Helios 2B SSO Success
Final flight of Ariane 5GS
50 V-194 21 May 2010
22:01
ECA
551
Astra 3B
COMSATBw-2
9,116 kg GTO SES
MilSat Services
Success
51 V-195 26 June 2010
21:41
ECA
552
Arabsat-5A
Chollian
8,393 kg GTO Arabsat
KARI
Success
52 V-196 4 August 2010
20:59
ECA
554
Nilesat-201
RASCOM-QAF 1R
7,085 kg GTO Nilesat
RASCOM
Success
53 V-197 28 October 2010
21:51
ECA
555
Eutelsat W3B
BSAT-3b
8,263 kg GTO Eutelsat
B-SAT
Success
Eutelsat W3B suffered a leak in the propulsion system shortly after launch and was declared a total loss.[59] BSAT-3b is operating normally.
54 V-198 26 November 2010
18:39
ECA
556
Intelsat 17
HYLAS-1
8,867 kg GTO Intelsat
Avanti Communications
Success
55 V-199 29 December 2010
21:27
ECA
557
Koreasat 6
Hispasat-1E
9,259 kg GTO KT Corporation
Hispasat
Success
56 V-200 16 February 2011
21:50
ES
544
Johannes Kepler ATV 20,050 kg LEO (ISS) ESA Success
57 VA-201 22 April 2011
21:37
ECA
558
Yahsat 1A
New Dawn
10,064 kg GTO AlYahsat
Intelsat
Success
Launch was scrubbed from 30 March, aborted in the last seconds before liftoff due to a gimbal malfunction in the Vulcain main engine.[60]
58 VA-202 20 May 2011
20:38
ECA
559
ST-2
GSAT-8
9,013 kg GTO Singapore Telecom
ISRO
Success
59 VA-203 6 August 2011
22:52
ECA
560
Astra 1N
BSAT-3c / JCSAT-110R
9,095 kg GTO SES
B-SAT
Success
60 VA-204 21 September 2011
21:38
ECA
561
Arabsat-5C
SES-2
8,974 kg GTO Arabsat
SES
Success
61 VA-205 23 March 2012
04:34
ES
553
Edoardo Amaldi ATV 20,060 kg LEO (ISS) ESA Success
62 VA-206 15 May 2012
22:13
ECA
562
JCSAT-13
Vinasat-2
8,381 kg GTO JSAT
VNPT
Success
63 VA-207 5 July 2012
21:36
ECA
563
EchoStar XVII
MSG-3
9,647 kg GTO EchoStar
EUMETSAT
Success
64 VA-208 2 August 2012
20:54
ECA
564
Intelsat 20
HYLAS 2
10,182 kg GTO Intelsat
Avanti Communications
Success
65 VA-209 28 September 2012
21:18
ECA
565
Astra 2F
GSAT-10
10,211 kg GTO SES
ISRO
Success
66 VA-210 10 November 2012
21:05
ECA
566
Eutelsat 21B
Star One C3
9,216 kg GTO Eutelsat
Star One
Success
67 VA-211 19 December 2012
21:49
ECA
567
Skynet 5D
MEXSAT-3
8,637 kg GTO Astrium
MEXSAT
Success
68 VA-212 7 February 2013
21:36
ECA
568
Amazonas-3
Azerspace-1/Africasat-1a
10,350 kg GTO Hispasat
Azercosmos[61]
Success
69 VA-213 5 June 2013
21:52
ES
592
Albert Einstein ATV 20,252 kg LEO (ISS) ESA Success
70 VA-214 25 July 2013
19:54
ECA
569
Alphasat I-XL
INSAT-3D
9,760 kg GTO Inmarsat
ISRO
Success
71 VA-215 29 August 2013
20:30
ECA
570
Eutelsat 25B/Es'hail 1
GSAT-7
9,790 kg GTO Eutelsat
ISRO
Success
72 VA-217 6 February 2014
21:30
ECA
572
ABS-2
Athena-Fidus
10,214 kg GTO DIRISI Success
73 VA-216 22 March 2014
22:04
ECA
571
Astra 5B
Amazonas 4A
9,579 kg GTO SES
Hispasat
Success
74 VA-219 29 July 2014
23:47
ES
593
Georges Lemaître ATV 20,293 kg LEO (ISS) ESA Success
75 VA-218 11 September 2014
22:05
ECA
573
MEASAT 3b
Optus 10
10,088 kg GTO MEASAT Satellite Systems
Optus
Success
76 VA-220 16 October 2014
21:43
ECA
574
Intelsat 30
ARSAT-1
10,060 kg GTO Intelsat
AR-SAT
Success
77 VA-221 6 December 2014
20:40
ECA
575
DirecTV-14
GSAT-16
10,210 kg GTO DirecTV
ISRO
Success
78 VA-222 26 April 2015
20:00
ECA
576
Thor 7
SICRAL-2
9,852 kg GTO British Satellite Broadcasting
French Armed Forces
Success
