Akoko language

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(North) Akoko
Arigidi
Native toNigeria
RegionOndo State, Kogi State, Ekiti State
Native speakers
(48,000 cited 1992)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3aqg
Glottologarig1246[2]

North Akoko, usually abbreviated as Akoko and also known as Arigidi, is a dialect cluster spoken in Nigeria. It appears to form a branch of the "Yoruba–Edo–Akoko–Igbo" (YEAI) group of Niger–Congo languages. It is spoken in the LGAs of Akoko North East, Akoko North West, Ekiti East, and Ijumu (Ethnologue).

Varieties[edit]

Akokoid varieties include Arigidi, Erúṣú, Oyín, Ìgáṣí Eṣé, Urò, Ọ̀jọ̀, Àfá, Ògè, Ìdò, and Àjè.[3]

Below is a list of Arigidi language names, populations, and locations from Blench (2019).[4]


Language Alternate spellings Own name for language Endonym(s) Other names (location-based) Speakers Location(s)
Arigidi cluster Ondo State, Akoko North LGA; Kwara State, Kogi LGA
Afa Ọ̀wọ̀n Àfá Àfá Oke–Agbe Ondo State, Akoko North LGA, Oke–Agbe town, Affa section
Arigidi Arìgìdí Ondo State, Akoko North LGA, Arigidi town
Eruṣu Erusu, Erushu Erúṣú Ondo State, Akoko North LGA, Eruṣu town
Ese Ọ̀wọ̀n Èsé Èsé Aje, Oke–Agbe Ondo State, Akoko North LGA, Oke–Agbe town, Ese section
Igaṣi Igashi, Igasi Ọ̀wọ̀n Ìgáṣí Ìgàshí 45,000 (1986) Ondo State, Akoko North LGA, Igaṣi town
Oge Ọ̀wọ̀ Ògè Òge Oke–Agbe Ondo State, Akoko North LGA, Oke–Agbe town, Oge section
Ọjọ Ondo State, Akoko North LGA, Ajọwa town
Oyin Ondo State, Akoko North LGA, Oyin–Akoko town
Udo Ido Ọ̀wọ̀n Ùdò Oke–Agbe Ondo State, Akoko North LGA, Oke–Agbe town, Udo section
Uro 3,000 (1986) Ondo State, Akoko North LGA, Uro–Ajọwa town

Internal classification[edit]

The internal classification of Akokoid language varieties is given by Fadoro (2010) as:[5]:137

Akokoid
  • Arigidi
    • Arigidi
    • Erushu
  • Ọ̀wọ̀n
    • varieties in Oke Agbe
      • Afa
      • Aje
      • Udo
      • Oge
    • varieties outside Oke Agbe
      • Oyin
      • Igashi
      • Uro

Arigidi and Erushu are mutually intelligible with each other; varieties spoken in Oke Agbe with each other; and varieties spoken outside Oke Agbe with each other. However, these three groups are not mutually intelligible with each other.[5]:137

Reconstructions[edit]

The following list of Proto-Akokoid reconstructions is from Blench (n.d.).[6]

Gloss Proto-Akokoid
head *igírí
hair *icírí
eye *íjù
ear *útó
nose *úwɔ̃́
mouth *odòrũ
tooth *eɲĩ
tongue *írɛ̃́
jaw *àmgbà
chin *ùlɛ, *olò
beard *ìlɛ̀
neck *ògúgɔ̀
breast *íkpɔ
heart *ɛ̀gɛ̀, *ɔkɔ̃̀
belly *ìgɔ
stomach
navel *ípɔ̃́
back *òsũ
arm, hand *úwɔ́
nail *íŋgà
buttocks *imbɔ̃̀
penis *ìndù
vagina
thigh #koko
leg *ùhò
knee *igɔ̀
body *ìji
skin *àla
bone *íkpĩ

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (North) Akoko at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Arigidi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Oshodi, Boluwaji. 2012. The Arigidi Cluster: an Internal Re-classification. Towards Proto-Niger-Congo: Comparison and Reconstruction (International Congress), 18-21 September 2012, Paris.
  4. ^ Blench, Roger (2019). An Atlas of Nigerian Languages (4th ed.). Cambridge: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation.
  5. ^ a b Fadọrọ, Jacob Oludare. 2010. Phonological and lexical variations in Akokoid. Doctoral dissertation, University of Ibadan.
  6. ^ Blench, Roger. Comparative Akokoid.