Arie W. Kruglanski

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Arie W. Kruglanski
Born1939 (age 80–81)
OccupationSocial psychologist
Known forWork on Cognitive Closure

Arie W. Kruglanski (born in 1939) is a social psychologist best known for his work on Goal Systems and Cognitive Closure.[1] He is currently a Distinguished Professor of Psychology at the University of Maryland.


Arie Kruglanski received his Ph.D. in Psychology from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1968. He has contributed extensively to the theory of Cognitive Closure,[2] and co-developed the Need for Closure Scale.[3] Theories of closure have found application in numerous fields such as consumer behavior,[4] business hiring[5] and political research.[6] Kruglanski frequently collaborated with E. Tory Higgins, particularly on regulatory mode theory.

Kruglanski serves as a co-principal investigator at the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism at the University of Maryland, and has conducted extensive research on the psychology and motivations of terrorists.[7] He and his students studied captive Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam after the defeat of that south Asian terror group, finding that de-radicalization is possible with a systematic process involving , which he calls the three N's, "The Need, the Narrative and the Network."[8]

He sits on the editorial board of Psychological Review.[9]

See also[edit]


  • 1998 - Society for Personality and Social Psychology: Donald T. Campbell Award[10]
  • 2002 - Senior Humboldt Award for Research
  • 2007 - Society for Experimental Social Psychology: Distinguished Scientist Award[11]

Recent and/or notable publications[edit]


  • Victoroff, J., & Kruglanski, A. W. (Eds.) (2009). Psychology of terrorism. New York: Psychology Press.
  • Kruglanski, A. W. (2004). The psychology of closed mindedness. New York: Psychology Press.
  • Kruglanski, A. W., & Higgins, E .T. (Eds.). (2003). Social psychology: A general reader. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.
  • Higgins, E. T., & Kruglanski, A. W. (Eds.). (2000). Motivational science: Social and personality perspectives. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.
  • Higgins, E. T., & Kruglanski, A. W. (Eds.). (1996). Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Kruglanski, A. W. (1989). Lay epistemics and human knowledge: Cognitive and motivational bases. New York: Springer

Journal articles[edit]

  • Kruglanski, A. W., Gelfand, M. J, Bélanger, J. J, Gunaratna, R., Hetiararchchi, M. (2014). Deradicalizing the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE): Some Preliminary Findings. In Silke, A. (Ed.), Prisons, Terrorism and Extremism: Critical Issues in Management, Radicalisation and Reform. London: Routledge.
  • Kruglanski, A.W., Chernikova, M., Rosenzweig E., & Kopetz, C. (2014). On motivational readiness. Psychological Review, 121, 367-388.
  • Kruglanski, A. W., Pierro, A., & Sheveland, A. (2011). How many roads lead to Rome? Equifinality set-size and commitment to goals and means. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 344-352.
  • Kruglanski, A. W., & Gigerenzer, G. (2011). Intuitive and deliberative judgments are based on common principles. Psychological Review, 118, 97-109.
  • Kruglanski, A.W., & Fishman, S. (2009). The psychology of terrorism: Syndrome versus tool perspectives. Journal of Terrorism and Political Violence, 18, 193-215.
  • Jost, J. T., Glaser, J., Kruglanski, A W., & Sulloway, F. J. (2003). Political conservatism as motivated social cognition. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 339-375.
  • Kruglanski, A. W., Shah, J. Y., Fishbach, A., Friedman, R., Chun, W. Y., & Sleeth-Keppler, D. (2002). A theory of goal-systems. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol 34, pp. 331–378. New York: Academic Press.
  • Kruglanski, A. W., Thompson, E. P., Higgins, E. T., Atash, M. N., Pierro, A., Shah, J. Y., & Spiegel, S. (2000). To do the right thing! or to just do it!: Locomotion and assessment as distinct self-regulatory imperatives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 793-815.
  • Webster, Donna M.; Arie W. Kruglanski (1997). Cognitive and Social Consequences of the Need for Cognitive Closure. European Review of Social Psychology 18: 133–173.
  • Kruglanski, A. W., & Webster, D. M. (1996). Motivated closing of the mind: "Seizing" and "freezing". Psychological Review, 103, 263-283.
  • Webster, D. M., & Kruglanski, A. W. (1994). Individual differences in need for cognitive closure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1049-1062.


  1. ^ Kruglanski, A.W., Shah, J.Y., Fishbach, A., Friedman, R., Chun, Woo.Y., Sleeth-Keppler, D. (2002). "A theory of goal systems". Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. 34: 331–378.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ Moss, Simon. "Need for closure". Psychlopedia. Archived from the original on 2014-08-29. Retrieved 2013-05-18.
  3. ^ Konnikova, Maria (April 30, 2013). "Why We Need Answers". The New Yorker.
  4. ^ Markmn, Art (November 29, 2010). "The Psychology of Time Pressured Sales". Psychology Today.
  5. ^ Cook, Gareth (October 13, 2015). "The Power of Embracing Uncertainty". Scientific American.
  6. ^ Mooney, Chris (July 16, 2012). "Conservatism makes you happy". Salon.
  7. ^ Mooney, Chris (August 29, 2014). "Here Are the Psychological Reasons Why an American Might Join ISIS". Mother Jones.
  8. ^ Kruglanski, Arie (January 11, 2015). "Drivers of Deradicalization: Needs, Narratives, Networks". Huffington Post.
  9. ^
  10. ^ Society for Personality and Social Psychology
  11. ^ Society for Experimental Social Psychology

External links[edit]