79 VA-223 27 May 2015
21:16
ECA
577
DirecTV-15
Sky Mexico 1
9,960 kg GTO DirecTV
Sky México
Success
80 VA-224 15 July 2015
21:42
ECA
578
Star One C4
MSG-4
8,587 kg GTO Star One
EUMETSAT
Success
81 VA-225 20 August 2015
20:34
ECA
579
Eutelsat 8 West B
Intelsat 34
9,922 kg GTO Eutelsat
Intelsat
Success
82 VA-226 30 September 2015
20:30
ECA
580
NBN Co 1A
ARSAT-2
10,203 kg GTO National Broadband Network
ARSAT
Success
83 VA-227 10 November 2015
21:34
ECA
581
Arabsat 6B
GSAT-15
9,810 kg GTO Arabsat
ISRO
Success
84 VA-228 27 January 2016
23:20
ECA
583
Intelsat 29e 6,700 kg GTO Intelsat Success
85 VA-229 9 March 2016
05:20
ECA
582
Eutelsat 65 West A 6,707 kg GTO Eutelsat Success
86 VA-230 18 June 2016
21:38
ECA
584
EchoStar 18
BRISat
10,730 kg GTO EchoStar
Bank Rakyat Indonesia
Success
This mission carried the first satellite owned by a financial institution.[62]
87 VA-232 24 August 2016
22:16
ECA
586
Intelsat 33e
Intelsat 36
10,735 kg GTO Intelsat Success
Intelsat 33e's LEROS apogee engine, which supposed to perform orbit raising, failed soon after its successful launch, forcing to use the experimentation of low-thrust reaction control system which extended the commissioning time 3 months longer than expected.[63] Later, it suffered other thruster problems which cut its operational life time for about 3.5 years.[64]
88 VA-231 5 October 2016
20:30
ECA
585
NBN Co 1B
GSAT-18
10,663 kg GTO National Broadband Network
INSAT
Success
89 VA-233 17 November 2016
13:06
ES
594
Galileo FOC-M6
(satellites FM-7, 12, 13, 14)
3,290 kg MEO ESA Success
90 VA-234 21 December 2016
20:30
ECA
587
Star One D1
JCSAT-15
10,722 kg GTO Star One
SKY Perfect JSAT
Success
91 VA-235 14 February 2017
21:39
ECA
588
Intelsat 32e / SkyBrasil-1
Telkom 3S
10,485 kg GTO Intelsat, DirecTV Latin America
Telkom Indonesia
Success
This mission carried the first Intelsat EpicNG satellite based on the Eurostar E3000 platform, while other Intelsat EpicNG satellites were based on BSS-702MP platform.[65]
92 VA-236 4 May 2017
21:50
ECA
589
Koreasat 7
SGDC-1
10,289 kg GTO KT Corporation
SGDC
Success
The launch was delayed from March 2018 due to transportation to the launch site being restricted by a blockade erected by striking workers.[66]
93 VA-237 1 June 2017
23:45
ECA
590
ViaSat 2
Eutelsat 172B
10,865 kg GTO ViaSat
Eutelsat
Success
Heaviest and most expensive commercial payload ever put into orbit,[67] valued at approximately $800 million (~$1 billion including the rocket).[68] ViaSat-2 suffered antenna glitch, which cut about 15% of its intended throughput.[69]
94 VA-238 28 June 2017
21:15
ECA
591
EuropaSat / Hellas Sat 3
GSAT-17
10,177 kg GTO Inmarsat / Hellas Sat
INSAT
Success
95 VA-239 29 September 2017
21:56
ECA
5100
Intelsat 37e
BSAT-4a
10,838 kg GTO Intelsat
B-SAT
Success
Launch was scrubbed from 5 September due to electrical fault in one of the solid rocket boosters that caused launch abort in the last seconds before liftoff.[70]
96 VA-240 12 December 2017
18:36
ES
595
Galileo FOC-M7
(satellites FM-19, 20, 21, 22)
3,282 kg MEO ESA Success
97 VA-241 25 January 2018
22:20
ECA
5101
SES-14 with GOLD
Al Yah 3
9,123 kg Super-GTO SES, NASA
AlYahsat
Partial failure
