Helix arbustorum Linnaeus, 1758
Several subspecies are recognized by some authors:
- Arianta arbustorum alpicola Férussac, 1821
- Arianta arbustorum arbustorum
- Arianta arbustorum canigonensis
- Arianta arbustorum picea
- Arianta arbustorum pseudorudis
- Arianta arbustorum repellini
- Arianta arbustorum styriaca
- Arianta arbustorum vareliensis
This species is native to Europe:
- North-western and central Europe with Alps and Carpathians
- Czech Republic
- Switzerland. One of the most frequent species of land snails in Switzerland, can be very abundant, up to 20 adults per square meter.
- eastern Pyrenees, Spain
- Faroe Islands
- the British Isles: Great Britain and Ireland In Britain the species suffered slightly from intensive farming and the continuous destructions of suitable uncultivated refuges. It is rare in Ireland.
- Finland. In Finland, it has become so common in the Porvoo region east of Helsinki, that it is locally called the "Porvoo snail".
- scattered to Serbia
- Bulgaria It is rare in Bulgaria.
- western Ukraine
This species has not yet become established in the USA, but it is considered to represent a potentially serious threat as a pest, an invasive species which could negatively affect agriculture, natural ecosystems, human health or commerce. Therefore, it has been suggested that this species be given top national quarantine significance in the USA.
The shell is usually brown with numerous pale yellowish rows of spots and usually with a brown band above the periphery, occasionally yellowish, reddish or with greenish hue, weakly striated and with fine spiral lines on the upper side. The shell has 5-5.5 convex whorls with deep suture. The last whorl is slightly descending near the aperture. The aperture is with prominent white lip inside. The apertural margin is reflected. Umbilicus is entirely covered by the reflected columellar margin.
The shell shape is globular in most present-day populations, but originally is believed to have been depressed in the Pleistocene, before lowlands were invaded and shells became globular, re-invading mountain regions except some isolated spots among glaciers.
The animal is usually black.
Arianta arbustorum lives in forests and open habitats of any kind. It requires humidity. It lives also in disturbed habitats (not in Ireland where it is restricted to old native woodland). It may locally tolerate non-calcareous substrate, in north Scotland also on sandhills. In the Alps up to 2700 m, in Britain 1200 m, in Bulgaria 1500 m.
It feeds on green herbs, dead animals and faeces.
If snails hatched more than 50 m distant from each other, they are considered isolated since they would not move more than 25 m (neighbourhood area 32–50 m), usually they move about 7–12 m in a year, mostly along water currents.
This species of snail makes and uses calcareous love darts during mating. Reproduction is usually after copulation, but self-fertilization is also possible. The size of the egg is 3.2 mm. Maturity is reached after 2–4 years. The maximum age up to 14 years.
This article incorporates public domain text from the reference.
- Linnaeus C. (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. pp. [1-4], 1-824. Holmiae. (Salvius).
- Species summary for Arianta arbustorum. AnimalBase, last modified 25 August 2010, accessed 8 October 2010.
- (Dutch) Arianta arbustorum — Anemoon
- New snail found in the Faroe Islands
- McAlpine, D.F., Schueler, F.W., Maunder, J.E., Noseworthy, R.G., & Sollows, M.C. 2009. Establishment and persistence of the copse snail, Arianta arbustorum (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda: Helicidae) in Canada. The Nautilus 123(1):14-18.
- McAlpine, D.F., & R.G. Forsyth. 2014. Occurrence of the Copse Snail, Arianta arbustorum (Helicidae) on Prince Edward Island: an addition to the North American range of a purported potential pest. Northeastern Naturalist 21(1):N5–N7.
- Cowie R. H., Dillon R. T., Robinson D. G. & Smith J. W. (2009). "Alien non-marine snails and slugs of priority quarantine importance in the United States: A preliminary risk assessment". American Malacological Bulletin 27: 113-132. PDF.
- Heller J.: Life History Strategies. in Barker G. M. (ed.): The biology of terrestrial molluscs. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, 2001, ISBN 0-85199-318-4. 1-146, cited page: 428.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arianta arbustorum.|
- Arianta arbustorum at Animalbase taxonomy,short description, distribution, biology,status (threats), images
- Arianta arbustorum images at Encyclopedia of Life
- "Arianta arbustorum". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).
- Baur, Anette; Baur, Bruno (2005) Interpopulation variation in the prevalence and intensity of parasitic mite infection in the land snail Arianta arbustorum ; Invertebrate Biology, Vol. 124 Issue 3, p194-201. 8p. 3 Charts. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7410.2005.00019.x.
- Baur, Bruno & Locher Rolf (1998) Sperm allocation in the simultaneously hermaphroditic land snail Arianta arbustorum. Animal Behaviour. Oct98, Vol. 56 Issue 4, p839. 7p.
- Baur, Bruno (1986) Patterns of dispersion, density and dispersal in alpine populations of the land snail Arianta arbustorum (L.) (Helicidae). Holarctic Ecology. Mai 1986, Vol. 9 Issue 2, p117-125. 9p
- Haase Martin, Esch Susanne & Misof Bernhard (2013) Local adaptation, refugial isolation and secondary contact of Alpine populations of the land snail Arianta arbustorum. Journal of Molluscan Studies. Aout 2013, Vol. 79 Issue 3, p241-248. 8p.
- Haase M & Bisenberger A (2003) Allozymic differentiation in the land snail Arianta arbustorum (Stylommatophora, Helicidae): historical inferences ; Journal of Zoological Systematics & Evolutionary Research. Aout 2003, Vol. 41 Issue 3, p175-185. 11p. DOI: 10.1046/j.1439-0469.2003.00208.x.
- Kleeweint Doris (1999), Population size, density, spatial distribution and dispersal in an Austrian population of the land snail Arianta arbustorum styriaca (Gastropoda: Helicidae) ; Journal of Molluscan Studies. Aout 1999, Vol. 65 Issue 3, p303-315. 13p. 3
- Haase M & Misof B (2009), Dynamic gastropods: stable shell polymorphism despite gene flow in the land snail Arianta arbustorum. Dynamische Schnecken: stabiler Schalenpolymorphismus trotz Genflusses in der Landschnecke Arianta arbustorum. Journal of Zoological Systematics & Evolutionary Research. Mai 2009, Vol. 47 Issue 2, p105-114. 10p. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0469.2008.00488.x
- Minoretti, Nicole; Stoll, Peter; Baur, Bruno (2013) Heritability of sperm length and adult shell size in the land snail Arianta arbustorum (Linnaeus, 1758) Journal of Molluscan Studies. Aout 2013, Vol. 79 Issue 3, p218-224. 7p.
- Schüpbach, Hans U.; Baur, Bruno (2008), Parasitic mites influence fitness components of their host, the land snail Arianta arbustorum.. Invertebrate Biology, Vol. 127 Issue 3, p350-356. 7p. 1 Chart, 2 Graphs. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7410.2008.00138.x.