Telemetry from the launch vehicle was lost after 9 minutes 30 seconds into the flight, after rocket trajectory went off course due to invalid inertial units' azimuth value.[54] Satellites later found to have separated from the upper stage and entered an incorrect orbit with large inclination deviations.[71][72] However, they were able to reach the planned orbit with small loss of on board propellant for SES-14 and still expected to meet the designed life time,[73] but with significant loss on Al Yah 3 (up to 50% of its intended operational life).[74][75]
98 VA-242 5 April 2018
21:34
ECA
5102
Superbird-8 / DSN-1
HYLAS-4
10,260 kg GTO Japanese MoD, SKY Perfect JSAT
Avanti Communications
Success
Return-to-flight mission after VA-241 mishap in 25 January.[76]
99 VA-244 25 July 2018
11:25
ES
596
Galileo FOC-M8
(satellites FM-23, 24, 25, 26)
3,379 kg MEO ESA Success
Final flight of Ariane 5ES.
100 VA-243 25 September 2018
22:38
ECA
5103
Horizons-3e
Azerspace-2 / Intelsat 38
10,827 kg GTO Intelsat, SKY Perfect JSAT
Azercosmos
Success
Hundredth Ariane 5 mission.[77] Flight VA-243 was delayed from 25 May due to issues with GSAT-11, which was eventually replaced by Horizons-3e.[78]
101 VA-245 20 October 2018
01:45
ECA
5105
BepiColombo 4,081 kg Heliocentric ESA
JAXA
Success

Scheduled flights[edit]

As of January 2018 Ariane 5 had 18 missions on its launch manifest, including 15 for pairs of satellites.[79] Up to seven launches were planned for the year 2018: five with dual communications satellites due to geosynchronous orbit, one with 4 Galileo satellites, and one carrying the BepiColombo mission.[79][needs update]

Flight № Date
Time (UTC)
Rocket type
Serial №
Payload Orbit Customers Launch
status
VA-246 4 December 2018[80] ECA
GTO Scheduled
VA-247 Early 2019[80][84] ECA
GTO Planned
March 2019[80] ECA GEO-KOMPSAT 2B[86][a] GTO KARI Planned
Q1, 2019[80] ECA Eutelsat 7C[87][88][a] GTO Eutelsat Planned
Q1, 2019[89] ECA EDRS-C / HYLAS-3[90][91][a] GTO ESA / Avanti Planned
May 2019[84] ECA GSAT-30[a] GTO ISRO Planned
H2, 2019[92] ECA Inmarsat-5 F5[92][93][a] GTO Inmarsat Planned
H2, 2019[80] ECA Intelsat 39[94][a] GTO Intelsat Planned
2019[95] ECA Eutelsat Konnect (African Broadband Satellite)[95][a] GTO Eutelsat Planned
2019[87] ECA Eutelsat Quantum[87][a] GTO Eutelsat Planned
2019[80] ECA JCSAT-17[96][a] GTO SKY Perfect JSAT Planned
2019[97] ECA MTG-I1[97][a] GTO EUMETSAT Planned
2019[98] ECA Star One D2[98][a] GTO Star One Planned
Early 2020[99] ECA GTO Planned
H2, 2020 ECA Intelsat (TBD)[99][a] GTO Intelsat Planned
2020–2022 ECA ViaSat-3[100][a] GTO ViaSat Planned
30 March 2021[101] ECA James Webb Space Telescope[102][103] Sun–Earth L2 NASA / ESA / CSA / STScI Scheduled
2021[104] ECA MTG-S1[104][a] GTO EUMETSAT Planned
2021[105] ECA SES-17[105][a] GTO SES S.A. Planned
2021–2022[106] ECA Heinrich Hertz (H2Sat)[106][a] GTO DLR Planned
June 2022[107] ECA Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE)[108][107] Heliocentric ESA Planned
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Future Ariane 5 GTO payloads still need to be paired.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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